Microbe-Mediated Biotic Stress Management in Plants

  • Pooja Kannojia
  • P. K. SharmaEmail author
  • Abhijeet K. Kashyap
  • Nazia Manzar
  • Udai B. Singh
  • Kamal Chaudhary
  • Deepti Malviya
  • Shailendra Singh
  • Sushil K. Sharma


Biotic stress factors have a major impact on plants and cause extensive losses to crop production. Plants possess a range of defenses that can be actively expressed in response to pathogens. The timely activation of these defense responses is important and determines whether plant is able to cope or succumb to the challenge of a pathogen. Plant defense mechanisms which are involved in biotic stress management are classified as innate and induced plant response. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) are two forms of induced resistance; in both types of resistance, prior infection or treatment preconditions plant defenses leading to resistance (or tolerance) against further challenge by a pathogen. Identification of a number of biological and chemical elicitors has to a great extent helped in unraveling the understanding of the biochemical and physiological basis of ISR and SAR. Combining SAR and ISR can provide protection against a number of pathogens including the pathogens that resist through both pathways. The use of pesticides for the control of crop diseases and pests is however inefficient and not eco-friendly. Genetic engineering has enabled the cloning of genes and their insertion into the crop plants to make them resistant to different biotic stresses.


Innate resistance Acquired resistance Biotic stress 



We would like to express our special thanks to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Government of India, for providing financial support. We acknowledge the help extended by Dr. A.K. Saxena, Director, ICAR, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms (ICAR-NBAIM), to carry out the proposed activity.


  1. Acharya BR, Assmann SM (2009) Hormone interactions in stomatal function. Plant Mol Biol 69(4):451–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrios GN (1997) Significance of plant diseases. In: Plant pathology, 4th edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 25–37Google Scholar
  3. Akai S (2012) Histology of defense in plants. Plant Pathol 1:391–434Google Scholar
  4. Alikamanoğlu S, Yaycılı O, Atak C, Rzakoulieva A (2007) Effect of magnetic field and gamma radiation on Paulowinia tomentosa tissue culture. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 21(1):49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen RL, Bittner-Eddy PD, Grenville-Briggs LJ, Meitz JC, Rehmany AP, Rose LE, Beynon JL (2004) Host-parasite coevolutionary conflict between Arabidopsis and downy mildew. Science 306:1957–1960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ, Epstein PR, Daszak P (2004) Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends Ecol Evol 19:535–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayres PG, Press MC, Spencer-Phillips PT (1996) Effects of pathogens and parasitic plants on source-sink relationships. Photoassimilate distribution in plants and crops, Malcolm Colin Press. Sheffield. pp: 479–499.Google Scholar
  8. Bajaj Y (1970) Effect of gamma-irradiation on growth, RNA, protein, and nitrogen contents of bean callus cultures. Ann Bot 34(5):1089–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartel DP (2009) MicroRNAs: target recognition and regulatory functions. Cell 136:215–233PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baulcombe DC (1996) Mechanisms of pathogen-derived resistance to viruses in transgenic plants. Plant Cell 8:1833–1844PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bebber DP, Gurr SJ (2015) Crop-destroying fungal and oomycete pathogens challenge food security. Fungal Genet Biol 74:62–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benhamou N, Nicole M (1999) Cell biology of plant immunization against microbial infection: the potential of induced resistance in controlling plant diseases. Plant Physiol Biochem 37:703–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benson E, Bremner D (2004) Oxidative stress in the frozen plant: a free radical point of view. In: Benson E, Fuller B, Lane N (eds) Life in the frozen state. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 205–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bigeard J, Colcombet J, Hirt H (2015) Signaling mechanisms in pattern triggered immunity (PTI). Mol Plant 8:521–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blatt MR, Grabov A, Brearley J, Hammond-Kosack K, Jones JD (1999) K+ channels of Cf-9 transgenic tobacco guard cells as targets for Cladosporium fulvum Avr9 elicitor-dependent signal transduction. Plant J 19(4):453–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boller T, Felix G (2009) A renaissance of elicitors: perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns and danger signals by pattern-recognition receptors. Annu Rev Plant Biol 60:379–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cai R, Lewis J, Yan S, Liu H, Clarke CR, Campanile F, Almeida NF, Studholme DJ, Lindeberg M, Schneider D, Zaccardelli M, Setubal JC, Morales-Lizcano NP, Bernal A, Coaker G, Baker C, Bender CL, Leman S, Vinatzer BA (2011) The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is genetically monomorphic and under strong selection to evade tomato immunity. PLoS Pathog 7(8):e1002130PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Camehl I, Drzewiecki C, Vadassery Y, Shahollari B, Sherameti I, Forzani C, Munnik T, Hirt H, Oelmüller R (2011) The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002051PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Çelik Ö, Atak Ç, Suludere Z (2014) Response of soybean plants to gamma radiation: biochemical analyses and expression patterns of trichome development. Plant Omics 7(5):382–391Google Scholar
  20. Chaerle L, De Boever F, Montagu MV, Straeten D (2001) Thermographic visualization of cell death in tobacco and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environ 24(1):15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chapman EJ, Carrington JC (2007) Specialization and evolution of endogenous small RNA pathways. Nat Rev Genet 8:884–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chellappan P, Masona MV, Vanitharani R, Taylor NJ, Fauquet CM (2004) Broad spectrum resistance to ssDNA viruses associated with transgene-induced gene silencing in cassava. Plant Mol Biol 56:601–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen Z, Zheng Z, Huang J, Lai Z, Fan B (2009) Biosynthesis of salicylic acid in plants. Plant Signal Behav 4(6):493–496Google Scholar
  24. Chen YC, Kidd BN, Carvalhais LC, Schenk PM (2014) Molecular defense responses in roots and the rhizosphere against Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Signal Behav 9(12):e977710PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke CR, Chinchilla D, Hind SR, Taguchi F, Miki R, Ichinose Y, Martin GB, Leman S, Felix G, Vinatzer BA (2013) Allelic variation in two distinct Pseudomonas syringae flagellin epitopes modulates the strength of plant immune responses but not bacterial motility. New Phytol 200:847–860PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Corthals G, Gygi S, Aebersold R, Patterson S (2000) Identification of proteins by mass spectrometry Proteome research: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification methods, Proteome Research. Springer, Berlin, pp 197–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cui X, Cao X (2014) Epigenetic regulation and functional exaptation of transposable elements in higher plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 21:83–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dahal D, Heintz D, Van Dorsselaer A, Braun H-P, Wydra K (2009) Pathogenesis and stress related, as well as metabolic proteins are regulated in tomato stems infected with Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:838–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Das S, DeMason DA, Ehlers JD, Close TJ, Roberts PA (2008) Histological characterization of root-knot nematode resistance in cowpea and its relation to reactive oxygen species modulation. J Exp Bot 59(6):1305–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dehgahi R, Zakaria L, Joniyas A, Subramaniam S (2014) Fusarium proliferatum culture filtrate sensitivity of Dendrobium sonia-28‘s PLBs derived regenerated plantlets. Malays J Microbiol 10(4):241–248Google Scholar
  31. Dehgahi R, Subramaniam S, Zakaria L, Joniyas A, Firouzjahi FB, Haghnama K, Razinataj M (2015a) Review of research on fungal pathogen attack and plant defense mechanism against pathogen. Int Sci Res Agric Sci 2(8):197–208Google Scholar
  32. Dehgahi R, Zakaria L, Mohamad A, Joniyas A, Subramaniam S (2015b) Effects of fusaric acid treatment on the protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28. Protoplasma 15:1–1Google Scholar
  33. Desikan R, Griffiths R, Hancock J, Neill S (2002) A new role for an old enzyme: nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide generation is required for abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99(25):16314–16318PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dodds PN, Rathjen JP (2010) Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions. Nat Rev Genet 11:539–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dong X, Xiong Y, Ling N, Shen Q, Guo S (2014) Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 30(4):1399–1408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dou D, Zhou JM (2012) Phytopathogen effectors subverting host immunity: different foes, similar battleground. Cell Host Microbe 12:484–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fan LM, Zhao Z, Assmann SM (2004) Guard cells: a dynamic signaling model. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7(5):537–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Felix G, Duran JD, Volko S, Boller T (1999) Plants have a sensitive perception system for the most conserved domain of bacterial flagellin. Plant J 18:265–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Feng F, Zhou JM (2012) Plant-bacterial pathogen interactions mediated by type III effectors. Curr Opin Plant Biol 15:469–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferreira RB, Monteiro S, Freitas R, Santos CN, Chen Z, Batista LM, Duarte J, Borges A, Teixeira AR (2007) The role of plant defence proteins in fungal pathogenesis. Mol Plant Pathol 8:677–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Flood J (2010) The importance of plant health to food security. Food Sec 2:215–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Freeman BC, Beattie GA (2008) An overview of plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores. Plant Health Instructor.
  43. Garcıa-Mata C, Lamattina L (2001) Nitric oxide induces stomatal closure and enhances the adaptive plant responses against drought stress. Plant Physiol 126(3):1196–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Garrison WM (1987) Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. Chem Rev 87(2):381–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gaulin E, Drame N, Lafitte C, Torto-Alalibo T, Martinez Y, Ameline-Torregrosa C, Khatib M, Mazarguil H, Villalba-Mateos F, Kamoun S, Mazars C, Dumas B, Bottin A, Esquerre-Tugaye MT, Rickauer M (2006) Cellulose binding domains of a Phytophthora cell wall protein are novel pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Plant Cell 18:1766–1777PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Giri B, Mukerji K (2004) Mycorrhizal inoculant alleviates salt stress in Sesbania aegyptiaca and Sesbania grandiflora under field conditions: evidence for reduced sodium and improved magnesium uptake. Mycorrhiza 14(5):307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gygi SP, Rochon Y, Franza BR, Aebersold R (1999) Correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in yeast. Mol Cell Biol 19(3):1720–1730PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hameed A, Shah TM, Atta BM, Haq MA, Sayed H (2008) Gamma irradiation effects on seed germination and growth, protein content, peroxidase and protease activity, lipid peroxidation in desi and kabuli chickpea. Pak J Bot 40(3):1033–1041Google Scholar
  49. Hammerschmidt R (2007) Introduction: definition and some history. In: Walters D, Newton A, Lyon G (eds) Induced resistance for plant defense: a sustainable approach to crop protection. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  50. Hammerschmidt R, Kuc J (1995) Induced resistance to disease in plants. Klumer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hayafune M, Berisio R, Marchetti R, Silipo A, Kayama M, Desaki Y, Arima S, Squeglia F, Ruggiero A, Tokuyasu K, Molinaro A, Kaku H, Shibuya N (2014) Chitin-induced activation of immune signaling by the rice receptor CEBiP relies on a unique sandwich-type dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:404–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hermosa R, Viterbo A, Chet I, Monte E (2012) Plant-beneficial effects of Trichoderma and of its genes. Microbiology 158:17–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huang J, Yang M, Zhang X (2016) The function of small RNAs in plant biotic stress response. J Integr Plant Biol 58:312–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hussain B (2015) Modernization in plant breeding approaches for improving biotic stress resistance in crop plants. Turk J Agric For 39:515–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ijaz S, Khan AI (2012) Genetic pathways of disease resistance and plants-pathogens interactions. Mol Pathogens 3(4):19–26Google Scholar
  56. Inamullah A, Isoda A (2005) Adaptive responses of soybean and cotton to water stress. I. transcription changes in relation to stomatal area and stomatal conductance. Plant Prod Sci 8:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jansen MA, Van Den Noort RE (2000) Ultraviolet-B radiation induces complex alterations in stomatal behaviour. Physiol Plant 110(2):189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jashni MK, Mehrabi R, Collemare J, Mesarich CH, de Wit PJGM (2015) The battle in the apoplast: further insights into the roles of proteases and their inhibitors in plant–pathogen interactions. Front Plant Sci 6:584PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jiao J, Zhou B, Zhu X, Gao Z, Liang Y (2013) Fusaric acid induction of programmed cell death modulated through nitric oxide signalling in tobacco suspension cells. Planta 238(4):727–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jones JD, Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. Nature 444:323–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Katiyar-Agarwal S, Jin H (2010) Role of small RNAs in host-microbe interactions. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48:225–246PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kern MF, Maraschin SDF, Endt DV, Schrank A, Vainstein MA, Pasquali G (2010) Expression of a chitinase gene from Metarhizium anisopliae in tobacco plants confers resistance against Rhizoctonia solani. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 160:1933–1946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kessler A, Baldwin IT (2002) Plant responses to insect herbivory: the emerging molecular analysis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:299–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kiirika L, Stahl F, Wydra K (2013) Phenotypic and molecular characterization of resistance induction by single and combined application of chitosan and silicon in tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 81:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kiong ALP, Lai AG, Hussein S, Harun AR (2008) Physiological responses of Orthosiphon stamineus plantlets to gamma irradiation. Am Eurasian J Sustain Agric 2(2):135–149Google Scholar
  66. Kiraly L, Barnaz B, Kiralyz Z (2007) Plant resistance to pathogen infection: forms and mechanisms of innate and acquired resistance. J Phytopathol 155:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Knoester M, Pieterse CMJ, Bol JF, van Loon LC (1999) Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis induced by rhizobacteria requires ethylene-dependent signaling at the site of application. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 12:720–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Knogge W (1996) Fungal infection of plants. Plant Cell 8(10):1711–1722PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kovacs E, Keresztes A (2002) Effect of gamma and UV-B/C radiation on plant cells. Micron 33(2):199–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Krishna V, Kumar KG, Pradeepa K, Kumar S, Kumar RS (2013) Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones. Indian J Exp Biol 51:531–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kuc J (1982) Induced immunity to plant diseases. Bioscience 32:854–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kume T, Matsuda T (1995) Changes in structural and antigenic properties of proteins by radiation. Radiat Phys Chem 46(2):225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kunze G, Zipfel C, Robatzek S, Niehaus K, Boller T, Felix G (2004) The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell 16:3496–3507PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Langham M, Glover K (2005) Effects of Wheat streak mosaic virus (genus: Tritimovirus; family: Potyviridae) on spring wheat. Phytopathology 95(6):556Google Scholar
  75. Liu H, Ma Y, Chen N, Guo S, Liu H, Guo X, Chong K, Xu Y (2014a) Overexpression of stress-inducible OsBURP16, the beta-subunit of polygalacturonase 1, decreases pectin contents and cell adhesion, and increases abiotic stress sensitivity in rice. Plant Cell Environ 37:1144–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu WD, Liu JL, Triplett L, Leach JE, Wang GL (2014b) Novel insights into rice innate immunity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 52:213–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lotze MT, Zeh HJ, Rubartelli A, Sparvero LJ, Amoscato AA, Washburn NR, Devera ME, Liang X, Tor M, Billiar T (2007) The grateful dead: damage-associated molecular pattern molecules and reduction/oxidation regulate immunity. Immunol Rev 220:60–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maleck K, Levine A, Eulgem T, Morgan A, Schmid J, Law ton KA, Dangl JL, Dietrich RA (2000) The transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana during systemic acquired resistance. Nat Genet 26:403–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Malinovsky FG, Fangel JU, Willats WGT (2014) The role of the cell wall in plant immunity. Front Plant Sci 5:178PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Margesin R, Neuner G, Storey K (2007) Cold-loving microbes, plants, and animals—fundamental and applied aspects. Naturwissenschaften 94(2):77–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Matsumoto K, Ohta T, Tanaka T (2005) Dependence of stomatal conductance on leaf chlorophyll concentration and meteorological variables. Agric For Meterol 132(1):44–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McDowell JM, Dangl JL (2000) Signal transduction in the plant immune response. Trends Biol Sci 25:79–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mehri N, Fotovat R, Saba J, Jabbari F (2009) Variation of stomata dimensions and densities in tolerant and susceptible wheat cultivars under drought stress. J Food Agric Environ 7:167–170Google Scholar
  84. Melotto M, Underwood W, Koczan J, Nomura K, He SY (2006) Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion. Cell 126(5):969–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7(9):405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mittler R, Shulaev V, Lam E (1995) Coordinated activation of programmed cell death and defense mechanisms in transgenic tobacco plants expressing a bacterial proton pump. Plant Cell 7:29–42PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Monaghan J, Zipfel C (2012) Plant pattern recognition receptor complexes at the plasma membrane. Curr Opin Plant Biol 15(4):349–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moon S, Song KB (2001) Effect of γ-irradiation on the molecular properties of ovalbumin and ovomucoid and protection by ascorbic acid. Food Chem 74(4):479–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Murkute A, Sharma S, Singh S (2006) Studies on salt stress tolerance of citrus rootstock genotypes with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Hortic Sci 33:70–76Google Scholar
  90. Navarro L, Dunoyer P, Jay F, Arnold B, Dharmasiri N, Estelle M, Voinnet O, Jones JD (2006) A plant miRNA contributes to antibacterial resistance by repressing auxin signaling. Science 312:436–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nurnberger T, Kemmerling B (2009) Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and PAMP-triggered immunity. In: Parker J (ed) Molecular aspects of plant disease resistance. Annual plant reviews, vol 34. Wiley, Oxford, pp 16–47Google Scholar
  92. Oerke EC (2006) Crop losses to pests. J Agric Sci 144:31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Onaga G, Wydra K (2016) Advances in plant tolerance to biotic stresses, plant genomics, Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov (ed) InTech. DOI:
  94. Passardi F, Longet D, Penel C, Dunand C (2004) The class III peroxidase multigenic family in rice and its evolution in land plants. Phytochemistry 65(13):1879–1893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pearce RS (2001) Plant freezing and damage. Ann Bot 87(4):417–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pei ZM, Murata Y, Benning G, Thomine S, Klüsener B, Allen GJ, Schroeder JI et al (2000) Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells. Nature 406:731–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pieterse CMJ, Van Wees SCM, Hoffland E, Van Pelt JA, Van Loon LC (1996) Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis induced by biocontrol bacteria is independent of salicylic acid accumulation and pathogenesis-related gene expression. Plant Cell 8:1225–1237Google Scholar
  98. Pieterse CMJ, Van Wees SCM, Van Pelt JA, Knoester M, Laan R, Gerrits H, Weisbeek PJ, Van Loon LC (1998) A novel signaling pathway controlling induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 10:1571–1580Google Scholar
  99. Pieterse CMJ, Ton J, van Loon LC (2002) Cross-talk between plant defence signaling pathways: boost or burden? Agri Biotech Net 3:1–18Google Scholar
  100. Pieterse CM, Van der Does D, Zamioudis C, Leon-Reyes A, Van Wees SC (2012) Hormonal modulation of plant immunity. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 28:489–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pshibytko N, Zenevich L, Kabashnikova L (2006) Changes in the photosynthetic apparatus during Fusarium wilt of tomato. Russ J Plant physiol 53(1):25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rentel MC, Lecourieux D, Ouaked F, Usher SL, Petersen L, Okamoto H, Knight H, Peck SC, Grierson CS, Hirt H, Knight MR (2004) OXI1 kinase is necessary for oxidative burst-mediated signaling in Arabidopsis. Nature 427:858–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rivas S, Thomas CM (2005) Molecular interactions between tomato and the leaf mold pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:395–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rizhsky L, Mittler R (2001) Inducible expression of bacterioopsin in transgenic tobacco and tomato plants. Plant Mol Biol 46:313–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rodiyati A, Arisoesilaningsih E, Isagi Y, Nakagoshi N (2004) Responses of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. and Cyperus kyllingia Endl. to varying soil water availability. Environ Exp Bot 53:259–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ross AF (1961) Systemic acquired resistance induced by localized virus infections in plants. Virology 14:340–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ruiz-Lozano JM, Porcel R, Azcón C, Aroca R (2012) Regulation by arbuscular mycorrhizae of the integrated physiological response to salinity in plants: new challenges in physiological and molecular studies. J Exp Bot 63(11):4033–4044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanghera GS, Wani SH, Singh G, Kashyap PL, Singh NB (2011) Designing crop plants for bioticstresses using transgenic approach. Int J Plant Res 24:1–25Google Scholar
  109. Schacht T, Unger C, Pich A, Wydra K (2011) Endo- and exopolygalacturonases of Ralstonia solanacearum are inhibited by polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) activity in tomato stem extracts. Plant Physiol Biochem 49:377–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schenk PM, Kazan K, Wilson I, Anderson JP, Richmond T, Somerville SC, Manners JM (2000) Coordinated plant defense responses in Arabidopsis revealed by microarray analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(21):11655–11660Google Scholar
  111. Schwessinger B, Zipfel C (2008) News from the frontline: recent insights into PAMP-triggered immunity in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sheng M, Tang M, Chen H, Yang B, Zhang F, Huang Y (2008) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 18(6–7):287–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Shimizu T, Nakano T, Takamizawa D, Desaki Y, Ishii-Minami N, Nishizawa Y, Minami E, Okada K, Yamane H, Kaku H, Shibuya N (2010) Two LysM receptor molecules, CEBiP and OsCERK1, cooperatively regulate chitin elicitor signaling in rice. Plant J 64:204–214PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shohael A, Ali M, Yu K, Hahn E, Islam R, Paek K (2006) Effect of light on oxidative stress, secondary metabolites and induction of antioxidant enzymes in Eleutherococcus senticosus somatic embryos in bioreactor. Process Biochem 41(5):1179–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Siddique Z, Akhtar KP, Hameed A, Sarwar N, Imran-Ul-Haq Khan SA (2014) Biochemical alterations in leaves of resistant and susceptible cotton genotypes infected systemically by cotton leaf curl Burewala virus. J Plant Interact 9(1):702–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Singh VK, Upadhyay RS (2014) Fusaric acid induced cell death and changes in oxidative metabolism of Solanum lycopersicum L. Bot Stud 55(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stephenson TJ (2011) Characterization of the TaNFY family of transcription factors in wheat. Thesis submitted to Queensland University of Technology.Google Scholar
  118. Sticher L, Mauch-Mani B, traux J-PM´ (1997) Systemic acquired resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 35:235–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Svábová L, Lebeda A, Kitner M, Sedlárová M, Petrivalsky M, Dostálová R, Griga M et al (2011) Comparison of the effects of Fusarium solani filtrates in vitro and in vivo on the morphological characteristics and peroxidase activity in pea cultivars with different susceptibility. J Plant Pathol 93(1):19–30Google Scholar
  120. Swarupa V, Ravishankar K, Rekha A (2014) Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana. Planta 239(4):735–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Taguchi F, Takeuchi K, Katoh E, Murata K, Suzuki T, Marutani M, Kawasaki T, Eguchi M, Katoh S, Kaku H, Yasuda C, Inagaki Y, Toyoda K, Shiraishi T, Ichinose Y (2006) Identification of glycosylation genes and glycosylated amino acids of flagellin in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Cell Microbiol 8:923–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Takai R, Isogai A, Takayama S, Che F (2008) Analysis of flagellin perception mediated by flg22 receptor OsFLS2 in rice. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 21:1635–1642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Takeuchi K, Taguchi F, Inagaki Y, Toyoda K, Shiraishi T, Ichinose Y (2003) Flagellin glycosylation island in Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and its role in host specificity. J Bacteriol 185:6658–6665PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tsuda K, Katagiri F (2010) Comparing signaling mechanisms engaged in pattern-triggered and effector-triggered immunity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:459–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Uknes S, Mauch-Mani B, Moyer M, Potter S, Williams S, Dincher S, Chandler D, Slusarenko A, Ward E, Ryals J (1992) Acquired resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 4:645–656PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vallad GE, Goodman RM (2004) Systemic acquired resistance and induced systemic resistance in conventional agriculture. Crop Sci 44:1920–1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Hulten M, Pelser M, Van Loon LC, Pieterse CMJ, Ton J (2006) Costs and benefits of priming for defense in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5602–5607PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Van Loon LC (2007) Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Van Loon LC, Glick BR (2004) Increased plant fitness by rhizobacteria. In: Sandermann H (ed) Molecular ecotoxicology of plants. Springer, Berlin, pp 177–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM, Pieterse CMJ (1998) Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu Rev Phytopathol 36:453–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Van Loon LC, Rep M, Pieterse CM (2006) Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44:135–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Van Wees SCM, van der Ent S, Pieterse CMJ (2008) Plant immune responses triggered by beneficial microbes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:443–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Variyar PS, Limaye A, Sharma A (2004) Radiation-induced enhancement of antioxidant contents of soybean (Glycine max Merrill). Agric Food Chem 52(11):3385–3388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Vaucheret H (2006) Post-transcriptional small RNA pathways in plants: Mechanisms and regulations. Genes Dev 20:759–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Walling LL (2000) The myriad plant responses to herbivores. J Plant Growth Regul 19:195–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Walters DR, Newton AC, Lyon GD (2005) Induced resistance: helping plants to help themselves. Biologist 52:28–33Google Scholar
  137. Wang M, Xiong Y, Ling N, Feng X, Zhong Z, Shen Q, Guo S (2013) Detection of the dynamic response of cucumber leaves to fusaric acid using thermal imaging. Plant Physiol Biochem 66:68–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wang M, Ling N, Dong X, Liu X, Shen Q, Guo S (2014) Effect of fusaric acid on the leaf physiology of cucumber seedlings. Eur J Plant Pathol 138(1):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ward ER, Uknes SJ, Williams SC, Dincher SS, Wiederhold DL, Alexander DC, Ahl-Goy P, Metraux JP, Ryals JA (1991) Coordinate gene activity in response to agents that induce systemic acquired resistance. Plant Cell 3(10):1085–1094PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Weintraub PG, Jones P (2010) Phytoplasmas: genomes, plant hosts and vectors. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  141. Wilkinson S, Davies WJ (2010) Drought, ozone, ABA and ethylene: new insights from cell to plant to community. Plant Cell Environ 33(4):510–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilkinson VM, Gould G (1996) Food irradiation: a reference guide: Woodhead Publishing in Science and Technology. Abington Hall, Abington. Cambridge CBl 6AH. p 180Google Scholar
  143. Wu L, Zhou H, Zhang Q, Zhang J, Ni F, Liu C, Qi Y (2010) DNA methylation mediated by a microRNA pathway. Mol Cell 38:465–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Yamaguchi Y, Huffaker A, Bryan AC, Tax FE, Ryan CA (2010) PEPR2 is a second receptor for the Pep1 and Pep2 peptides and contributes to defense responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 22:508–522PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yan Z, Reddy MS, Yyu C-M, McInroy JA, Wilson M, Kloepper JW (2002) Induced systemic protection against tomato late blight by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 92:1329–1333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yang L, Huang H (2014) Roles of small RNAs in plant disease resistance. J Integr Plant Biol 56:962–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yao N, Tada Y, Park P, Nakayashiki H, Tosa Y, Mayama S (2001) Novel evidence for apoptotic cell response and differential signals in chromatin condensation and DNA cleavage in victorin-treated oats. Plant J 28(1):13–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Yordanova RY, Christov KN, Popova LP (2004) Antioxidative enzymes in barley plants subjected to soil flooding. Environ Exp Bot 51(2):93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zamore PD, Haley B (2005) Ribo-gnome: The big world of small RNAs. Science 309:1519–1524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zelicourt A, Yousif M, Heribert H (2013) Rhizosphere Microbes as Essential Partners for Plant Stress Tolerance. Mol Plant 6(2):242–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Zeng W, Melotto M, He SY (2010) Plant stomata: a checkpoint of host immunity and pathogen virulence. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21(5):599–603PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Zhang W, Gao S, Zhou X, Chellappan P, Chen Z, Zhang X, Fromuth N, Coutino G, Coffey M, Jin H (2011) Bacteria-responsive microRNAs regulate plant innate immunity by modulating plant hormone networks. Plant Mol Biol 75:93–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zipfel C, Kunze G, Chinchilla D, Caniard A, Jones JD, Boller T, Felix G (2006) Perception of the bacterial PAMP EF-Tu by the receptor EFR restricts Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Cell 125:749–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zvereva AS, Pooggin MM (2012) Silencing and innate immunity in plant defense against viral and non-viral pathogens. Viruses 4:2578–2597PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pooja Kannojia
    • 1
  • P. K. Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abhijeet K. Kashyap
    • 1
  • Nazia Manzar
    • 1
  • Udai B. Singh
    • 1
  • Kamal Chaudhary
    • 1
  • Deepti Malviya
    • 1
  • Shailendra Singh
    • 1
  • Sushil K. Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR- National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms (NBAIM)Mau Nath BhanjanIndia

Personalised recommendations