Advertisement

Acute Visual Field Impairment

Chapter
Part of the Ocular Trauma book series (OCTRA)

Abstract

Acute visual field loss is a clinical sign that is frequently encountered in the emergency room. The visual field loss could be caused by a variety of ocular as well as neurological disease processes. Successful diagnosis of visual field loss cases requires careful differential analysis of a wide variety of possibilities, complete examinations of medical and ocular history, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Ancillary tests play a major role in assisting the correct diagnosis of these diseases. Major causes of acute visual field loss are discussed in this chapter.

Keywords

Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) Retinal detachment Optic neuropathy Optic neuritis Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy Neuroretinitis 

References

  1. 1.
    Greven CM, Slusher MM, Weaver RG. Retinal arterial occlusions in young adults. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120:776–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sanborn GE, Magargal LE. Arterial obstructive disease of the eye. In: Tasman WS, Jaegar EA, editors. Clinical ophthalmology, vol. 3 and 14. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1993. p. 1–29.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown GC. Retinal arterial obstructive disease. In: Schachat AP, Murphy RB, Patz A, Ryan SJ, editors. Retina: vol 2 Medical retina. 73rd ed. St Louis: CV Mosby; 1989. p. 1361–77.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arruga J, Sanders MD. Ophthalmologic findings in 70 patients with evidence of retinal embolism. Ophthalmology. 1982;89:1336–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lewis JM. Multiple retinal occlusions from a left atrial myxoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117:674–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greven CM, Weaver RG, Owen J, Slusher MM. Protein S deficiency and bilateral branch retinal artery occlusion. Ophthalmology. 1991;98:33–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nelson ME, Talbot JF, Preston FE. Recurrent multiple-branch retinal arteriolar occlusions in a patient with protein C deficiency. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1989;227:443–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown GC, Magargal LE, Shields JA, et al. Retinal artery obstruction in children and young adults. Ophthalmology. 1981;88:18–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gass JDM, Tiedeman J, Thomas MA. Idiopathic recurrent branch retinal arterial occlusions. Ophthalmology. 1986;93:1148–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnson MW, Thomley ML, Huang SS, Gass JDM. Idiopathic recurrent branch retinal arterial occlusion. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:480–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fineman MS, Savino PJ, Federman JL, Eagle RC. Branch retinal artery occlusion as the initial sign of giant cell arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;112:428–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dutton GN, Craig G. Treatment of a retinal embolus by photocoagulation. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72:580–1.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li HK, Dejean BJ, Tand RA. Reversal of visual loss with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in a patient with Susac syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:2091–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown GC, Magargal LE, Sergott R. Acute obstruction of the retinal and choroidal circulations. Ophthalmology. 1986;93:1373–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown GC, Moffat K, Cruess A, et al. Cilioretinal artery obstruction. Retina. 1983;3:182–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Keyser BJ, Duker JS, Brown GC, et al. Combined central retinal vein occlusion and cilioretinal artery occlusion associated with prolonged retinal arterial filling. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117:308–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Richards RD. Simultaneous occlusion of the central retinal artery and vein. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1979;77:191–209.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jorizzo PA, Klein ML, Shults WT, Linn ML. Visual recovery in combined central retinal artery and central retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;104:358–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Duker JS, Cohen MS, Brown GC, et al. Combined branch retinal artery and central retinal vein obstruction. Retina. 1990;10:105–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Duker JS, Brown GL. Anterior location of the crossing artery in branch retinal vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989;107:998–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spaide RF, Lee JK, Klancnik JK, et al. Optical coherence tomography of branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2003;23:343–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    The Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Risk factors for branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;116:286–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frangieh GT, Green WR, Barraquer-Somers E, Finkelstein D. Histopathologic study of nine branch retinal vein occlusions. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100:1132–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group. Argon laser scatter photocoagulation for prevention of neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage in branch vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104:34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Finkelstein D. Argon laser photocoagulation for macular edema in branch vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 1986;93:975–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Esrick E, Subramanian ML, Heier JS, et al. Multiple laser treatments for macular edema attributable to branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:653–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Amirikia A, Sioh IV, Murray TG, et al. Outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery for complications of branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:372–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Glacet-Bernard A, Coscas G, Chabanel A, et al. Prognostic factors for retinal vein occlusion. A prospective study of 175 cases. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:551–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cekic O, Chang S, Tseng JJ, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone treatment for macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion and hemiretinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2005;25:851–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen SD, Sundaram V, Lochhead J, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone for the treatment of ischemic macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:876–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Noma H, Minamoto A, Funatsu H, et al. Intravitreal levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 are correlated with macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244:309–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Noma H, Funatsu H, Yamasaki M, et al. Pathogenesis of macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion and intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:256–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ostelah MD, Charles S. Surgical decompression of branch retinal vein occlusions. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;106:1469–71.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lakhanpal RR, Javaheri M, Ruiz-Garcia H, et al. Transvitreal limited arteriovenous-crossing manipulation without vitrectomy for complicated branch retinal vein occlusion using 25-gauge instrumentation. Retina. 2005;25:343–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mandelcorn MS, Nrusimhadevara RK. Internal limiting membrane peeling for decompression of macular edema in retinal vein occlusion: a report of 14 cases. Retina. 2004;24:348–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tsujikawa A, Fujihara M, Iwawaki T, et al. Triamcinolone acetonide with vitrectomy for treatment of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Retina. 2005;25:861–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA, Anderson MA, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:581–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA, Backlund JC, et al. The course of visual recovery after optic neuritis: experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:1771–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Optic Neuritis Study Group. The clinical profile of acute optic neuritis: experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109:1673–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Arnold AC. Visual field defects in the optic neuritis treatment trial: central vs. peripheral, focal vs. global. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:632–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beck RW, Kupersmith MJ, Cleary PA, et al. Fellow eye abnormalities in acute unilateral optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:691–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA. The optic neuritis study group: optic neuritis treatment trial: one-year follow-up results. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:773–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Beck RW. The optic neuritis treatment trial: three-year follow-up results. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:136–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Optic Neuritis Study Group. Visual function 5 years after optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115:1545–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA, Trobe JD, et al. The effect of corticosteroids for acute optic neuritis on the subsequent development of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1764–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Optic Neuritis Study Group. The 5-year risk of multiple sclerosis after optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Neurology. 1997;49:1404–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Beck RW, Arrington J, Murtagh FR, et al. Brain MRI in acute optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis study group. Arch Neurol. 1993;8:841–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cleary PA, Beck RW, Bourque LB, et al. Visual symptoms after optic neuritis: results from the optic neuritis treatment trial. J Neuroophthalmol. 1997;17:18–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cole SR, Beck RW, Moke PS, et al. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: experience of the ONTT. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:1017–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Trobe JD, Sieving PC, Guire KE, et al. The impact of the optic neuritis treatment trial on the practices of ophthalmologists and neurologists. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:2047–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Optic Neuritis Study Group. Visual function more than 10 years after optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Optic Neuritis Study Group. High- and low-risk profiles for the development of multiple sclerosis within 10 years after optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:944–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kaufman DI, Trobe JD, Eggenberger ER, et al. Practice parameter: the role of corticosteroids in the management of acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis. Neurology. 2000;54:2039–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rodriguez M, Siva A, Cross SA, et al. Optic neuritis: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Neurology. 1995;45:244–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Trapp BD, Peterson J, Ransohoff RM, et al. Axonal transection in the lesions of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:278–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ulrich J, Groebke-Lorenz W. The optic nerve in multiple sclerosis: a morphological study with retrospective clinico-pathological correlations. Neuro-ophthalmol. 1983;3:149–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kurtzke JF. Optic neuritis or multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1985;42:704–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Arnold AC. Evolving management of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:1101–11008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Frohman EM, Frohman TC, Zee DS, et al. The neuro-ophthalmology of multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2005;4:111–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Balcer LJ, Galetta SL. Optic neuritis. In: Rakel RE, Bope ET, editors. Conn’s current therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2004. p. 187–90.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Foroozan R, Buono LM, Savino PJ, et al. Acute demyelinating optic neuritis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13:375–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial Research Group. Optic nerve decompression surgery for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is not effective and may be harmful. JAMA. 1995;273:625–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Newman NJ, Biousse V. Hereditary optic neuropathies. Eyes. 2004;18:1144–60.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Swartz NG, Beck RW, Savino PJ, et al. Pain in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1995;15:9–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Balcer LJ. Optic neuritis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1273–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Baier ML, Cutter GR, Rudick RA, et al. Low-contrast letter acuity testing captures visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. Neurology. 2005;64:992–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Balcer LJ, Galetta SL. Optic neuropathies. In: Noseworthy JH, editor. Neurological therapeutics: principles and practice. London: Martin Dunitz; 2003. p. 1709–29.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Costello F, Coupland S, Hodge W, et al. Quantifying axonal loss after optic neuritis with optical coherence tomography. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:963–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ray S, Gragoudas E. Neuroretinitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2001;41:83–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hassenstein A, Bialasiewicz AA, Knospe V, et al. Incidence of ocular manifestations in patients with histologically confirmed systemic sarcoidosis [in German]. Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. 2003;220:414–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Golden MR, Marra CM, Holmes KK. Update on syphilis: resurgence of an old problem. JAMA. 2003;290:1510–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Balcer LJ, Winterkorn JMS, Galetta SL. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of Lyme disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 1997;17:108–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:115–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hengge UR, Tannapfel A, Tyring SK, et al. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:489–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Suhler EB, Lauer AK, Rosenbaum JT. Prevalence of serologic evidence of cat scratch disease in patients with neuroretinitis. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:871–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Reed JB, Scales DK, Wong MT, et al. Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis in cat scratch disease: diagnosis, management, and sequelae. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:459–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cunningham ET, Koehler JE. Ocular bartonellosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:340–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Atmaca L, Simsek T, Batioglu F. Clinical features and prognosis in ocular toxoplasmosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2004;48:386–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rothova A. Ocular involvement in toxoplasmosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993;77:371–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee AG, Tang RA, Roberts D, et al. Primary central nervous system lymphoma involving the optic chiasm in AIDS. J Neuroophthalmol. 2001;21:95–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Frohman LP, Frieman BJ, Wolansky L. Reversible blindness resulting from optic chiasmatis secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus. J Neuroophthalmol. 2001;21:18–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jacobs LD, Beck RW, Simon JH, et al. Intramuscular interferon β-1a therapy initiated during a first demyelinating event in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lucchinetti CF, Kiers L, O’Duffy A, et al. Risk factors for developing multiple sclerosis after childhood optic neuritis. Neurology. 1997;49:1413–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    CHAMPS Study Group. Interferon β-1a for optic neuritis patients at high risk for multiple sclerosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:463–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Comi G, Filippi M, Barkhof F, et al. Effect of early interferon treatment on conversion to definite multiple sclerosis: a randomized study. Lancet. 2001;357:1576–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kappos L, Polman C, Freedman MS, et al. Betaferon in newly emerging multiple sclerosis for initial treatment: clinical results. Presented at the 21st Congress of the European Committee for the Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Thessaloniki, Greece, 28 September–1 October, 2005. http://www.akm.ch/ECTRIMS2005. Accessed 24 Feb 2006Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rodriguez M, Lennon VA. Immunoglobulins promote remyelination in the central nervous system. Ann Neurol. 1990;27:12–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    van Engelen BG, Mommes OR, Pinckers A, et al. Improved vision after intravenous immunoglobulin in stable demyelinating optic neuritis [Letter]. Ann Neurol. 1992;32:834–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Noseworthy JH, O’Brien PC, Petterson TM, et al. A randomized trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in inflammatory demyelinating optic neuritis. Neurology. 2001;56:1514–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Roed HG, Langkilde A, Sellebjerg F, et al. A double-blind, randomized trial of IV immunoglobulin treatment in acute optic neuritis. Neurology. 2005;64:804–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rolak LA, Beck RW, Paty DW, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid in acute optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Neurology. 1996;46:368–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    CHAMPIONS Study Group. IM interferon β-1a delays definite multiple sclerosis 5 years after a first demyelinating event. Neurology. 2006;66:678–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Liu GT. Visual loss: optic neuropathies. In: Liu GT, Volpe NJ, Galetta SL, editors. Neuro-ophthalmology: diagnosis and management. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001. p. 103–87.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Scholl GB, Song HS, Wray SH. Uhthoff’s symptom in optic neuritis: relationship to magnetic resonance imaging and development of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1991;30:180–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Arnold AC. Ischemic optic neuropathies. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2001;14:83–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Johnson LN, Arnold AC. Incidence of nonarteritic and arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: population-based study in the state of Missouri and Los Angeles County, California. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14:38–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hattenhauer MG, Leavitt JA, Hodge DO, et al. Incidence of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123:103–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    MacMichael IM, Cullen JF. Pathology of ischaemic optic neuropathy. In: Cant JS, editor. The optic nerve. Proceedings of the second William MacKenzie memorial symposium. London: Henry Kimpton; 1972. p. 108–16.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hayreh SS. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Differentiation of arteritic from non-arteritic type and its management. Eye. 1990;4:25–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mack HG, O’Day J, Currie JN. Delayed choroidal perfusion in giant cell arteritis. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1991;11:221–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Siatkowski RM, Gass JDM, Glaser JS, et al. Fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;115:57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Arnold AC. Pathogenesis of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuro-Ophthalmol. 2003;23:157–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Knox DL, Kerrison JB, Green WR. Histopathologic studies of ischemic optic neuropathy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2000;98:203–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman BM, Podhajsky PA, Alward WLM. Nocturnal arterial hypotension and its role in optic nerve head and ocular ischemic disorders. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117:603–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS. Fluorescein angiography in acute anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117:222–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Arnold AC, Badr M, Hepler RS. Fluorescein angiography in nonischemic optic disk edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:293–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hayreh SS. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. V. optic disk edema an early sign. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99:1030–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Zimmerman P. Ocular manifestations of giant cell arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:509–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Beck RW, Servais GE, Hayreh SS. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. IX. Cup-to-disc ratio and its role in pathogenesis. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:1503–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS. Natural history of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14:66–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yee RD, Selky AK, Purvin VA. Outcomes of optic nerve sheath decompression for nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14:70–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Beck RW, Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, et al. Aspirin therapy in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123:212–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Keltner JL. Giant cell arteritis. Signs and symptoms. Ophthalmology. 1982;89:1101–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hayreh SS, Podhajksy PA, Raman R, et al. Giant cell arteritis: validity and reliability of various diagnostic criteria. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123:285–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Boyev LR, Miller NR, Gree WR. Efficacy of unilateral versus bilateral temporal artery biopsies for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:211–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial Research Group. Characteristics of patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eligible for the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:1366–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Repka MX, Savino PJ, Schatz NJ, Sergott RC. Clinical profile and long-term implications of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;96:478–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS, Hamilton DR, Lufkin RB. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1995;15:158–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hayreh SS, Joos KM, Podhajsky PA, Long CR. Systemic diseases associated with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;118:766–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pianka P, Almog Y, Man O, et al. Hyperhomocystinemia in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, central retinal artery occlusion, and central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:1588–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Salomon O, Huna-Baron R, Kurtz S, et al. Analysis of prothrombotic and vascular risk factors in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:739–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS, Lieber M, Alexander JM. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122:535–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Johnson LN, Guy ME, Krohel GB, et al. Levodopa may improve visual loss in recent-onset nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:521–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Beck RW, Ferris FL. Does levodopa improve visual function in NAION? Ophthalmology. 2000;107:1431–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salomon O, Huna-Baron R, Steinberg DM, et al. Role of aspirin in reducing the frequency of second eye involvement in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Eye. 1999;13:357–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Beck RW, Hayreh SS. Role of aspirin in reducing the frequency of second eye involvement in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy [Letter]. Eye. 2000;14:118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Liu GT, Glaser JS, Schatz NJ, Smith JL. Visual morbidity in giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:1779–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Beri M, Klugman MR, Kohler JA, Hayreh SS. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. VII. Incidence of bilaterality and various influencing factors. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:1020–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Aiello PD, Trautmann JC, McPhee TJ, et al. Visual prognosis in giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:550–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Dunker S, Hsu HY, Sebag J, Sadun AA. Perioperative risk factors for posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Am Coll Surg. 2002;194:705–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sadda SR, Nee M, Miller NR, et al. Clinical spectrum of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:743–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Horton JC. Mistaken treatment of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with interferon beta-1a. Ann Neurol. 2002;52:129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hayreh SS, Zahoruk RM. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. VI. In juvenile diabetics. Ophthalmologica. 1981;182:13–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Regillo CD, Brown GC, Savino PJ, et al. Diabetic papillopathy. Patient characteristics and fundus findings. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:889–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Barr CC, Glaser JS, Blankenship G. Acute disc swelling in juvenile diabetes. Clinical profile and natural history of 12 cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1980;98:2185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kline LB, Morawetz RB, Swaid SN. Indirect injury to the optic nerve. Neurosurgery. 1984;14:756–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Steinsapir KD, Goldberg RA. Traumatic optic neuropathy. Surv Opthalmol. 1994;38:487–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Anderson RL, Panje WR, Gross CE. Optic nerve blindness following blunt forehead trauma. Ophthalmology. 1982;89:445–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hupp SL, Buckley EG, Byrne SF, et al. Posttraumatic venous obstructive retinopathy associated with an enlarged optic nerve sheath. Arch Opthalmol. 1984;102:254–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1405–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED, Means ED, et al. Evaluation of an intensive methylprednisolone sodium succinate dosing regimen in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg. 1987;67:102–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Miller NR. The management of traumatic optic neuropathy [Editorial]. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108:1086–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Warner JE, Lessell S. Traumatic optic neuropathy. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1995;35:57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Joseph MP, Lessell S, Rizzo J, Momose KJ. Extracranial optic canal decompression for traumatic optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108:1091–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Raginiganth MG, Gupta AK, Gupta A, Bapuraj JR. Traumatic optic neuropathy: visual outcome following combined therapy protocol. Arch Otolarygol. 2003;129:1203–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Spoor TC, Hartell WC, Lensink DB, et al. Management of traumatic optic neuropathy with corticosteroids. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990;110:665–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Levin LA, Beck RW, Joseph MP, et al. The treatment of traumatic optic neuropathy: the international optic nerve study. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:1268–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lee AG. Traumatic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Steinsapir KD. The treatment of traumatic optic neuropathy with high-dose corticosteroids. J Neuroophthalmol. 2006;26:65–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Eisner G. Biomicroscopy of the peripheral fundus: an atlas and textbook. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1993. p. 45.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rosengren B, Osterlin S. Hydrodynamic effects in the vitreous space accompanying eye movements: significance for the pathogenesis of retinal detachment. Ophthalmologica. 1976;173:513–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Haimann NH, Burton TC, Brown CK. Epidemiology of retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100:289–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Goldberg MF. Clear lens extraction for axial myopia. An appraisal. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:571–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Javitt JC, Street DA, Tielsch JM, et al. Retinal detachment and endophthalmitis after outpatient cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:100–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Tielsch JM, Legro MW, Cassard SD, et al. Risk factors for retinal detachment after cataract surgery. A population-based case control study. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:1537–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    The Eye Disease Case Control Study Group. Risk factors for idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;137:749–57.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Brod RD, Flynn HW, Lightman DA. Asymptomatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1030–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lincoff H, Geiser R. Finding the retinal hole. Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;85:565–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kroll AJ, Machemer R. Experimental retinal detachment in the owl monkey. III. Electron microscopy of the retina and pigment epithelium. Am J Ophthalmol. 1968;66:410–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Green WR. Retina. In: Spencer WH, editor. Ophthalmic pathology. An atlas and textbook. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1996. p. 961–4.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Wilson DJ, Green WR. Histopathologic study of the effect of retinal detachment on 49 eyes obtained post mortem. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;103:167–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Brinton DA, Lit ES. Pneumatic retinopexy. In: Ryan SJ, Wilkinson CP, editors. Retina. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2006. p. 2071–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wilkinson CP. Visual results following scleral buckling for retinal detachments sparing the macula. Retina. 1981;1:113–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Burton TC. Recovery of visual acuity after retinal detachment involving the macula. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1982;80:475–82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Greven CM, Sanders RJ, Brown GC, et al. Pseudophakic retinal detachments. Anatomic and visual results. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:257–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hunt JR. On herpetic inflammations of the geniculate ganglion. A new syndrome and its implications. J Nerve Ment Dis. 1907;34:73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hunt JR. A further contribution to herpetic inflammations of the geniculate ganglion. Am J Med Sci. 1916;136:226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Portenoy RK, Duma C, Foley KM. Acute herpetic and postherpetic neuralgia. Clinical review and current management. Ann Neurol. 1986;20:651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Stafford FW, Welch AR. The use of acyclovir in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Laryngol Otol. 1986;100:337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Inamura H, Aoyagi M, Tojima H, Koike Y. Effects of acyclovir in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Acta Otolaryngol. 1988;446(suppl):111.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kinishi M, Amatsu M, Mohri M, et al. Acyclovir improves recovery rate of facial nerve palsy in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Ausis, Nasus, Larynx. 2001;28(3):223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Abramsky O, Webb C, Tietelbaum D. Cellular immune response to peripheral nerve basic protein in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell’s palsy). J Neurol Sci. 1975;26:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Asbury AK. Diagnostic considerations in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1981;9(suppl):1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Ohtsuka K, Nakamura Y, Hashimoto M, et al. Fisher syndrome associated with IgG antiGQ1b antibody following infection by a specific serotype of Campylobacter jejuni. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:1281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Charous DI, Saxe BI. Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome: report of an unusual case with a comment on Bell’s palsy. N Engl J Med. 1962;267:1334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Clark JR, Carlson RD, Sasak CT. Facial paralysis in Lyme disease. Laryngoscope. 1985;95:1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Peltomaa M, Pyykko I, Seppala I, et al. Lyme borreliosis and facial paralysis-a prospective analysis of risk factors and outcome. Am J Otolaryngol. 2002;23(3):125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Markby DP. Lyme disease facial palsy: Differentiation from Bell’s palsy. Br Med J. 1989;299:605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rawlings JA, Fournier PU, Teltow GJ. Isolation of Borrelia spirochetes from patients in Texas. J Clin Microbiol. 1987;25:1148.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Hunter EF, Russel H, Farstly CE. Evaluation of sera from patients with Lyme disease in the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test for syphilis. Sex Transm Dis. 1986;13:232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kamitsuka M, Feldman R, Richardson M. Facial paralysis associated with otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1985;6:682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Yetiser S, Tosun F, Kazkayasi M, et al. Facial nerve paralysis due to chronic otitis media. Otol Neurotol. 2002;23:580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Gradenigo G. A special syndrome of endocranial otitic complications. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1904;13:637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kohut RF, Lindsay JR. Necrotizing (malignant) external otitis histopathologic processes. Ann Otol. 1979;88:714.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Naldol JB. Histopathology of pseudomonas osteomyelitis of the temporal bone starting as malignant external otitis. Am J Otolaryngol. 1980;115:359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    McGove FH. Bilateral Bell’s palsy. Laryngoscope. 1965;75:1070.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Dreifus FE, Martin JD, Green RC. Brainstem encephalitis. Va Med Month. 1964;91:15.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Yasui I, Miyasaki T. Case of poliomyelitis due to virus type I manifested only by right facial paralysis. J Jpn Assn Infect Dis. 1962;36:427.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Sklar VEF, Patriarca PA, Onorato IM. Clinical findings and results of treatment in an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is southern Florida. Ain J Ophthalmol. 1983;95:45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Bosher SK. Leprosy presenting as facial palsy. J Laryngol. 1962;76:827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lucente FE, Tobias GW, Parisier SC. Tuberculous otitis media. Laryngoscope. 1978;88:1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bergstrom L, Hemenway WG, Barnhardt RA. Rhinocerebral and otologic mucormycosis. Ann Otol. 1970;79:70.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Gussen R, Canalis RF. Mucormycosis of the temporal bone. Ann Otol. 1982;91:27.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Verduijn PG, Bleeker JD. Secondary syphilis of the facial nerve. Arch Otolaryngol. 1939;48:675.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Dastur FD, Shahani MT, Dastoor DH, et al. Cephalic tetanus: demonstration of a dual lesion. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1977;40:782.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Harrison TR. Principles of internal medicine. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1987.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Thompson PK, Vaphiades MS, Saccente M, et al. Cat scratch disease presenting as neuroretinitis and peripheral facial palsy. J Neuro-Ophthalmology. 1999;19:240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Grant AC, Hunter S, Partin WC. A case of acute monocytic ehrlichiosis with prominent neurologic signs. Neurology. 1997;48:1619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Sahludovich S. Accidents due to antirabies vaccine: pseudoperitoneal syndrome followed by bilateral paralysis: case. Ed Dia Medico (Buenos Aires). 1946;18:1454.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Jappich G. Effects and side effects of oral poliomyelitis vaccinations. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1964;112:112.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Danforth HB. Familial Bell’s palsy. Ann Otol. 1964;73:179.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Lerond J. Ascending paralysis after tetanus antiserum’s rapid regression in member lingering facial paralysis. Bull Mem Soc Med Hop Paris. 1926;50:1695.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Wechsler AF, Ho DD. Bilateral Bell’s palsy at the time of HIV seroconversion. Neurology. 1989;39:747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Keane J. Neuro-ophthalmologic signs of AIDS: 50 patients. Neurology. 1991;41:841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Nichols JW, Goodwin JA. Neuro-ophthalmologic complications of AIDS. Semin Ophthalmol. 1992;7:24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Tenhula WN, SZ X, Madigan MC, et al. Morphometric comparisons of optic nerve axon loss in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;113:14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Patel SS, Rutzen AR, Marx JL, et al. Cytomegalovirus papillitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:1476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Cohen DB, Glasgow BJ. Bilateral optic nerve cryptococcosis in sudden blindness in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:1689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Garrity JA, Herman DC, Imes R, et al. Optic nerve sheath decompression for visual loss in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cryptococcal meningitis with papilledema. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;116:472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Grossniklaus HE, Specht CS, Allaire G, et al. Toxoplasma gondii retinochoroiditis and optic neuritis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: report of a case. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:1342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Shayegani A, Odel JG, Kazim M, et al. Varicella-zoster virus optic neuritis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122:586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Lee MS, Cooney EL, Stoessel KM, et al. Varicella zoster virus retrobulbar optic neuritis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Yau TH. Rivera-Velazquez, Mark AS et al: Unilateral optic neuritis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121:324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Gabuzda DH, Hirsch MS. Neurologic manifestations of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107:383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Burton BJL, Leff AP. Plant steroid-responsive HIV optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1998;18:25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Margo CE, Hamed LM. Ocular syphilis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1992;37:203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Zambrano W, Perez GM, Smith JL. Acute syphilitic blindness in AIDS. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1987;7:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Toshniwal P. Optic perineuritis with secondary syphilis. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1987;7:6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Arruga J, Valentines J, Mauri F, et al. Neuroretinitis in acquired syphilis. Ophthalmology. 1985;92:262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Balcer LJ, Winterkorn JMS, Galetta SL. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of Lyme disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 1997;17:108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Schmutzhard E, Pohl P, Stanek G. Involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi in cranial nerve affection. Zentrabl Bakt Hyg A. 1986;263:328.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Pachner AR, Steere AC. The triad of neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease: meningitis, cranial neuritis, and radiculoneuritis. Neurology. 1985;35:47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Wu G, Lincoff H, Ellsworth RM, et al. Optic disc edema and Lyme disease. Ann Ophthalmol. 1986;18:252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Strominger MB, Slamovits TL, Herskovitz S, et al. Transient worsening of optic neuropathy as a sequela of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in the treatment of Lyme disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14:77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Lyme disease. Connecticut. JAMA. 1988;259:1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Wong MT, Dolan MJ, Lattuada CP, et al. Neuroretinitis, aseptic meningitis, and lymphadenitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection in immunocompetent patients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Golnik KC, Marotto ME, Fanous MM, et al. Ophthalmic manifestations of Rochalimaea species. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;118:145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Cox TA, Haskins GE, Gangitano JL, et al. Bilateral Toxocara optic neuropathy. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1983;3:267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Fish RH, Hoskins JC, Kline LB. Toxoplasmosis neuroretinitis. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Lossos A, Eliashiv S, Ben-Chetrit E. Optic neuritis associated with familial Mediterranean fever. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1993;13:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Hedstrom J, Parsons J, Maloney PL, Doku HC. Superior orbital fissure syndrome: report of case. J Oral Surg. 1974;32(3):198–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hardt N, Sgier F. Results of surgical intervention in traumatic orbital syndromes. In:Fortschr Kiefer Gesichts Chir, vol. 36. Stuttgart/New York: Thieme; 1991. p. 165–7.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Mathog RH, Arden RL, Marks SC. Trauma of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Stuttgart/New York: Thieme; 1995.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Brent BD, May DR. Orbital apex syndrome after penetrating orbital trauma. Ann Ophthalmol. 1990;22(7):267–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Radtke J, Zahn W. Acuminate orbit syndrome-complications of upper midfacial fractures. Fortschr Kiefer Gesichtschir. 1991;36:155–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Lisch K. Direkte und indirekte Verletzungsfolgen der Sehbahn beim Kopftrauma. In: Ehrich W, Remler O, editors. Das Kopftrauma aus augenärztlicher Sicht. Stuttgart: Enke; 1976. p. 99–107.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Stewart GS, Soparkar CN. Orbital fractures. In: Stewart GS, editor. Head, face, and neck trauma. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2005. p. 59–67.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Soparkar CN. Ophthalmic and optic nerve trauma. In: Stewart GS, editor. Head, face and neck trauma. New York: Thieme; 2005. p. 52–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA
  2. 2.Shandong Eye Hospital, Shandong Eye InstituteQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations