Advertisement

Surrogacy Globalscape

  • Sheela Saravanan
Chapter

Abstract

The liberal feminist approach emphasizes that reproductive freedom is rooted in individual choice and autonomy. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are perceived as an ideal measure to solve infertility. Importance is given to individualistic anti-statist approach, aiming to provide free access to all kinds of technologies to all individuals. Such open access is meant to be an important component of women’s empowerment. What is overlooked in this approach is that autonomy may be provided at the cost of marginalized people’s health and well-being. The liberal approach limits embodiment primarily to an individual level, hence, it is inadequate in analysing the complete social complexity of ARTs. Individual decisions are made within socio-political and economic contexts and people’s experiences are embedded in communities and histories. Although individual analysis is important in understanding micro-level complexities, it is also important to place individuals and communities within a macro context to be able to understand the broader patterns of marginalization and empowerment. This chapter examines the broader patterns of the surrogacy markets, its access and movements globally with an aim to understand its macro-level global reproscapes. Inhorn (2011) noted the relevance of Appadurai’s theory of global scapes to understand the cross-border landscape of assisted reproductive technologies. She reframes it as reproscapes and adds bioscape (moving biological substances and parts) to Appaduarai’s five global scapes; people (ethnoscape), technology (technoscape), money (financescape), images (mediascape), and ideas (ideoscape) (Appadurai 1996). Another layer of legalscape (laws and legalities) can also be added to the scapes.

Keywords

Surrogacy global reproscapes Procreative autonomy Neocolonialism Postcolonialism Geneticisation 

References

  1. ABC. 2016. Baby Gammy: Surrogacy row family cleared of abandoning child with Down syndrome in Thailand. ABC News. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-04-14/baby-gammy-twin-must-remain-with-family-wa-court-rules/7326196. Accessed 14 Apr 2017.
  2. Agamben, Giorgio. 1998. Homo sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. Translated by D. Heller-Roazen. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alpers, J.S., and J. Beckwith. 1993. Genetic fatalism and social policy: The implications of behavior genetics research. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 66: 511–524.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, Elizabeth S. 1990. Is women’s labor a commodity? Philosophy & Public Affairs 19 (1): 71–92.Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, Lori B. 1988. Surrogate motherhood: The challenge for feminists. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1–2): 72–80.Google Scholar
  6. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, Alison. 2011. Reconceiving surrogacy: Toward a reproductive justice account of Indian surrogacy. Hypatia 26: 715–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baklinski, Pete. 2014. Shock: UK mom abandons disabled daughters, keeps healthy son after twin surrogacy. Life Site News. https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/mother-rejects-disabled-daughter-keeps-healthy-son-after-twin-surrogacy. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  9. Baruahl, Pranjal. 2012. Traffickers target northeast Indian women, sell them like cattle. Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Traffickers-target-northeast-Indian-women-sell-them-like-cattle/articleshow/17725299.cms. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  10. BBC. 2015. Despair over ban in India’s surrogacy hub. British Broad Casting. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-34876458. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  11. Benninghaus, Christina. 2012. Beyond constructivism? Gender medicine and the early history of sperm analysis, Germany 1870–1900. Gender & History 24 (3): 647–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bergmann, Sven. 2011. Reproductive agency and projects: Germans searching for egg donation in Spain and the Czech Republic. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 23 (5): 600–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhabha, Homi K. 1994. The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Bhalla, Nita, and Mansi Thapiyal. 2013. India seeks to regulate its booming ‘rent-a-womb’ industry. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-surrogates-idUSBRE98T07F20130930. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  15. Bhattacharyya, Ritupurna. 2016. Draft surrogacy (regulation) bill 2016: Rhetoric of surrogate-centric. Space and Culture, India 4 (2): 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhowmick, Niranjana. 2016. After Nepal, Indian surrogacy clinics move to Cambodia. Aljazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/06/nepal-indian-surrogacy-clinics-move-cambodia-160614112517994.html. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  17. Campbell, Mary. 2007. Thinking outside the (black) box: Measuring black and multiracial identification on surveys. Social Science Research 36 (3): 921–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chatterjee, Pritha, and Mayura Janwalkar. 2014. The great Indian egg bazaar. Indian Express.http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/the-great-indian-egg-bazaar/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  19. Corveleyn, A., E. Zika, M. Morris, E. Dequeker, J.L. Davies, K. Sermon, G. Antiñolo, A. Schmutzler, J. Vanecek, F. Palau, and D. Ibarreta. 2007. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in Europe. European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. EUR 22764 EN–Seville: European Communities.Google Scholar
  20. Conceive Abilities. 2016. Nepal joins India and Thailand in commercial surrogacy ban. Conceive Abilities. https://www.conceiveabilities.com/about/blog/nepal-joins-india-and-thailand-in-commercial-surrogacy-ban. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  21. Corea, Gena. 1985. The mother machine: Reproductive technologies from artificial insemination to artificial wombs. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  22. Cornell, Drucilla. 1998. At the heart of freedom: Feminism, sex, and equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crompton, S. 2007. India’s rise in medical tourism. London, Britain: The Times of India.Google Scholar
  24. Daisie, Maame Aba. 2015. Surrogate mother carrying quadruplets cheated of incentives. My Joy Online. http://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2015/January-12th/surrogate-mother-carrying-quadruplets-cheated-of-incentives.php. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  25. Dawe, Gavin, Xiao Wei Tan, and Zhi-Cheng Xiao. 2007. Cell migration from baby to mother. Cell Adhesion And Migration 1 (1): 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Deonandan, Raywat, Mirhad Loncar, Prinon Rahman, and Sabrina Omar. 2012. Measuring reproductive tourism through an analysis of Indian ART clinic Websites. International Journal of General Medicine: 763Google Scholar
  27. Dhar, RajibLochan. 2013. Lived experiences of childless couples: A phenomenological study from the Indian rural context. Marriage & Family Review 49 (4): 265–283.Google Scholar
  28. Donchin, Anne. 1996. Feminist critiques of new fertility technologies: implications for social policy. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (5): 475–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Douez, Sophie. 2011. Flourishing surrogacy business raises fears. Swissinfo. https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/flourishing-surrogacy-business-raises-fears/29791340. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  30. Dreyfuss and Nelkin. 1992. The Jurisprudence of genetics. Vanderbilt Law Review 45: 313–348.Google Scholar
  31. Duster, Troy. 1990. Backdoor to eugenics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Ekman, Kajsa Ekis. 2016. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/feb/25/surrogacy-sweden-ban. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  33. European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. 2008. Comparative analysis of medically assisted reproduction in the EU: Regulation and technologies. (SANCO/2008/C6/051). European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). https://ec.europa.eu/health//sites/health/files/blood_tissues_organs/docs/study_eshre_en.pdf. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  34. Ferguson, James, and Akhil Gupta. 2002. Toward an ethnography of neoliberal governmentality. American Ethnologist 29 (4): 981–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Field, Martha A. 1988. Contract motherhood: The legal and human issues. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Ghosh, Abantika. 2016. Surrogacy legislation: Is woman a child-producing factory asks Anupriya Patel. Indian Express. http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/surrogacy-ban-commercial-foreign-clients-woman-child-producing-machine-3008933. Accessed 14 Aug 2014.
  37. Gilroy, Paul. 2000. Against race: Imagining political culture beyond the color line. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gingrich, Andre, and Gerd Baumann. 2004. Grammars of identity: A structural approach. New York: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  39. Global Bioethics Blog. 2012. Contract motherhood in developing countries: Fine in theory, nasty in practice. Global Bioethics Blog. globalbioethics.blogspot.com/2012_08_01_archive.html. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  40. Goldfarb, James M., Cynthia Austin, Barry Peskin, Hannah Lisbona, Nina Desai, and J.Ricardo de Mola. 2000. Fifteen years’ experience with an in-vitro fertilization surrogate gestational pregnancy programme. Human Reproduction 15: 1075–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Golombok, Susan, Jennifer Readings, and Vasanti Jadva. 2011. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age. Development Psychology.Google Scholar
  42. Government of India. 2009. Need for legislation to regulate assisted reproductive technology clinics as well as rights and obligations of parties to a surrogacy, Report Number 228. Law Commission of India: New Delhi.Google Scholar
  43. Greil, A.L. 1991. Not yet pregnant: Infertile couples in contemporary America. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Green, Alon-Lee. 2015. Where is the concern for the surrogate mothers in Nepal? Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/opinion/.premium-1.653660. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  45. Greil, A.L., K. Slauson-Blevins, and J. McQuillan. 2010. The experience of infertility: A review of recent literature. Sociology of Health & Illness 32: 140–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gupta, Moushumi Das. 2016. India proposes commercial surrogacy ban; live-ins, homosexuals worst hit. Hindustan Times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-proposes-ban-on-commercial-surrogacy-homosexuals-live-ins-worst-hit/story-Vb1fKz0XSJPdCT7GbympkO.html. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  47. Harding, Sandra. 1991. Whose science/whose knowledge? Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hawley, Samantha, and Suzanne Smith. 2015. India surrogacy case: Documents show New South Wales couple abandoned baby boy despite warnings. Australian Broad Casting. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-04-13/australian-couple-abandon-baby-boy-in-india-surrogacy-case/6387206. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  49. Henig, Robin Marantz. 2014. Women increasingly pick brains over looks in choosing egg donors. National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/10/30/360127832/women-increasingly-pick-brains-over-looks-in-choosing-egg-donors. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  50. Hess, Amanda. 2014. The golden egg: Couples want their egg donors to be smart, athletic, and good-looking. Slate Magazine. http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2014/11/egg_donation_study_couples_want_donors_to_be_smart_athletic_good_looking.html. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  51. Hindustan Times. 2017. Can’t adopt white child, try in India, British-Sikh couple told by UK agency. Hindustan Times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/can-t-adopt-white-child-try-in-india-british-sikh-couple-told-by-uk-agency/story-d1q2x79j3psuvwntkupFrO.html. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  52. Hubbard, R., and E. Wald. 1999. Exploding the gene myth: How genetic information is produced and manipulated by scientists, physicians, employers, insurance companies, educators, and law enforcers. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  53. Indian Council of Medical Research. 2015. National registry of ART clinic and banks in India. Indian Council of Medical Research: New Delhi http://www.icmr.nic.in/icmrnews/art/New%20list%20of%20approved%20ART%20Clinics_24.10.2015.pdf. Accessed 16 Aug 2017.
  54. Inhorn, M.C. 2011. Globalization and gametes: Reproductive “tourism,” Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity. Anthropology and Medicine 18: 87–103.Google Scholar
  55. Inhorn, M.C., and P. Patrizio. 2012. The global landscape of cross-border reproductive care: Twenty key findings for the new millennium. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 24 (3): 158–163.Google Scholar
  56. Jadva, V., and S. Imrie. 2013. Children of surrogate mothers: Psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy. Human Reproduction 29: 90–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kamin, Debra. 2015. Israel evacuates surrogate babies from Nepal but leaves the mothers behind. Time. http://time.com/3838319/israel-nepal-surrogates/. Accessed 14 Apr 2017.
  58. Katz, Avi. 1986. Contract motherhood and the baby-selling laws. Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 20: 1–53.Google Scholar
  59. Kirby, Jeffrey. 2014. Transnational gestational surrogacy: Does it have to be exploitative? The American Journal of Bioethics 14 (5): 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Knoll, E. 2012. Reproducing Hungarians: Reflections on fuzzy boundaries in reproductive border crossing. In Reproductive technologies as global forum: Ethnologies of knowledge, practices, and transnational encounters, ed. M. Knecht, et al., 255–282. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  61. Kozicka, Patricia. 2016. Reality check: Are fertility problems on the rise? Global News. http://globalnews.ca/news/3070201/reality-check-are-fertility-problems-on-the-rise/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  62. Krause, Elizabeth L., and Milena Marchesi. 2007. Fertility politics as “Social Viagra”: Reproducing boundaries, social cohesion, and modernity in Italy. American Anthropologist 109 (2): 350–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kroløkke, Charlotte Halmø. 2014. West is best: Affective assemblages and Spanish oocytes. European Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (1): 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kuchroo, Sakshi. 2016. Banning commercial surrogacy is the only way forward: Professor Mohan Rao of Jawaharlal Nehru University talks about the pros and cons of the surrogacy bill. Governance Now 7 (16): 38–39.Google Scholar
  65. Kusum, S. 2015. Inconsistent and conflicting surrogacy laws in India and foreign legal jurisdictions. International Journal of Legal Studies and Research 72: 2278–4764.Google Scholar
  66. Lippman, A. 1991. Prenatal genetic testing and screening: Constructing needs and reinforcing inequalities. American Journal of Law and Medicine 17: 15–50.Google Scholar
  67. Mascarenhas, M.N., S.R. Flaxman, T. Boerma, S. Vanderpoel, and G.A. Stevens. 2012. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: A systematic analysis of 277 health surveys. PLOS Medicine 9 (12): e1001356.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maulem, Mazal. 2015. Israel airlifts surrogates, babies from Nepal. Israel Pulse. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/04/israel-nepal-rescuing-surrogate-mothers-gay-community.html. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  69. Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 2003. “Under western eyes” revisited: Feminist solidarity through anticapitalist struggles. Signs 28 (2): 499–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Murdoch, Lindsay. 2015. ‘Somebody has to be the icebreaker’: Aussies seeking babies turn to Cambodia. The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/world/somebody-has-to-be-the-icebreaker-aussies-seeking-babies-turn-to-cambodia-20151027-gkjfj5.html#ixzz3qMBjMidJ. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  71. Nahman, Michal. 2008. Nodes of desire: Romanian egg sellers, ‘dignity’ and feminist alliances in transnational ova exchanges. European Journal of Women’s Studies 15 (2): 65–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nair, P.M., and Sankar Sen. 2004. Trafficking in women and children in India. New Delhi: Orient Longman.Google Scholar
  73. Nelkin, Dorothy, and M.S. Lindee. 1995. The DNA mystique: The gene as a cultural icon. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  74. Nelkin, Dorothy, and Laurene Tancredi. 1994. Dangerous diagnostics: The social power of biological information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Nelson, Dean. 2012. Fair-skinned Indian women paid £1,000 extra to be surrogates. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/9633142/Fair-skinned-Indian-women-paid-1000-extra-to-be-surrogates.html. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  76. Nkrumah, K. 1966. Neo-colonialism: The last stage of imperialism. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  77. Nkwopara, Chidi. 2013. 14 pregnant teens rescued in another Imo baby factory. Vanguard. www.vanguardngr.com/2013/05/14-pregnant-teens-rescued-in-another-baby-factory-in-imo/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  78. Okin, Susan M. 1990. A critique of pregnancy contracts. Politics and the Life Sciences 8: 205–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pande, A. 2009. Not an ‘Angel’, Not a ‘Whore’: surrogates as ‘Dirty’ workers in India. Indian Journal of Gender Studies 16 (2): 141–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parajuli, Ramesh. 2015. Surrogacy in Nepal: Threat to reproductive right. The Himalayan Times. https://thehimalayantimes.com/opinion/surrogacy-in-nepal-threat-to-reproductive-right/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  81. Pateman, C. 1988. The sexual contract. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Paul, Diane B. 1994. Eugenic anxieties, social realities, and political choices. In Are genes us? The social consequences of the new genetics, ed. Carl F. Cranor, 142–154. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Pennings, Guido. 2008. Ethical issues of infertility treatment in developing countries. ESHRE 1 (1): 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pennings, G., C. Autin, W. Decleer, A. Delbaere, L. Delbeke, A. Delvigne, D. De Neubourg, P. Devroey, M. Dhont, T. D’Hooghe, S. Gordts, B. Lejeune, M. Nijs, P. Pauwels, B. Perrad, C. Pirard, and F. Vandekerckhove. 2009. Cross-border reproductive care in Belgium. Human Reproduction 24 (12): 3108–3118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Perappadan, B.S. 2014. Activists call for stringent regulations for surrogacy. The Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-otherstates/activists-call-for-stringent-regulations-for-surrogacy/article6348214.ece. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  86. Pfeffer, N. 2011. Eggs-ploiting women: A critical feminist analysis of the different principles in transplant and fertility tourism. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 23 (5): 634–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Präg, Patrick and Melinda C. Mills. 2015. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe. Usage and regulation in the context of cross-border reproductive care. Families and Societies Working Paper Series (43): 43.Google Scholar
  88. Prague Daily Monitor. 2015. Právo: No one wants Czech child born to surrogate mother. Prague Daily Monitor. http://praguemonitor.com/2015/08/13/pr%C3%A1vo-no-one-wants-czech-child-born-surrogate-mother. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  89. Nagaraj, Anuradha. 2017. Wombs for rent: Indian surrogacy clinic confines women in ‘terrible conditions’, say police. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-women-surrogacy-idUSKBN19A1KL. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  90. Pujari, S., and Sayeed Unisa. 2014. Failing fatherhood: A study of childless men in rural Andhra Pradesh. Sociological Bulletin 63 (1): 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Qadeer, I. 2010. The ART of marketing babies. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 7 (4): 209–215.Google Scholar
  92. Rabinow, Paul. 1996. Artificiality and enlightenment: from sociobiology to biosociality. In Essays on the anthropology of reason, ed. Paul Rabinow, 91–111. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Raymond, Janice G. 1993. Women as wombs: Reproductive technologies and the battle over women’s freedom. San Francisco: Harper.Google Scholar
  94. Riessman, C. 2000. Stigma and everyday resistance practices, childless women in South India. Gender Society 14: 111–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rifkin, Jeremy. 1998. The biotech century: Harnessing the gene and remaking the world. New York: Penguin Putnam Inc.Google Scholar
  96. Roberts, Dorothy E. 1996. Race and the new reproduction. Hastings Law Journal 47 (4): 935.Google Scholar
  97. Roberts, Dorothy E. 2009. Race, gender, and genetic technologies: A new reproductive dystopia? Signs 34 (4): 783–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Robertson, John A. 1983. Procreative liberty and the control of conception, pregnancy, and childbirth. Virginia Law Review 69 (3): 405–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Robertson, John A. 1986. Embryos, families, and procreative liberty: The legal structure of the new reproduction. Southern California Law Review 59: 939–1041.Google Scholar
  100. Rose, Nikolas. 2001. The politics of life itself. Theory, Culture and Society 18 (6): 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rose, N., and C. Novas. 2005. Biological citizenship. Malden, MA: Global Assemblages, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  102. Rothman, Barbara K. 1989. Recreating motherhood: Ideology and technology in a patriarchal society. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  103. Roy, Saurav. 2015. Trafficked tribal girls forced to conceive, deliver babies for sale. Hindustan Times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/trafficked-tribal-girls-forced-to-conceive-deliver-babies-for-sale/story-KEbZAB2au7Gyw9aspupTEI.html. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  104. Sallam, H.N. 2008. Infertility in developing countries: Funding the project. Human Reproduction ESHRE Monographs 97–101.Google Scholar
  105. SAMA. 2012. Birthing a market: A study on commercial surrogacy, New Delhi: SAMA Resource Group for Women and Children—unsure what this is/unsure how to cite.Google Scholar
  106. Saravanan, Sheela. 2015. Global justice, capabilities approach and commercial surrogacy in India. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18: 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Saravanan, Sheela. 2016. Humanitarian thresholds of the fundamental feminist ideologies: Evidence from surrogacy arrangements in India. Analize—Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies.Google Scholar
  108. Sarojini, N.B., and Aastha Sharma. 2009. The draft ART (regulation) bill: In whose interest? Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (1): 36–37.Google Scholar
  109. Sartre, Jean-Paul. 2001. Colonialism and neocolonialism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  110. Shalev, Carmel. 1989. Birth power: The case for surrogacy. New Haven: Yale University. Press.Google Scholar
  111. Sherlock, Ruth. 2016. Gay parents fight for custody with surrogate in Thailand. The Telegraph.http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/03/23/gay-parents-fight-for-custody-with-surrogate-in-thailand/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  112. Sherwell, Philip. 2015. India surrogacy ban dismays British couples. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/12001903/India-surrogacy-ban-dismays-British-couples.html.
  113. Shultz, Marjorie M. 1990. Reproductive technology and intention-based parenthood: An opportunity for gender neutrality. Wisconsin Law Review volume? 297–398.Google Scholar
  114. Subedi, Madhusudan. 2015. Contractual transaction: How renting a uterus makes the human body a commodity in Nepal. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 9: 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. The Guardian. 2016. Surrogate mother who sold same babies twice sentenced for fraud. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/23/surrogate-mother-who-sold-same-babies-twice-sentenced-for. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  116. Times of India. 2010. Israeli gay case to hit surrogacy biz in India. Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Israeli-gay-case-to-hit-surrogacy-biz-in-India/articleshow/5914884.cms. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  117. Times of India. 2011. Womb for sale debates surfaces in Nepal. Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-asia/Womb-for-sale-debate-surfaces-in-Nepal/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  118. Times of India. 2012. Surrogate mother dies of complications. Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/Surrogate-mother-dies-of-complications/articleshow/13181592.cms. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  119. Times of India. 2017. Almost 20,000 women, children trafficked in India in 2016: Government report. Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/almost-20000-women-children-trafficked-in-india-in-2016-govt-report/articleshow/57569145.cms. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  120. Vora, Priyanka. 2013. Indian couples seek ‘white’ donors for fair kids. Hindustan Times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai/indian-couples-seek-white-donors-for-fair-kids/story-ykVNvMJ7aPM4GPuGeBwpHL.html. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  121. WHO. 2016. Sexual and reproductive health: Multiple definitions of infertility. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/infertility/multiple-definitions/en/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  122. Young, Robert J.C. 1995. Colonial desire: Hybridity in theory, culture, and race. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  123. Young, Robert J.C. 2003. Postcolonialism: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zargar, Arshad R. 2016. India moves to ban surrogacy for potential foreign parents. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/india-ban-surrogacy-potential-foreign-parents/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, South Asia InstituteHeidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations