Emission Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cairo, Egypt, Including Source Markers

  • Hossam F. NassarEmail author


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced in the environment as by-products of the incomplete combustion of most fuels. Therefore, they are ubiquitous in the environment and particularly concentrated in urban and industrialized areas (Mastral and Callén 2000; Rehwagen et al. 2005; Nassar et al. 2011; Li et al. 2012) and are widely studied with regard to their environmental effects due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PAHs are emitted into the atmosphere through various combustion sources or released into the aquatic environment through industrial discharge or domestic sewage.


PAHs NPAHs Ismailia Canal Egypt NPAH/PAH ratios 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences and Industrial Development, Faculty of Post Graduate Studies for Advanced SciencesBeni-Suef UniversityBeni-SuefEgypt

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