Provisions for Education of Persons with Visual Impairment

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Education book series (BRIEFSEDUCAT)


Critical reorientation of perspective has significant implications on the manner in which laws and policies relating to disability are developed. There is now a growing awareness among people that the problem does not reside in the person with a disability, but results from the structures, practices, and attitudes that prevent the individual from exercising his or her capabilities. In keeping view of this, this chapter investigates the policy perspectives regarding the education of people with disabilities at the global level as well as in India in specific. It is obvious that although there has been marked shift in paradigms towards making educational provisions, there are also various backlogs and barriers which make it imperative to undertake more focused and comprehensive efforts to derive optimum benefits. It is within this perspective that the book aims to look into the diverse trends and factors that affect the academic performance of blind individuals as well as their performance in relation to their sighted counterparts.


Policies Education Barriers Initiatives 


  1. Abel, G. L. (1961a). Adolescence: Foothold on the future. New Outlook for the Blind, 55, 103–106.Google Scholar
  2. Abel, G. L. (1961b). The blind adolescent and his needs. Exceptional Children, 27, 309–310, 325–334.Google Scholar
  3. Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.Google Scholar
  4. Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1997). Caring school communities. Educational Psychologist, 32, 137–151.Google Scholar
  5. Baumgardner, A. H. (1990). To know oneself is to like oneself: Self-certainty and self-affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1062–1072.Google Scholar
  6. Beaty, L. A. (1992). Adolescent self-perception as a function of vision loss. Adolescence, 27, 707–714.Google Scholar
  7. Beaty, L. A. (1993). Adolescents’ self-perception as a function of vision loss. Psychological Abstracts, 80(2), 768.Google Scholar
  8. Bissa, S., Singh, B. G., & Helode, R. D. (1993). Self-concept: A comparison between blind and normal students. Perspectives in Psychological Researchers, 16, 58–60.Google Scholar
  9. Blumenfeld, P. C., Pintrich, P. R., Meece, J., & Wessels, K. (1982). The formation and role of self-perceptions of ability in elementary classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 82, 401–420.Google Scholar
  10. Bossert, S. T. (1979). Tasks and social relationships in classrooms: A study of instructional organization and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Brieland, D. M. (1971). A comparative study of the speech of blind and sighted children. Speech Monographs, 17(1), 99–103.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, P. A. (1938). Responses of blind and seeing adolescents ton an introversion-extroversion questionnaire. Journal of Psychology, 6, 137–147.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, P. A. (1939). Responses of blind and seeing adolescents to a neurotic inventory. Journal of Psychology, April, 211–221.Google Scholar
  14. Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2005). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Burgess, J. W., & Fordyce, W. K. (1989). Effects of preschool environments on nonverbal social behaviors: Toddlers’ interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environmental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 30, 261–276.Google Scholar
  16. Buunk, B. P., Collins, R. L., Taylor, S. E., Van, Yperen, N. W., & Dakof, G. A. (1990). The affective consequences of social comparison: Either directions has its ups and downs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1238–1249.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, J. D., Chew, B., & Scratchley, L. S. (1991). Cognitive and emotional reactions of daily events: The effects of self-esteem and self-complexity. Journal of Personality, 59(3), 473–505.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., & Li, D. (1997). Relation between academic achievement and social adjustment: Evidence from Chinese children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 518–525.Google Scholar
  19. Combs, R. H., & Harper, J. L. (1967). Effects of labels on attitudes of educators toward handicapped children (Electronic version). Exceptional Children, 33(6), 399–403.Google Scholar
  20. Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1991). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective (Unpublished manuscript). University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.Google Scholar
  21. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Diamond, B. (1979). Myths of mainstreaming. Journal off Learning Disabilities, 12(4), 246–250.Google Scholar
  23. Dishion, T. J. (1999). The family ecology of boys’ peer relations in middle childhood. Child Development, 61, 874–892.Google Scholar
  24. District Primary Education Programme. (1994). District primary education programme guidelines. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Education, 01/05/1995, R.N21.8.Google Scholar
  25. Dodds, A. G., Ferguson, E. P., Ng, L., Flannigan, H., Haubs, G., & Yates, L. (1994). The concept of adjustment: A structural model. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 88, 487–497.Google Scholar
  26. Dornbusch, S., Ritter, P., Leiderman, P., Roberts, D., & Fraleigh, M. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244–1257.Google Scholar
  27. Douglas, D., McCall, S., McLinden, M., Pavey, S., Ware, J., & Farrell, A. M. (2009). International review of the literature of evidence of best practice models and outcomes in the education of blind and visually impaired children. VICTAR, University of Birmingham and St Patrick’s College, Dublin report for NCSE, NCSE Research Report No. 3.Google Scholar
  28. Eagelstein, S. A. (1975). The social acceptance of blind high school students in an integrated school. New Outlook for the Blind, 69, 447–451.Google Scholar
  29. Erin, J. N., Corn, A. L., & Wolffe, K. (1993). Learning and study strategies of secondary school students with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 87(7), 263–267.Google Scholar
  30. Feldhusen, J. F., Thurston, J. R., & Benning, J. J. (1970). Longitudinal analyses of classroom behavior and school achievement. The Journal of Experimental Education, 38(4), 4–10.Google Scholar
  31. Ferrell, K. A. (1986). Working with parents. In G. T. Scholl (Ed.), Foundations of education for blind and visually handicapped children and youth (pp. 265–247). New York: American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  32. Frampton, M. E., & Kerney, E. (1953). The residential school, its history, contributions, and future. New York: Institute for the Education of the Blind.Google Scholar
  33. Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (1994). Inclusive schools movement and the radicalization of special education reform. Exceptional Children, 60, 294–309.Google Scholar
  34. Garland-Thomson, R. (1997). Extraordinary bodies: Figuring physical disability in American culture and literature. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gideon, J., Sobti, A., & Rawat, V. S. (1992). A dictionary of special education (p. 137). New Delhi: Creative Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Glaubman, R., Lifshitz, H. (2001). Ultra-orthodox Jewish teachers’ self-efficacy and willingness for inclusion of pupils with special needs. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 16(3), 207–223.Google Scholar
  37. Goldstein, H., & Cisar, C. L. (1992). Promoting interaction during sociodramatic play: Teaching scripts to typical preschoolers and classmates with disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(2), 265–280.Google Scholar
  38. Gottesman, M. (1971). Conservation development in blind children. Child Development, 44(4), 824–827.Google Scholar
  39. Government of India. (1964). Education and national development: Report of the education commission 1964–66. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  40. Government of India. (1990). Towards an enlightened and humane society: National policy of education, 1986—A review part 1. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  41. Government of India. (1992). National policy on education 1986: With modifications undertaken in 1992. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  42. Government of India. (1995a). The persons with disabilities (Equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation) act, 1995. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  43. Government of India. (1995). The Rehabilitation Council of India Act: Act No. 34. New Delhi: Ministry of Welfare.Google Scholar
  44. Government of India. (1999). The national trust for welfare of persons with autism. Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act: Cerebral Palsy.Google Scholar
  45. Govinda, R., & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2008). Access to elementary education in India: Country analytical review. Delhi/Falmer: Create and National University of Educational Planning and Administration.Google Scholar
  46. Green, K. D., Forehand, R., Beck, S. J., & Vosk, B. (1980). An assessment of the relationships among measures of children’s social competence and children’s academic achievement. Child Development, 5, 1149–1156.Google Scholar
  47. Haider, S. I. (1990). A comparative study of some psychological characteristics and academic achievement of visually handicapped children in special schools and in integrated settings. Doctoral Dissertation. New Delhi: Jamia Millia Islamia University.Google Scholar
  48. Hallinan, M. T., & Sorensen, A. B. (1985). Ability grouping and student friendships. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 485–489.Google Scholar
  49. Hanna, W. J., & Rogovsky, E. (1991). Women with Disabilities: Two handicaps plus. Disabillity, Handicap & Society, 6(1), 49–63.Google Scholar
  50. Harnett, A., & Naish, M. (1993). Democracy, teachers and the struggle for education: An essay in the political economy of teacher education. Curriculum Studies, 1(3), 235–238.Google Scholar
  51. Hastings, H. K. (1947). An investigation on some aspects of the personality of the blind. In A. Sen (Ed.), Psycho-social integration of the handicapped: Challenge to the society. Delhi: Mittal Publications.Google Scholar
  52. Hatlen, P. (1996). The core curriculum for blind and visually impaired students, including those with additional disabilities. RE:view, 28, 25–32.Google Scholar
  53. Hatlen, P., & Curry, S. A. (1987). In support of specialized programs for blind and visually impaired children: The impact of vision loss on learning. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 81, 7–13.Google Scholar
  54. Hayes, S. P. (1941). Mental measurement of the blind. History, Inventory, Criticism, Teacher Forum, 13, 42–52.Google Scholar
  55. Hayes, A. (1994). Families and disability. In A. Ashman & J. Elkins (Eds.), Educating children with special needs. New York.Google Scholar
  56. Hayes, K., & Gunn, P. (1988). Attitudes of parents and teachers toward mainstreaming. Exceptional Child, 35(1), 31–38.Google Scholar
  57. Hitchcock, C., Meyer, A., Rose, D., & Jackson, R. (2002). Providing new access to the general curriculum: Universal design for learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(2), 8–17.Google Scholar
  58. Hokanson, J. E., Rubert, M. P., Welker, R. A., Hollander, G. R., & Hedeen, C. (1989). Interpersonal concomitants and antecedents of depression among college students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 209–217.Google Scholar
  59. Hoge, R. D., Smith, K. E., & Hanson, L. S. (1990). School experiences predicting changes in self-esteem of sixth and seventh grade students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 117–127.Google Scholar
  60. Hubbard, I. S. (1988). An objective study of the personality of the blind. In A. Sen (Ed.), Psycho-social integration of the handicapped: Challenge to the society. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.Google Scholar
  61. Huure, T. M., Komulainen, E. J., & Aro, H. M. (1999). Social support and self-esteem among adolescents with visual impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 93(1), 26–37.Google Scholar
  62. Jangira, N. K. (1987a). Education for rehabilitation of the disabled. Indian Journal of Disability and Rehabilitation, 1, 9–12.Google Scholar
  63. Jangira, N. K. (1987b). Small group work choices of visually impaired and other children in integrated settings. New Delhi: DTESEES, NCERT.Google Scholar
  64. Janshala. (2003). Perspectives in special needs education in India. A Journey From Isolation To Inclusion, Jan–March.Google Scholar
  65. Jervis, F. M. (1959). A comparison of self-concepts of blind and sighted children in guidance programs for blind children. In C. J. Davis (Ed.), Guidance programs for blind children. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind.Google Scholar
  66. Kothari Commission. (1964). Education and national development: Report of the education commission 1964–66. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  67. Kuhn, J. A. (1971). Comparison of teachers’ altitudes toward blindness and exposure to blind children. The New Outlook for the Blind, 65, 337–340.Google Scholar
  68. Ladd, G. W., Price, J. M., & Hart, C. H. (1988). Predicting preschoolers’ peer status from their playground behaviour and peer contacts. Child Development, 59, 986–992.Google Scholar
  69. Lambert, N. M. (1972). Intellectual and non-intellectual predictors of high school status. Journal of Special Education, 6, 247–259.Google Scholar
  70. Lowenfeld, B. (1963). The visually handicapped. Review of Educational Research, 33(1), 38–47.Google Scholar
  71. Lowenfeld, B. (1973). The visually handicapped child in school. New York: John Day.Google Scholar
  72. Lowenfeld, B. (1980). Psychological problems of children with severely impaired vision. In W. M. Cruickshank, (Ed.), Psychology of exceptional children and youth (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  73. Lowenfeld, B. (1981). Berthold Lowenfeld on blindness and blind people. Selected papers. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  74. Lowenfeld, B., Abel, G. L., & Hatlen, P. H. (1969). Blind children learn to read. Springfield Ill: Thomas, 1969.Google Scholar
  75. Maehr, M. L., & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A school-wide approach. Educational Psychologist, 26, 39–427.Google Scholar
  76. Marsh, H. W. (1990). The structure of academic self-concept: The Marsh/Shavelson model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 623–636.Google Scholar
  77. Marsh, H. W., Smith, T. D., & Barnes, J. (1985). Multidimensional self-concepts: Relations with sex and academic achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 581–596.Google Scholar
  78. Marshall, H. H., & Weinstein, R. S. (1984). Classroom factors affecting students’ self-evaluations: An interactional model. Review of Educational Research, 54, 301–325.Google Scholar
  79. Martinot, D., & Monteil, J. M. (1995). The academic self-schema: An experimental illustration. Learning and Instruction, 5, 63–76.Google Scholar
  80. Meighan, T. (1971). An investigation of the self-concept of blind and visually handicapped adolescents. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  81. Meyer, H. H. B. (1934). Herman H. B. Meyer to R. B. Irving, May 7, 1934, Series 4, Subseries 1, Box 9, Folder 7, American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  82. Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2004). Education for all: India marches ahead. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  83. McDaniel, J. (1976). Physical disability and human behavior. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  84. Moeller, T. G. (1994). What research says about self esteem and academic performance? Education Digest, 59, 34–38.Google Scholar
  85. Moos, R. (1978). A typology of junior high school classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 15, 53–66.Google Scholar
  86. Morgan, D. H. (1944). Emotional adjustment of visually handicapped adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 25, 65–81.Google Scholar
  87. Morris, J. (1994). Prejudice. In S. French (Ed.), On equal terms working with disabled people. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.Google Scholar
  88. Muhl, A. M. (1930). Psychometric and personality studies of blind children. Proceedings of the American Association of Instructors of the Blind, 566–573.Google Scholar
  89. Mukhopadhyay, S., & Mani, M. N. G. (2002). Education of children with special needs, In Govinda, R. (Ed.), India education report: A profile of basic education. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Murphy, D. (1996). Implications of inclusion for general and special education. The Elementary School Journal, 96(5), 469–487.Google Scholar
  91. National Curriculum Framework for School Education. (2000). New Delhi: National Council of Educational Research and Training.Google Scholar
  92. National Policy of Education. (1986). Towards an enlightened and humane society: National policy of education, 1986-A review part 1. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  93. Neidenthal, P. M., Cantor, N., & Kihlstrom, J. F. (1985). Self to prototype matching: A strategy for social decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 575–584.Google Scholar
  94. Nemshick, L. A., Vernon, McC., & Ludman, F. (1986). The impact of retinitis pigmentosa on young adults: Psychological, educational, vocational Nand social considerations. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 89, 859–862.Google Scholar
  95. Obiakor, F. E., & Stile, S. S. (1990). The self-concepts of visually impaired and normally sighted middle school children. Journal of Psychology, 124(2), 199–206.Google Scholar
  96. Pastor, G. C., & Jiménez, G. E. (1994). Teachers’ perspectives on integration of visually impaired children. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 9, 1.Google Scholar
  97. Pellegrini, A. (1984). The effect of dramatic play on children’s generation of cohesive text. Discourse Processes, 7, 57–67.Google Scholar
  98. Programme of Action. (1992). National policy on education 1986: With modifications undertaken in 1992. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  99. Rehabilitation Council of India. (2000). Status of disability in India. New Delhi: Rehabilitation Council of India.Google Scholar
  100. Reitzes, C. D., & Multran, E. (1980). Factors influencing educational expectations and academic performance. In S. Satapathy (Ed.), Psycho-social dynamics of academic performance of sensory impaired adolescents. Doctoral Thesis. JNU, New Delhi, 2000.Google Scholar
  101. Renick, M. J., & Harter, S. (1989). Impact of social comparisons on the developing self-perceptions of learning disabled students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(4), 631–638.Google Scholar
  102. Roeser, R. W., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescent’s psychological and behavioural functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 408–422.Google Scholar
  103. Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  104. Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  105. Rogers, C. R. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  106. Rosenholtz, S. J., & Simpson, C. (1984a). Classroom organization and student stratification. Elementary School Journal, 85, 21–37.Google Scholar
  107. Rosenholtz, S. J., & Simpson, C. (1984b). The formation of ability conceptions: Developmental trend or social comparison. Review of Educational Research, 54, 31–63.Google Scholar
  108. Rutter, M. (1983). School effects on pupil progress: Research findings and policy implications. Child Development, 54, 1–29.Google Scholar
  109. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.Google Scholar
  110. Ryan, R. M., & Grolnick, W. S. (1986). Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self-report and projective assessments of individual differences in children’s perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 550–558.Google Scholar
  111. Ryan, R. M., Stiller, J. D., & Lynch, J. H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 226–249.Google Scholar
  112. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. (2003). Department of School Education and Literacy, MHRD, Government of India. Retrieved on October 2013.Google Scholar
  113. Schmidt, L. J., & Nelson, C. C. (1968). Special class teacher attitudes toward affective and cognitive goals for visually handicapped students. The New Outlook for the Blind, 62, 297–300.Google Scholar
  114. Scott, R. A. (1969). The making of blind men: A study of adult socialization. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  115. Sherill, C., Hinson, M., Gench, B., Kennedy, S., & Low, L. (1990). Self-concepts of disabled youth athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 1093–1098.Google Scholar
  116. Sieber, R. T. (1979). Classmates as workmates: Informal peer activity in the elementary school. In K. R. Wentzel (Ed.), Relations between social competence and academic achievement in early adolescence. Child Development, 62, 1066–1078.Google Scholar
  117. Smith, S. M., & Petty, R. E. (1995). Personality moderators of mood congruency effects on cognition: The role of self-esteem and negative mood regulators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1092–1107.Google Scholar
  118. Steinberg, L., Elmen, J. D., & Mounts, N. S. (1989). Authoritarian parenting, psychosocial maturity and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60(6), 1424–1436.Google Scholar
  119. Swann, W. B., Jr. (1983). Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1038–1051.Google Scholar
  120. Swann, W. B., Jr. (1990). To be adored or to be known: The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In R. M. Sorrentino, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 408–448). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  121. Swann, W. B., Hixan, J. G., Stein-Seroussi, A., & Gilbert, D. T. (1990). The fleeting gleam of praise: Cognitive processes underlying behavioral reactions to self-relevant feedback. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 17–26.Google Scholar
  122. Thomas, D. (1985). The determinants of teachers? Attitude to integrating the intellectually handicapped. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 52, 251–263.Google Scholar
  123. Tobin, M. J. (1972) Conservation of Substance in the blind and partially sighted. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 42, 192–197.Google Scholar
  124. Tuttle, D. W. (1986). Educational programming. In G. T. Scholl (Ed.), Foundations of educations of blind and visually handicapped children and youth: Theory and practice. New York: American Foundation for the Blind, Inc.Google Scholar
  125. Van Hasselt, V. B. (1983). Social adaptation in the blind. Clinical Psychology Review, 3(1), 87–102.Google Scholar
  126. Vosk, B., Forehand, R., Parker, J. B., & Richard, K. (1982). A multi-method comparison of popular and unpopular children. Developmental Psychology, 18, 571–575.Google Scholar
  127. Warnock, H. M., & Bretaña, G. (1978). Special educational needs: Report of the committee of enquiry into the education of handicapped children and the young people (Vol. 7212 of Command Paper Series, HMSO Books). Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People, University of California.Google Scholar
  128. Waschull, S. B., & Kernis, M. H. (1996). Level and stability of self-esteem as predictors of children’s intrinsic motivation and reasons for anger. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 4–13.Google Scholar
  129. Wesolowski, M. O., & Zawlocki, R. J. (1982). The differential effects of procedures to eliminate an injurious self-stimulatory behavior (digito-ocular sign) in blind retarded twins. Behavior Therapy, 13, 334–345.Google Scholar
  130. Williams, E. (1977). Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and mediated communication: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 963–976.Google Scholar
  131. Wolffe, K. E., & Sacks, S. Z. (1997). The social network pilot project: Lifestyles of students with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91, 245–257.Google Scholar
  132. World Bank. (2007). People with disabilities in India: From commitments to outcomes. New Delhi: Human Development Unit, South Asia Region.Google Scholar
  133. Wright, B. A. (1960). Physical disability: A psychological approach. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  134. Wylie, R. (1979). The self-concept: Theory and research on selected topics (Vol. 2). London: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  135. Zunich, M., & Ledwith, B. E. (1965). Self-concept of visually handicapped and sighted children. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 21, 771–774.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Loreto College, KolkataKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations