Chemical Injuries of the Cornea

  • Weiyun ShiEmail author
  • Suxia Li
Part of the Ocular Trauma book series (OCTRA)


Chemical injuries of the ocular surface are very common in China. Acids and alkalis are frequently encountered offending chemical agents. It is very difficult to treat chemical burns of the ocular surface for lack of ideal approaches. This chapter introduces the clinical features of chemical injuries and first aid and subsequent treatment of chemical injuries.


Chemical injuries Acids burns Alkalis burns Amniotic membrane transplantation; keratoplasty 


  1. 1.
    Chen JJ, Tseng SCG. Corneal epithelial wound healing in partial limbal deficiency. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31(7):1301–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu T, Zhai H, Xu Y, Dong Y, Sun Y, Zang X, Zhao J. Amniotic membrane traps and induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells in ocular surface chemical burn. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2137–46.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bazan HE. Cellular and molecular events in corneal wound healing: significance of lipid signalling. Exp Eye Res. 2005;80(4):453–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Palao R, Monge I, Ruiz M, Barret JP. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment. Burns. 2010;36(3):295–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shi W, Wang T, Gao H, Xie L. Management of severe ocular burns with symblepharon. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247(1):101–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lin MP, Ekşioğlu Ü, Mudumbai RC, Slabaugh MA, Chen PP. Glaucoma in patients with ocular chemical burns. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154(3):481–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cade F, Grosskreutz CL, Tauber A, Dohlman CH. Glaucoma in eyes with severe chemical burn, before and after keratoprosthesis. Cornea. 2011;30(12):1322–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schrage NF, Langefeld S, Zschocke J, Kuckelkorn R, Redbrake C, Reim M. Eye burns: an emergency and continuing problem. Burns. 2000;26(8):689–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharma N, Singh D, Maharana PK, Kriplani A, Velpandian T, Pandey RM, Vajpayee RB. Comparison of amniotic membrane transplantation and umbilical cord serum in acute ocular chemical burns: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016;168:157–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kafle PA, Singh SK, Sarkar I, Surin L. Amniotic membrane transplantation with and without limbal stem cell transplantation in chemical eye injury. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2015;7(1):52–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clare G, Suleman H, Bunce C, Dua H. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12(9):CD009379.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharma N, Kaur M, Agarwal T, Sangwan VS, Vajpayee RB. Treatment of acute ocular chemical burns. Surv Ophthalmol. 2017;pii: S0039–6257(16):30201–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin A, Patel N, Yoo D, DeMartelaere S, Bouchard C. Management of ocular conditions in the burn unit: thermal and chemical burns and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Burn Care Res. 2011;32(5):547–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Qi X, Xie L, Cheng J, Zhao J. Clinical results and influential factors of modified large-diameter lamellar keratoplasty in the treatment of total limbal stem cell deficiency. Cornea. 2013;32(5):555–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Iyer G, Srinivasan B, Rishi E, Rishi P, Agarwal S, Subramanian N. Large lamellar corneoscleral grafts: tectonic role in initial management of severe ocular chemical injuries. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2016;26(1):12–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fogla R, Padmanabhan P. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty combined with autologous limbal stem cell transplantation in unilateral severe chemical injury. Cornea. 2005;24(4):421–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Basu S, Mohamed A, Chaurasia S, Sejpal K, Vemuganti GK, Sangwan VS. Clinical outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty after autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation for ocular surface burns. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152(6):917–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shi W, Gao H, Wang T, Xie L. Combined penetrating keratoplasty and keratolimbal allograft transplantation in comparison with corneoscleral transplantation in the treatment of severe eye burns. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36(6):501–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shandong Eye Hospital, Shandong Eye InstituteQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations