Potential Microbiological Approaches for the Remediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

  • R. KrishnamoorthyEmail author
  • V. Venkateswaran
  • M. Senthilkumar
  • R. Anandham
  • G. Selvakumar
  • Kiyoon Kim
  • Yeongyeong Kang
  • Tongmin SaEmail author


In recent years, due to the geological and anthropogenic activities, metal pollution in soil has been increased drastically. Utilization of microorganisms to remediate the metal-contaminated soil is known as bioremediation. Bioremediation is an important area of research that offers economically effective clean-up technique than the conventional methods. Microorganisms use different mechanisms such as biosorption, bioaccumulation, chelating agents, bioleaching, biomineralization and enzyme-catalysed transformation to convert toxic form of metals to less toxic form. In addition, plants also offer various methods like absorption and accumulation of metals in plant cells and formation of metal-bound compounds. Integrated use of microorganism and plant in bioremediation may ensure an effective clean-up of heavy metals in polluted soils. This chapter summarizes the microbial- and plant-microbe-mediated methods for the clean-up of heavy metal-contaminated soil.


Heavy Metal Bioremediation Phytoremediation Metal Tolerance Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria 



This study was supported by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2015R1A2A1A05001885), Republic of Korea.


  1. Andrade SA, Silveira AP, Mazzafera P (2010) Arbuscular mycorrhiza alters metal uptake and the physiological response of Coffea arabica seedlings to increasing Zn and Cu concentrations in soil. Sci Total Environ 208:5381–5391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azeez JO, Adekunle IO, Atiku OO, Akande KB, Jamiu-Azeez SO (2009) Effect of nine years of animal waste deposition on profile distribution of heavy metals in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria and its implication for environmental quality. Waste Manag 29:2582–2586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babel S, Dacera DM (2006) Heavy metal removal from contaminated sludge for land application: a review. Waste Manag 26:988–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babu AG, Reddy S (2011) Dual inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal and phosphate solubilizing fungi contributes in sustainable maintenance of plant health in fly ash ponds. Water Air Soil Pollut 219:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker AJM (1981) Accumulators and excluders – strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. J Plant Nutr 3:643–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakkaloglu I, Butter TJ, Evison LM, Holland FS, Hancock IC (1998) Screening of various types biomass for removal and recovery of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni) by biosorption, sedimentation and desorption. Water Sci Technol 38:269–277Google Scholar
  7. Becerra-Castro C, Monterroso C, Prieto-Fernández A, Rodríguez-Lamas L, Loureiro-Viñas M, Acea MJ, Kidd PS (2012) Pseudo metallo phytes colonizing Pb/Zn mine tailings: a description of the plant–microorganism-rhizosphere soil system and isolation of metal-tolerant bacteria. J Hazard Mater 217(218):350–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belimov AA, Hontzeas N, Safronova VI, Demchinskaya SV, Piluzza G, Bullitta S, Glick BR (2005) Cadmium-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with the roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern). Soil Biol Biochem 37:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bozkurt MA, Yarilgac¸ T, Yazici A (2010) The use of sewage sludge as an organic matter source in apple trees. Pol J Environ Stud 19:267–274Google Scholar
  10. Burd GI, Dixon DG, Glick BR (2000) Plant growth-promoting bacteria that decrease heavy metal toxicity in plants. Can J Microbiol 46:237–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burt R, Wilson M, Mays MD, Lee CW (2003) Major and trace elements of selected pedons in the USA. J Environ Qual 32:2109–2121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen SY, Lin JG (2000) Influence of solid content on bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated sediment by Thiobacillus spp. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 75:649–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen YX, Wang YP, Lin Q, Luo YM (2005) Effect of copper-tolerant rhizosphere bacteria on mobility of copper in soil and copper accumulation by Elsholtzia splendens. Environ Int 31:861–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chibuike GU, Obiora SC (2014) Heavy metal polluted soils: effect on plants and bioremediation methods. Appl Environ Soil Sci, Article Id 752708, p 12.
  15. Choi SB, Yun YS (2004) Lead biosorption by waste biomass of Corynebacterium glutamicum generated from lysine fermentation process. Biotechnol Lett 26:331–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Comte S, Guibaud G, Baudu M (2008) Biosorption properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) towards Cd, Cu and Pb for different pH values. J Hazard Mater 151:185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Das N, Vimala R, Karthika P (2008) Biosorption of heavy metals–an overview. Indian J Biotechnol 7:159–169Google Scholar
  18. de Souza LA, de Andrade SAL, De Souza SCR, Schiavinato MA (2012) Arbuscular mycorrhiza confers Pb tolerance in Calopogonium mucunoides. Acta Physiol Plant 34:523–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dere C, Lamy I, Oort VF, Baize D, Cornu S (2006) Trace metal inputs reconstitution and migration assessment in a sandy Luvisol after 100 years of massive irrigation with raw wastewaters. Compt Rendus Geosci 338:565–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dixit R, Wasiullah D, Malaviya K, Pandiyan UB, Singh A, Sahu R, Shukla BP, Singh JP, Rai PK, Sharma LH, Paul D (2015) Bioremediation of heavy metals from soil and aquatic environment: an overview of principles and criteria of fundamental processes. Sustainability 7:2189–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donmez G, Aksu Z (1999) The effect of copper(II) ions on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of some yeasts. Process Biochem 35:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. El-Bahi SM, El-Dine NW, El-Shershaby A, Sroor A (2004) Elemental analysis of Egyptian phosphate fertilizer components. Health Phys 86:303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Hendawy HH, Ali DA, El-Shatoury EH, Ghanem SM (2009) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Vibrio alginolyticus isolated from wastes of iron and steel factory, Helwan, Egypt. Egypt Acad J Biolog Sci 1:23–28Google Scholar
  24. Farwell AJ, Vesely S, Nero V, Rodriguez H, George Dixon SSD, Glick BR (2006) The use of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) and plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance plant biomass at a nickel-contaminated field site. Plant Soil 288:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Favas PJC, Pratas J, Prasad MNV (2012) Accumulation of arsenic by aquatic plants in large scale field conditions: opportunities for phytoremediation and bioindication. Sci Total Environ 433:390–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Favas PJC, Pratas J, Varun M, D’Souza R, Paul MS (2014) Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with metals and metalloids at mining areas: potential of native flora. In: Hernandez-Soriano MC (ed) Environmental risk assessment of soil contamination, pp 485–515. ISBN: 978-953-51-1235-8, InTech,
  27. Ferreira C, Ribeiro A, Ottosen L (2003) Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash. J Hazard Mater 96:201–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gadd GM (1993) Interactions of fungi with toxic metals. New Phytol 124:25–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gao Y, Miao C, Mao L, Zhou P, Jin Z, Shi W (2010) Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid. J Hazard Mater 181:771–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garg N, Aggarwal N (2011) Effects of interactions between cadmium and lead on growth, nitrogen fixation, phytochelatin, and glutathione production in mycorrhizal Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. J Plant Growth Regul 30:286–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta VK, Shrivastava AK, Jain N (2001) Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by green algae Spirogyra species. Water Res 25:4079–4085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hassan NU, Mahmood Q, Waseem A, Irshard M, Pervez A (2013) Assessment of heavy metals in wheat plants irrigated with contaminated wastewater. Pol J Environ Stud 22(115):123Google Scholar
  33. He ZQ, Endale DM, Schomberg HH, Jenkins MB (2009) Total phosphorus, zinc, copper, and manganese concentrations in cecil soil through 10 years of poultry litter application. Soil Sci 174:687–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holan ZR, Volesky B (1994) Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae. Biotechnol Bioeng 43:1001–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ingwersen J, Streck T (2006) Modeling the environmental fate of cadmium in a large wastewater irrigation area. J Environ Qual 35:1702–1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kang MS, Kim SM, Park SW, Lee JJ, Yoo KH (2007) Assessment of reclaimed wastewater irrigation impacts on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation in paddy fields. J Environ Sci Health A 42:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kapoor A, Viraraghavan T (1995) Fungal biosorption — an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewaters: a review. Bioresour Technol 53:195–206Google Scholar
  38. Kavita B, Shukla S, Naresh Kumar G, Archana G (2008) Amelioration of phytotoxic effects of Cd on mung bean seedlings by gluconic acid secreting rhizobacterium Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 and implication of role of organic acid. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:2965–2972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kien CN, Noi NV, Son LT, Nfoc H, Tanaka S, Nishina T, Iwasaki K (2010) Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils around a chromite mine in Vietnam. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 56:344–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kogej A, Pavko A (2001) Comparison of Rhizopus nigricans in a pelleted growth form with some other types of waste microbial biomass as biosorbents for metal ions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:677–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Krishna AK, Mohan KR, Murthy NN, Periasamy V, Bipinkumar G, Manohar K, Rao SS (2013) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils around chromite mining areas, Nuggihalli, Karnataka, India. Environ Earth Sci 70:699–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krishnamoorthy R, Kim CG, Subramanian P, Kim KY, Selvakumar G, Sa TM (2015) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community structure, abundance and species richness changes in soil by different levels of heavy metal and metalloid concentration. PLoS One 10(6):e0128784. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leung HM, Ye ZH, Wong MH (2006) Interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with Pteris vittata (as hyper accumulator) in as-contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 139:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li PJ, Wang X, Allinson G, Li XJ, Xiong XZ (2009) Risk assessment of heavy metals in soil previously irrigated with industrial wastewater in Shenyang, China. J Hazard Mater 161:516–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li WC, Ye ZH, Wong MH (2010) Metal mobilization and production of short-chain organic acids by rhizosphere bacteria associated with a Cd/Zn hyper accumulating plant. Sedum alfredii. Plant Soil 326:453–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lima AT, Rodriguesb PC, Mexia JT (2010) Heavy metal migration during electroremediation of fly ash from different wastes—modelling. J Hazard Mater 175:366–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu CJ, Men WJ, Liu YJ (2002) The pollution of pesticides in soils and its bioremediation. Syst Sci Compr Stud Agric 18:295–297Google Scholar
  48. Liu HL, Chen BY, Lan YW, Cheng YC (2004) Biosorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) by the indigenous Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Chem Eng J 97:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu WH, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Soderlund L, Liu GH (2005) Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Int 31:805–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lloyd JR (2002) Bioremediation of metals; the application of micro-organisms that make and break minerals. Microbiol Today 29:67–69Google Scholar
  51. Lodenius M (2013) Use of plants for bio-monitoring of airborne mercury in contaminated areas. Environ Res 125:113–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Loukidou MX, Karapantsios TD, Zouboulis AI, Matis KA (2004) Diffusion kinetic study of cadmium (II) biosorption by Aeromonas caviae. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79:711–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lovley DR, Lloyd JR (2000) Microbes with a metal for bioremediation. Nat Biotechnol 18:600–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Luo L, Ma Y, Zhang S, Wei D, Zhu YG (2009) An inventory of trace element inputs to agricultural soils in China. J Environ Manag 90:2524–2530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Madhaiyan M, Poonguzhali S, Sa T (2007) Metal tolerating methylotrophic bacteria reduces nickel and cadmium toxicity and promotes plant growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) Chemosphere 69:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Martino E, Perotto S, Parsons R, Gadd GM (2003) Solubilization of insoluble inorganic zinc compounds by ericoid mycorrhizal fungi derived from heavy metal polluted sites. Soil Biol Biochem 35:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mattuschka B, Junghaus K, Straube G (1993) Biosorption of metals by waste biomass. In: Torma AE, Apel ML, Brierley CL (eds) Biohydrometallurgical technologies, vol 2. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, pp 125–132Google Scholar
  58. McLaughlin MJ, Hamon RE, McLaren RG, Speir TW, Rogers SL (2000) Review: a bioavailability-based rationale for controlling metal and metalloid contamination of agricultural land in Australia and New Zealand. Aust J Soil Res 38:1037–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Misra A, Tirpathi BD (2008) Heavy metal contamination of soil, and bioaccumulation in vegetables with treated wastewater in the tropical city of Varanasi, India. Toxicol Environ Chem 90:861–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Muchuweti M, Birkett JW, Chinyanga E, Zvauya R, Scrimshaw MD (2006) Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Najeeb U, Xu L, Ali S, Jilani G, Gong HJ, Shen WQ, Zhou WJ (2009) Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultra structural damages in Juncus effusus L. J Hazard Mater 170:156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nie L, Shah S, Rashid A, Burd GI, Dixon DG, Glick B (2002) Phytoremediation of arsenate contaminated soil by transgenic canola and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Enterobacter cloacae CAL2. Plant Physiol Biochem 40:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Noghabi KA, Zahiri HS, Yoon SC (2007) The production of a cold-induced extracellular biopolymer by Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 under various growth conditions and its role in heavy metals absorption process. Biochemistry 42:847–855Google Scholar
  64. Nogueira MA, Nehls U, Hampp R, Poralla K, Cardoso EJBN (2007) Mycorrhiza and soil bacteria influence extractable iron and manganese in soil and uptake by soybean. Plant Soil 298:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nziguheba G, Smolders E (2008) Inputs of trace elements in agricultural soils via phosphate fertilizers in European countries. Sci Total Environ 390:53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ozturk A (2007) Removal of nickel from aqueous solution by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. J Hazard Mater 147:518–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Park JK, Lee JW, Jung JY (2003) Cadmium uptake capacity of two strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Enzym Microb Technol 33:371–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Parth V, Murthy NN, Saxena PR (2011) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil around hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): natural and anthropogenic implications. J Environ Res Manag 2:27–34Google Scholar
  69. Pathak C, Chopra AK, Kumar V, Srivastava S (2010) Heavy metals contamination in waste-water irrigated agricultural soil near Bindal river, Dehradun, India. Pollut Res 29:583–587Google Scholar
  70. Prasad MNV (2004) Phytoremediation of metals and radionuclides in the environment: the case for natural hyper accumulators, metal transporters, soil-amending chelators and transgenic plants. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants: from biomolecules to ecosystems, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 345–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pratas J, Favas PJC, Paulo C, Rodrigues N, Prasad MNV (2012) Uranium accumulation by aquatic plants from uranium-contaminated water in Central Portugal. Int J Phytoremediation 14:221–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ramussen C (2007) Soil genesis and mineral transformation across as environmental gradient on andesitic lahar. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:225–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Raskin I, Kumar PBAN, Dushenkov S, Salt DE (1994) Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 5:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK (2005) Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:310–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rivadeneyra MA, Martin-Algarra A, Sanchez-Navas A, Martin-Ramos D (2006) Carbonate and phosphate precipitation by Chromohalobacter marismortui. Geomicrobiol J 23:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sager M (2007) Trace and nutrient elements in manure, dung and compost samples in Austria. Soil Biol Biochem 39:1383–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Salehizadeh H, Shojaosadati SA (2003) Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution by polysaccharide produced from Bacillus firmus. Water Res 37:4231–4235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Say R, Yimaz N, Denizli A (2003) Removal of heavy metal ions using the fungus Penicilliumcanescens. Adsorpt Sci Technol 21:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sayer JA, Cotter-Howells JD, Watson C, Hillier S, Gadd GM (1999) Lead mineral transformation by fungi. Curr Biol 9:691–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wu SC, Cheung KC, Luo YM, Wong MH (2006) Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea. Environ Pollut 140:124–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shagol CC, Krishnamoorthy R, Kim K, Sundaram S, Sa T (2014) Arsenic-tolerant plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from arsenic-polluted soils in South Korea. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21:9356–9365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sheng XF, Xia JJ, Jiang CY, He LY, Qian M (2008) Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape. Environ Pollut 156:1164–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh S, Kumar M (2006) Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi. Environ Monit Assess 120:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh KP, Mohon D, Sinha S, Dalwani R (2004) Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharge by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in wastewater disposal area. Chemosphere 55:227–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Skowronski T, Pirszel J, Pawlik-Skowronska B (2001) Heavy metal removal by the waste biomass of Penicillium chrysogenum. Water Qual Res J Can 36:793–803Google Scholar
  86. Smołka-Danielowska D (2006) Heavy metals in fly ash from a coal-fired power station in Poland. Pol J Environ Stud 15:943–946Google Scholar
  87. Spain A, Alm E (2003) Implications of microbial heavy metal tolerance in the environment. Reviews in Undergraduate. Research 2:1–6Google Scholar
  88. Spanelova M, Machovic V, Brezina M (2003) Characterization and sorption properties of Aspergillus niger waste biomass. Cent Eur J Chem 1:192–200Google Scholar
  89. Srinath T, Verma T, Ramteka PW, Garg SK (2002) Chromium (VI) biosorption and bioaccumulation by chromate resistant bacteria. Chemosphere 48:427–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tariq SR, Rashid N (2013) Multivariate analysis of metal levels in paddy soil, rice plant, rice grains: case study from Shakargarh. Pakistan J Chem.
  91. Tipayno S, Kim CG, Sa TM (2012) T-RFLP analysis of structural changes in soil bacterial communities in response to metal and metalloid contamination and initial phytoremediation. Appl Soil Ecol 61:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tohamy EY, AbouZeid AA, Hazaa MM, Hassan R (2006) Heavy metal biosorption by some bacterial species isolated from drinking water at different sites in Sharqia Governorate. Arab Univ J Agric Sci Ain Shams Univ Cairo 14:147–172Google Scholar
  93. Uslu G, Tanyol M (2006) Equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters of single and binary mixture biosorption of lead (II) and copper (II) ions onto Pseudomonas putida: effect of temperature. J Hazard Mater 135:87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Valls M, Atrian S, de Lorenzo V, La F (2000) Engineering a mouse metallothionein on the cell surface of Ralstonia eutropha CH34 for immobilization of heavy metals in soil. Nat Biotechnol 18:661–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Volesky B. Kuyucak N (1988) Biosorbent for Gold. US Patent 4,-769,233Google Scholar
  96. Wang JL, Chen C (2006) Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review. Biotechnol Adv 24:427–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang J, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnol Adv 27:195–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wong LTK, Henry JG (1988) Bacterial leaching of heavy metals from anaerobically digested sludge. In: Wise DL (ed) Biotreatment systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 125–169Google Scholar
  99. Wu XY, Li JY, Zhang M, Shi MJ (2012) Distribution of heavy metal concentration of sewage sludge in China. Int Conf Biomed Eng Biotechnol.
  100. Wuana RA, Okieimen FE (2011) Heavy metals in contaminated coils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecol.
  101. Xu S, Tao S (2004) Co-regionalization analysis of heavy metals in the surface soil of Inner Mongolia. Sci Total Environ 320:73–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Xu Q, Zhang C, Zhao L (2003) Sludge treatment and disposal technologies and devices, Beijing, China. Chem Ind 1:69–82Google Scholar
  103. Zaidi S, Usmani S, Singh BR, Musarrat J (2006) Significance of Bacillus subtilis strain SJ-101 as a bioinoculant for concurrent plant growth promotion and nickel accumulation in Brassica juncea. Chemosphere 64:991–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zarcinas BA, Pongsakul P, McLaughlin MJ, Gill C (2004) Heavy metals in soils and crops in South-east Asia. 1. Peninsular Malaysia. Environ Geochem Health 26:343–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhang WJ, Jiang FB, JF O (2011) Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci 1:125–144Google Scholar
  106. Zhang F, Li Y, Yang M, Li W (2012) Content of heavy metals in animal feeds and manures from farms of different scales in Northeast China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9:2658–2668PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ziagova M, Dimitriadis G, Aslanidou D, Papaioannou X, Tzannetaki EL, Liakopoulou- Kyriakides M (2007) Comparative study of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) biosorption on Staphylococcus xylosus and Pseudomonas sp. in single and binary mixtures. Bioresour Technol 98:2859–2865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zoffoli HJO, Amaral-Sobrinho NMB, Zonta E, Luisi MV, Marcon G, Tolo’n-Becerra A (2012) Inputs of heavy metals due to agrochemical use in tobacco fields in Brazil’s Southern Region. Environ Monit Assess 185(3):2423–2437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Krishnamoorthy
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. Venkateswaran
    • 2
  • M. Senthilkumar
    • 3
  • R. Anandham
    • 1
  • G. Selvakumar
    • 4
  • Kiyoon Kim
    • 5
  • Yeongyeong Kang
    • 5
  • Tongmin Sa
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Agricultural College and Research InstituteTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityMaduraiIndia
  2. 2.Ministry of AgricultureNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural MicrobiologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  4. 4.Horticultural and Herbal Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal ScienceRural Development AdministrationWanjuSouth Korea
  5. 5.Department of Environmental and Biological ChemistryChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations