Advertisement

Commercial Microbial Products: Exploiting Beneficial Plant-Microbe Interaction

  • Pallavi
  • Dinesh Chandra
  • A. K. SharmaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Plants and microbes are known to interact with each other since ancient times. The plant growth-promoting microbes have the ability to facilitate nutrient uptake, modulating plant growth and imparting abiotic and biotic stress tolerance to the plants. These microbes along with proper carrier form the basis of commercial microbial inoculants, which slowly but steadily are gaining acknowledgment in the market due to the drawbacks associated with their counterpart agrochemicals like reduced soil fertility, food toxicity, or increasing cost and diminishing profits. The nitrogen fixers and phosphate and zinc solubilizers are the foremost microbial categories that are presently exploited on a commercial level. The success of microbial inoculants in the field relies on the carrier material used in the formulation. Many carriers are explored for this purpose; peat, perlite, clay, vermiculite, alginate, agricultural waste products, and biochar are among the leading options.

Keywords

Sustainable agriculture Phosphate solubilizers Microbial inoculants Carriers Formulation 

Notes

Acknowledgment

Pallavi gratefully acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology, India, for providing her Inspire Fellowship (IF130963).

References

  1. Ahemad M, Khan MS (2012) Alleviation of fungicide-induced phytotoxicity in green gram Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek using fungicide-tolerant and plant growth promoting Pseudomonas strain. Saudi J Biol Sci 19(4):451–459PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahemad M, Kibret M (2014) Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: current perspective. J King Saud Univ Sci 26(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aino M, Maekaua Y, Mayama S, Kato H (1997) Biocontrol of bacteria wilt of tomato by producing seedlings colonized with endophytic antagonistic pseudomonads. In: Ogoshi A, Kobayashi K, Homma Y, Kodama F, Kondo N, Akino S (eds) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria-present status and future prospects. Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, pp 120–123Google Scholar
  4. Al-Rashidi RK, Loynachan TE, Frederick LR (1982) Desiccation tolerance of four strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Soil Biol Biochem 14:489–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anandaraj B, Delapierre LRA (2010) Studies on influence of bioinoculants (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizobium sp., Bacillus megaterium) in green gram. J Biosci Technol 1(2):95–99Google Scholar
  6. Antoun H, Beauchamp CJ, Goussard N, Chabot R, Lalande R (1998) Potential of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on non-legumes: effect on radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) Plant Soil 204(1):57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arkhipova TN, Prinsen E, Veselov SU, Martinenko EVA, Melentiev I, Kudoyarova GR (2007) Cytokinin producing bacteria enhance plant growth in drying soil. Plant Soil 292:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arora NK, Khare E, Naraian R, Maheshwari DK (2008) Sawdust as a superior carrier for production of multipurpose bioinoculant using plant growth promoting rhizobial and pseudomonad strains and their impact on productivity of Trifolium repense. Curr Sci 95(1):90–94Google Scholar
  9. Arora NK, Khare E, Maheshwari DK (2010) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: constraints in bioformulation, commercialization, and future strategies. In: Plant growth and health promoting bacteria. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bahl N, Jauhri S (1986) Spent compost as a carrier for bacterial inoculant production. In: Proceedings of the International symposium on scientific and technological aspects of cultivating edible fungi. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, pp 63–68Google Scholar
  11. Bailey KL, Boyetchko SM, Längle T (2010) Social and economic drivers shaping the future of biological control: a Canadian perspective on the factors affecting the development and use of microbial biopesticides. Biol Control 52(3):221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bashan Y (1998) Inoculants of plant growth-promoting bacteria for use in agriculture. Biotechnol Adv 16:729–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bashan Y, Levanony H, Ziv-Vecht O (1987) The fate of field-inoculated Azospirillum brasilense Cd in wheat rhizosphere during the growing season. Can J Microbiol 33:107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bashan Y, de-Bashan LE, Prabhu SR, Hernandez JP (2014) Advances in plant growth-promoting bacterial inoculant technology: formulations and practical perspectives (1998–2013). Plant Soil 378(1–2):1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berg G (2009) Plant–microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84(1):11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28(4):1327–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brockwell J, Gault RR, Chase DL, Turner GL, Bergersen FJ (1985) Establishment and expression of soybean symbiosis in a soil previously free of Rhizobium japonicum. Crop Pasture Sci 36(3):397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burton JC (1976) Methods of inoculating seeds and their effect on survival of rhizobia. In: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants, vol 7. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 175Google Scholar
  19. Bushby HVA, Marshall KC (1977) Water status of rhizobia in relation to their susceptibility to desiccation and to their protection by montmorillonite. J Gen Microbiol 99:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cakmak I (2008) Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant Soil 302(1–2):1–17Google Scholar
  21. Cattelan AJ, Hartel PG, Fuhrmann JJ (1999) Screening for plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria to promote early soybean growth. Soil Sci Am J 63(6):1670–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chabot R, Beauchamp CJ, Kloepper JW, Antoun H (1998) Effect of phosphorus on root colonization and growth promotion of maize by bioluminescent mutants of phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. Soil Biol Biochem 30(12):1615–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chandra D, Srivastava R, Sharma AK (2015) Environment-friendly phosphorus biofertilizer as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. In: Pati BR, Mandal SM (eds) Recent trends in biofertilizers. I K International Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 43–71Google Scholar
  24. Chao WL, Alexander M (1984) Mineral soils as carriers for Rhizobium inoculants. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:94–97PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Crawford SL, Berryhill DL (1983) Survival of Rhizobium phaseoli in coal-based legume inoculants applied to seeds. Appl Environ Microbiol 45(2):703–705PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Cunningham JE, Kuiack C (1992) Production of citric and oxalic acid and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium billai. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1451–1458Google Scholar
  27. D’Alessandro MARCO, Erb M, Ton J, Brandenburg A, Karlen D, Zopfi J, Turlings TC (2014) Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions. Plant Cell Environ 37(4):813–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Da Silva MF, de Souza Antônio C, de Oliveira PJ, Xavier GR, Rumjanek NG, de Barros Soares LH, Reis VM (2012) Survival of endophytic bacteria in polymer-based inoculants and efficiency of their application to sugarcane. Plant Soil 356(1–2):231–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Das S, Green A (2013) Importance of zinc in crops and human health. J SAT Agric Res 11:1–7Google Scholar
  30. de Werra P, Péchy-Tarr M, Keel C, Maurhofer M (2009) Role of gluconic acid production in the regulation of biocontrol traits of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(12):4162–4174PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deaker R, Roughley RJ, Kennedy IR (2004) Legume seed inoculation technology- a review. Soil Biol Biochem 36:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. del Carmen Rivera-Cruz M, Narcía AT, Ballona GC, Kohler J, Caravaca F, Roldan A (2008) Poultry manure and banana waste are effective biofertilizer carriers for promoting plant growth and soil sustainability in banana crops. Soil Biol Biochem 40(12):3092–3095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dobbelaere S, Okon Y (2007) The plant growth-promoting effect and plant responses. In Associative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanobacterial associations (pp. 145–170). Springer DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  34. Döbereiner J, Day JM (1976) Associative symbioses in tropical grasses: characterization of microorganisms and dinitrogen-fixing sites. In: Newton WE, Nyman CJ (eds) Proceedings of the first International Symposium on Nitrogen Fixation, vol 2. Washington State University Press, Pullman, pp 518–538Google Scholar
  35. Dommergues YR, Diem HG, Divies C (1979) Polyacrylamide entrapped Rhizobium as an inoculant for legumes. Appl Environ Microbiol 37:779–981PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Fages J (1992) An industrial view of Azospirillum inoculants: formulation and application technology. Symbiosis 13:15–26Google Scholar
  37. Freitas F, Alves VD, Reis MA (2011) Advances in bacterial exopolysaccharides: from production to biotechnological applications. Trends Biotechnol 29(8):388–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. García-Fraile P, Menéndez E, Rivas R (2015) Role of bacterial biofertilizers in agriculture and forestryGoogle Scholar
  39. Ghormade V, Deshpande MV, Paknikar KM (2011) Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants. Biotechnol Adv 29:792–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Girisha HC, Brahmaprakash GP, Mallesha BC (2006) Effect of osmoprotectant (PVP-40) on survival of Rhizobium in different inoculants formulation and nitrogen fixation in cowpea. Geobios 33:151–156Google Scholar
  41. Glass ADM (1989) Plant nutrition: an introduction to current concepts. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston. 234 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41(2):109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glick BR (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Scientifica, WaterlooGoogle Scholar
  44. Glick BR, Bashan Y (1997) Genetic manipulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance biocontrol of phytopathogens. Biotechnol Adv 15(2):353–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Glick BR, Patten CL, Holguin G, Penrose DM (1999) Biochemical and genetic mechanisms used by plant growth promoting bacteria. Imperial College Press, London. 267 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Graham-Weiss L, Bennett ML, Paau AS (1987) Production of bacterial inoculants by direct fermentation on nutrient-supplemented vermiculite. Appl Environ Microbiol 53(9):2138–2141PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Gualtieri G, Bisseling T (2000) The evolution of nodulation. Plant Mol Biol 42(1):181–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hale L, Luth M, Kenney R, Crowley D (2014) Evaluation of pinewood biochar as a carrier of bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae UW5 for soil inoculation. Appl Soil Ecol 84:192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hegde SV, Brahmaprakash GP (1992) A dry granular inoculants of Rhizobium for soil application. Plant Soil 144:309–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hellriegel H, Wilfarth H (1888) Untersuchungen uber die Stickstoff-nahrung der Gramineen und Leguminosen. Beilageheft zu der Ztschr. Ver. Riibenzucker-Industrie Deutschen ReichsGoogle Scholar
  51. Henri F, Laurette NN, Annette D, John Q, Wolfgang M, François-Xavier E, Dieudonne N (2008) Solubilization of inorganic phosphates and plant growth promotion by strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from acidic soils of Cameroon. Afr J Microbiol Res 2(7):171–178Google Scholar
  52. Jackson AM, Whipps JM, Lynch JM (1991) Production, delivery systems, and survival in soil of four fungi with disease biocontrol potential. Enzym Microb Technol 13:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnston WR (1962). Process for preparing viable dry bacteria and molds. U.S. Patent 3034968Google Scholar
  54. Joshi NV (1920) Studies on the root nodule organism of the leguminous plant. India Dept Agric Mem Bact Ser 1:247–276Google Scholar
  55. Jung G, Mugnier J, Diem HG, Dommergues YR (1982) Polymer-entrapped Rhizobium as an inoculant for legumes. Plant Soil 65:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Katiyar V, Goel R (2004) Siderophore mediated plant growth promotion at low temperature by mutant of fluorescent pseudomonad. Plant Growth Regul 42(3):239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim J, Rees DC (1994) Nitrogenase and biological nitrogen fixation. Biochemist 33(2):389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kim KY, Jordan D, McDonald GA (1998) Enterobacter agglomerans, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and microbial activity in soil: effect of carbon sources. Soil Biol Biochem 30(8):995–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kim J, Grate JW, Wang P (2006) Nanostructures for enzyme stabilization. Chem Eng Sci 61(3):1017–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kitamikado M, Yamaguchi K, Tseng CH, Okabe B (1990) Methods designed to detect alginate-degrading bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:2939–2940PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Kotb SI, Angle JS (1986) Survival of blue-green algae in various carrier media. Trop Agric (Trinidad) 63:113–116Google Scholar
  62. Kremer RJ, Peterson HL (1982) Effect of inoculant carrier on survival of Rhizobium on inoculated seed. Soil Sci 134:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kudoyarova GR, Arkhipova TN, Melent’ev AI (2015) Role of bacterial phytohormones in plant growth regulation and their development. In: Bacterial metabolites in sustainable agroecosystem. Springer, Cham, pp 69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kumar V, Narula N (1999) Solubilization of inorganic phosphates and growth emergence of wheat as affected by Azotobacter chroococcum mutants. Biol Fertil Soils 28(3):301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ladha JK, De Bruijn FJ, Malik KA (1997) Introduction: assessing opportunities for nitrogen fixation in rice- a frontier project. In: Opportunities for biological nitrogen fixation in rice and other non-legumes. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  66. Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) (2015) Biochar for environmental management: science, technology and implementation. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  67. Lippert K, Galinski EA (1992) Enzyme stabilization by ectoine type compatible solutes: protection against heating, freezing and drying. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37:61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 63:541–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mary P, Ochin D, Tailliez R (1985) Rates of drying and survival of Rhizobium meliloti during storage at different relative humidities. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:207–211PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Mohammadi O (1994) Lecture in 3rd international workshop on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Adelaide, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  71. Mohammadi O, Lahdenperä ML (1994) Impact of application method on efficacy of Mycostop biofungicide. In: Ryder MH, Stephens PM, Bowen GD (eds) Improving plant productivity with Rhizosphere bacteria. Division of Soils CSIRO, Adelaide, pp 279–281Google Scholar
  72. Mohite B (2013) Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13(3):638–649Google Scholar
  73. Mugnier J, Jung G (1985) Survival of bacteria and fungi in relation to water activity and solvent properties of water in biopolymer gels. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:108–114PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Nehra V, Choudhary M (2015) A review on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria acting as bioinoculants and their biological approach towards the production of sustainable agriculture. J Appl Nat Sci 7(1):540–556Google Scholar
  75. Nobbe F, Hiltner L (1896) Inoculation of the soil for cultivating leguminous plants. U.S. Patent 570 813Google Scholar
  76. Noble AD, Ruaysoongnern S (2010) The nature of sustainable agriculture. In: Dixon R, Tilston E (eds) Soil microbiology and sustainable crop production. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  77. Nwodo UU, Green E, Okoh AI (2012) Bacterial exopolysaccharides: functionality and prospects. Int J Mol Sci 13(11):14002–14015PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Paau AS (1988) Formulations useful in applying beneficial microorganisms to seeds. Trends Biotechnol 6:276–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pal SS (1998) Interactions of an acid tolerant strain of phosphate solubilizing bacteria with a few acid tolerant crops. Plant Soil 198(2):169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Potarzycki J, Grzebisz W (2009) Effect of zinc foliar application on grain yield of maize and its yielding components. Plant Soil Environ 55(12):519–527Google Scholar
  81. Richardson AE (2001) Prospects for using soil microorganisms to improve the acquisition of phosphorus by plants. Funct Plant Biol 28(9):897–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Richter E, Ehwald R, Conitz C (1989) Immobilization of yeast cells in plant cell wall frameworks. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 32:309–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rodriguez H, Fraga R (1999) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv 17(4):319–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roughley RJ (1970) The preparation and use of legume seed inoculants. Plant Soil 32(1):675–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rubio LM, Ludden PW (2008) Biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase. Annu Rev Microbiol 62:93–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rudrappa T, Biedrzycki ML, Kunjeti SG, Donofrio NM, Czymmek KJ, Paul WP, Bais HP (2010) The rhizobacterial elicitor acetoin induces systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Commun Integr Biol 3(2):130–138PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Saranya K, Krishnan PS, Kumutha K, French J (2011) Potential for biochar as an alternate carrier to lignite for the preparation of biofertilizers in India. Int J Agric Environ Biotechnol 4(2):167–172Google Scholar
  88. Sasson Y, Levy-Ruso G, Toledano O, Ishaaya I (2007) Nanosuspensions: emerging novel agrochemical formulations. In: Insecticides design using advanced technologies. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–39Google Scholar
  89. Sekar KR, Karmegam N (2010) Earthworm casts as an alternate carrier material for biofertilizers: Assessment of endurance and viability of Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Sci Hortic 124(2):286–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sekar J, Raj R, Prabhavathy VR (2016) Microbial consortial products for sustainable agriculture: Commercialization and regulatory issues in India. In: Singh HB, Sarma BK, Keswani C (eds) Agriculturally important microorganisms: commercialization and regulatory requirements in Asia. Springer, Singapore, pp 107–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sharma SB, Sayyed RZ, Trivedi MH, Gobi TA (2013) Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils. SpringerPlus 2(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Singh MV (2009) Micronutrient nutritional problems in soils in India and improvement for human and animal health. Indian J Fertil 5(4):11–26Google Scholar
  93. Singh S, Kapoor KK (1999) Inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and a vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus improves dry matter yield and nutrient uptake by wheat grown in a sandy soil. Biol Fertil Soil 28(2):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Singh A, Sharma PB (1973) Growth and survival of rhizobia in commercial bacterial inoculants. J Res (Punjab) 10:95–98Google Scholar
  95. Singh B, Natesan SKA, Singh BK, Usha K (2005) Improving zinc efficiency of cereals under zinc deficiency. Curr Sci 88(1):36–44Google Scholar
  96. Singleton P, Keyser H, Sande E (2002) Development and evaluation of liquid inoculants. In: Herridge D (ed) Inoculants and nitrogen fixation of legumes in Vietnam, ACIAR Proceeding 109e. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp 52–66Google Scholar
  97. Smidsrod O, Skjak-Braek G (1990) Alginate as immobilization matrix for cells. Trends Biotechnol 8:71–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sparrow SD, Ham GE (1983a) Survival of Rhizobium phaseoli in six carrier materials. Agron J 75:181–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sparrow SD, Ham GE (1983b) Nodulation, N2 fixation, and seed yield of navy beans as influenced by inoculant rate and inoculant carrier. Agron J 75:20–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stevenson FJ, Cole MA (1999) Cycles of the soil: carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, micronutrients, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p 427Google Scholar
  101. Streeter JG (1985) Accumulation of alpha, alpha-trehalose by Rhizobium bacteria and bacteroids. J Bacteriol 164:78–84PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Strijdom BW, Deschodt CC (1976) Carriers of rhizobia and the effects of prior treatment on the survival of rhizobia. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants 7(30):151, Cambridge : Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  103. Sun D, Hale L, Crowley D (2016) Nutrient supplementation of pinewood biochar for use as a bacterial inoculum carrier. Biol Fertil Soils 52(4):515–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sunithakumari K, Padma Devi SN, Vasandha S, Anitha S (2014) Microbial inoculants- a boon to zinc deficient constraints in plants- a review. IJSRP 4(6):1–4Google Scholar
  105. Tang WH, Yang H (1997) Research and application of biocontrol of plant diseases and PGPR in China. In: Ogoshi A, Kobayashi K, Homma Y, Kodama F, Kondo N, Akino S (eds) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria -present status and future prospects. Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, pp 4–9Google Scholar
  106. Tittabutr P, Payakapong W, Teaumroong N, Singleton PW, Boonkerd N (2007) Growth, survival and field performance of bradyrhizobial liquid inoculant formulations with polymeric additives. Sci Asia 33(1):69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Trivedi P, Pandey A (2008) Recovery of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from sodium alginate beads after 3 years following storage at 4 °C. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35(3):205–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vassilev N, Malusa E, Requena AR, Martos V, López A, Maksimovic I, Vassileva M (2016) Potential application of glycerol in the production of plant beneficial microorganisms. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 1:1–9Google Scholar
  109. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 55(2):571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vincent JM, Thompson JA, Donovan KO (1962) Death of root nodule bacteria on drying. Aust J Agric Res 13:258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vu B, Chen M, Crawford RJ, Ivanova EP (2009) Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides involved in biofilm formation. Molecules 14(7):2535–2554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wakatsuki T (1995) Metal oxidoreduction by microbial cells. J Ind Microbiol 14(2):169–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Young JPW (1992) Phylogenetic classification of nitrogen-fixing organisms. Biological nitrogen fixation. Chapman and Hall Inc, New York, pp 43–86Google Scholar
  114. Zimmerman AR, Gao B, Ahn MY (2011) Positive and negative carbon mineralization priming effects among a variety of biochar-amended soils. Soil Biol Biochem 43(6):1169–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, College of Basic Science and HumanitiesG.B. Pant University of Agriculture and TechnologyPantnagar, U.S. NagarIndia

Personalised recommendations