Green Input in Agriculture: An Overview

  • Pinkee Phukon
  • Joyashree Baruah
  • Debojit Kumar Sarmah
  • Brijmohan Singh BhauEmail author


Agriculture, the mainstay of every country’s economy, contributes to the overall economic growth, and change in its structure has a subsequent impact on the present socioeconomic life of the population. World population is expected to grow over a third or 2.3 billion people between 2009 and 2050 and nearly this entire forecast to take place in the developing countries. In this stage natural disaster like floods, droughts, climate change, and volatility has played a major role in raising the risk of production deficits. Moreover the increased rate of population growth demands more production of food. Therefore to achieve the increasing demand of agricultural production, a sizable quantity of mineral fertilizers will be needed to accept the challenge. Agricultural fertilizers are indispensable to enhance proper growth and crop yield. To raise the productivity, farmers have been using chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The high input of chemical fertilizers and pesticides makes threats for disproportionate supplement of nutrients to crops and deterioration of soil health and endangers ecosystems, plants, human, and animal lives. Therefore, there is an urgent need for proportionate application of green inputs, viz., microbe-based biofertilizers to stop the adverse effect of chemical fertilizers which would unravel these problems and make the ecosystem healthier and improve the physicochemical properties of the soil. The demand for biofertilizers goes on increasingly due to its eco-friendly nature, and therefore intensive research is needed to improve the quality and activity to achieve food security for the growing population and restore soil health. This book chapter exhibited the necessary information on PGPRs and their immense potentiality on crop development and their future outlook for the economic development.


PGPR Biofertilizer Biopesticides Nematode 


  1. Ahemad M, Kibret M (2014) Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: current perspective. J King Saud Univ Sci 26:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Assmus B, Hutzler P, Kirchhof G, Amann R, Lawrence JR, Hartmann A (1995) In situ localization of Azospirillum brasilense in the rhizosphere of wheat with fluorescently labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and scanning confocal laser microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1013–1019PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Avis TJ, Gravel V, Antoun H, Tweddell RJ (2008) Multifaceted beneficial effects of rhizosphere microorganisms on plant health and productivity. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1733–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azcon-Aguilar C, Barea JM (1997) Applying mycorrhiza biotechnology to horticulture: significance and potentials. Scientia Horti 68:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barka EA, Nowak J, Clément C (2006) Enhancement of chilling resistance of inoculated grapevine plantlets with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia phytofirmans Strain PsJN. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7246–7252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bashan Y, de-Bashan LE, Prabhu SR, Hernando JP (2014) Advances in plant growth promoting bacterial inoculant technology: formulations and practical perspectives (1998–2013). Plant Soil 378(1):1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bensalim S, Nowak J, Asiedu SK (1998) A plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and temperature effects on performance of 18 clones of potato. Am J Potato Res 75:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1327–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bong CFJ, Sikorowski PP (1991) Effects of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus and bacterial contamination on growth and development of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Invertebr Pathol 57:406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burkett-Cadena M, Kokalis-Burelle N, Lawrence KS, Van-Santen E, Kloepper JW (2008) Suppressiveness of root-knot nematodes mediated by rhizobacteria. Biol Control 47(1):55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen C, Rr B, Benhamou N, Tc P (2000) Defense enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Pythium aphanidermatum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 56(1):13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng Z, Park E, Glick BR (2007) 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase from Pseudomonas putida UW4 facilitates the growth of canola in the presence of salt. Can J Microbiol 53(7):912–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chet I, Inbar J (1994) Biological control of fungal pathogens. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 48:37–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choudhary DK, Johri BN (2009) Interactions of Bacillus spp. and plants with special reference to induced systemic resistance (ISR). Microbiol Res 164(5):493–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clemson HGIC (2007) Organic pesticides and biopesticides, Clemson extension, home and garden information center. Clemson University, ClemsonGoogle Scholar
  16. Cocking EC (2000) Helping plants get more nitrogen from air. Eur Rev 8(2):193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Commare RR, Nandakumar R, Kandan A, Suresh S, Bharathi M, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2002) Pseudomonas fluorescens based bio-formulation for the management of sheath blight disease and leaffolder insect in rice. Crop Prot 21(8):671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Compant S, Reiter B, Sessitsch A, Nowak J, Clément C (2005) Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain 45. PsJN. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1685–1693PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crowley DE, Kraemer SM (2007) Function of siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. R. Pinton (Ed.), et al The rhizosphere, biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 73–109Google Scholar
  20. de Souza JT, Arnould C, Deulvot C, Lemanceau P, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Raaijmakers JM (2003) Effect of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol on pythium: cellular responses and variation in sensitivity among propagules and species. Phytopathology 93(8):966–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dobereiner J (1992) History and new perspectives of diazotrophs in association with non-leguminous plants. Symbiosis 13:1–13Google Scholar
  22. Dodd IC, Belimov AA, Sobeih WY, Safronova VI, Grierson D, Davies WJ (2004) Will modifying plant ethylene status improve plant productivity in water-limited environments? In: Fischer T, Turner N, Angus J, McIntyre L, Robertson M, Borrell A, Lloyd A (eds) Proceedings of the 4th international crop science congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 September–1 October 2004. The Regional Institute Ltd., Gosford, NSW, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  23. Doornbos RF, Van Loon LC, Peter AHM, Bakker A (2012) Impact of root exudates and plant defense signaling on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere. Rev Sustain Dev 32:227–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dowling DN, O’Gara F (1994) Metabolites of Pseudomonas involved in the biocontrol of plant disease. Trends Biotechnol 12:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dutta S (2012) Biopesticides and fertilizers: novel substitutes of their chemical alternatives. J Environ Res Dev 6(3A):773–778Google Scholar
  26. Elahi KM (2008) Social forestry, exotic trees and monga. The daily star published 6 September 2008.
  27. Etesami HA, Alikhani HA, Akbari A (2009) Evaluation of plant growth hormones production (IAA) ability by Iranian soils rhizobial strains and effects of superior strains application on wheat growth indexes. World Appl Sci J 6:1576–1584Google Scholar
  28. Fitches E, Edwards MG, Mee C, Grishin E, Gatehouse AMR, Edwards JP, Gatehouse JA (2004) Fusion proteins containing insectspecific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion. J Insect Physiol 50:61–71Google Scholar
  29. Frankowski Lorito M, Scala F, Schmidt R, Berg G, Bahl H (2001) Purification and properties of two chitinolytic enzymes of Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48. Arch Microbiol 176:421–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fridlender M, Inbar J, Chet I (1993) Biological control of soil borne plant pathogens by a β-1,3 glucanase-producing Pseudomonas cepacia. Soil Biol Biochem 25:1211–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Galal OA, Samahy FM (2012) Genetical effects of using silica nanoparticles as biopesticide on Drosophila melanogaster. Egypt J Cytol 41:87–106Google Scholar
  32. Garibay SV, Jyoti K (2003) Market opportunities and challenges for Indian organic products. Study funded by Swiss state secretariat of economic affairs, February 2003Google Scholar
  33. Gentili F, Jumpponen A (2006) Potential and possible uses of bacterial and fungal biofertilizers. In: Rai M (ed) Hanbook of microbial biofertilizers. Food Products Press, New York, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  34. Glick BR (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Scientifica 963401Google Scholar
  35. Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41:109–117Google Scholar
  36. Glick BR, Karaturovic DM, Newell PC (1995) A novel procedure for rapid isolation of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas. Can J Microbiol 41:533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glick BR, Patten CL, Holguin G, Penrose DM (1999) Biochemical and genetic mechanisms used by plant growth promoting bacteria. Imperical College Press, London, pp 187–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J, Duan J (2007) Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producingsoil bacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Graham PH (1988) Principles and application of soil microbiology, pp 322–345Google Scholar
  40. Gramkow AW, Perecmanis S, Sousa RLB, Noronha EF, Felix CR, Nagata T, Ribeiro M (2010) Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses. Virol J 7:143PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grichko VP, Glick BR (2001) Amelioration of flooding stress by ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gull I, Hafeez FY, Saleem M, Malik KA (2004) Phosphorous uptake and growth promotion of chickpea by co-inoculation of mineral phosphate solubilising bacteria and a mixed rhizobial culture. Aust J Exp Agri 44:623–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta S, Dikshit AK (2010) Biopesticides: an eco-friendly approach for pest control. J Biopest 3(1):186–188Google Scholar
  44. Gupta A, Gopal M, Tilak KVBR (2000) Mechanism of plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria. Indian J Exp Biol 38:856–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gupta G, Parihar SS, Ahirwar NK, Snehi SK, Singh V (2015) Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): current and future prospects for development of sustainable agriculture. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:96–102Google Scholar
  46. Haas D, Defago G (2005) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nat Rev Microbiol 3(4):307–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M (2004) Trichoderma species-opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nat Rev Microbiol 2(1):43–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hashem M, Abo-Elyousr KA (2011) Management of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato with combinations of different biocontrol organisms. Crop Prot 30(3:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hill DS, Stein JI, Torkewitz NR, Morse AM, Howell CR, Pachlatko JP, Becker JO, Ligon JM (1994) Cloning of genes involved in the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin from Pseudomonas fluorescens and role of pyrrolnitrin synthesis in biological control of plant disease. Appl Environ Microbiol 60(1):78–85PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Iavicoli A, Boutet E, Buchela A, Métraux JP (2003) Induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to root inoculation with P. fluorescens CHA0. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 16:851–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaminek M, Motyka V, Vankova R (1997) Regulation of cytokinin content in plant cells. Physiol Plant 101:689–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kandpal V (2014) Biopestcides. Inter J Environ Res Dev 4(2):191–196Google Scholar
  53. Karthiba L, Saveetha K, Suresh S, Raguchander T, Saravanakumar D, Samiyappan R (2010) PGPR and entomopathogenic fungus bioformulation for the synchronous management of leaffolder pest and sheath blight disease of rice. Pest Manag Sci 66:555–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kennedy GG (2008) Integration of insect-resistant genetically modified crops within IPM programs. Progress Biol Control 5:1–26Google Scholar
  55. Khan AA, Jilani G, Akhtar MS, Saqlan Naqvi SM, Rasheed M (2009) Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria: mechanisms and their role in crop production. J Agri Biol Sci 1(1):48–58Google Scholar
  56. Kloepper JW, Leong J, Teintze M, Schroth MN (1980) Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Nature (London) 286:885–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kohler J, Hernández JA, Caravaca F, Roldán A (2009) Induction of antioxidant enzymes is involved in the greater effectiveness of a PGPR versus AM fungi with respect to increasing the tolerance of lettuce to severe salt stress. Environ Exp Bot 65(2–3):245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kumar S (2012) Biopesticides: a need for food and environment safety. J Biofertil Biopestici 3:e107. Google Scholar
  59. Kumar S, Singh A (2015) Biopesticides: present status and the future prospects. J Fertil Pestic 6:e129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kundan R, Pant G, Jado N, Agrawal PK (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: mechanism and current prospective. J Fertil Pestic 6(2):155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee ET, Kim SD (2001) An antifungal substance, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, produced from antagonistic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112 against Phytophthora capsici. Kor Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 29:37–42Google Scholar
  62. Lim HS, Kim YS, Kim SD (1991) Pseudomonas stutzeri YPL-1 genetic transformation and antifungal mechanism against Fusarium solani, an agent of plant root rot. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:510–516PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Loper JE, Gross H (2007) Genomic analysis of antifungal metabolite production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lovatt J (2008) Plant growth regulators: general information. UCIPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus UC ANR Publication 3441.
  65. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 63:541–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maheshwari DK, Dubey RC, Aeron A, Kumar B, Kumar S (2012) Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:3015–3024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Maksimov IV, Abizgil’dina RR, Pusenkova LI (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as alternative to chemical crop protectors from pathogens (review). Appl Biochem Microbiol 47:333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maurhofer M, Keel C, Schnider U, Voisard C, Haas D, Défago G (1992) Influence of enhanced antibiotic production in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 on its disease suppressive capacity. Phytopathology 82:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maurhofer M, Hase C, Meuwly P, Métraux JP, Défago G (1994) Induction of systemic resistance of tobacco to tobacco necrosis virus by the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0: influence of the gacA gene and of pyoverdine production. Phytopathology 84:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (1999) Effect of wild-type and mutant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on the rooting of mung been cuttings. J Plant Growth Regul 18:49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:565–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mazid M, Khan TA (2014) Future of bio-fertilizers in Indian agriculture: an overview. Inter J Agri Food Res 3:10–23Google Scholar
  73. Meena MK, Gupta S, Datta S (2016) Antifungal potential of PGPR, their growth promoting activity on seed germination and seedling growth of winter wheat and genetic variabilities among bacterial isolates. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 5(1):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meziane H, Vander SI, van Loon LC, Höfte M, Bakker PAHM (2005) Determinants of P. putida WCS358 involved in induced systemic resistance in plants. Mol Plant Pathol 6:177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mia Baset MA, Shamsuddin ZH (2010) Nitrogen fixation and transportation by Rhizobacteria: a scenario of Rice and banana. Int J Bot 6:235–242Google Scholar
  76. Mondal D, Barat S, Mukhopadhyay MK (2007) Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal. J Environ Biol 28(1):119–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Muhammad AA, Muhammad A, Ahmad Z, Arif M, Ali Q, Rasool M (2013) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and sustainable agriculture: a review. Afr J Microbiol Res 7(9):704–709Google Scholar
  78. Nawaz M, Mabubu JI, Hua H (2016) Current status and advancement of biopesticides: Microbial and botanical pesticides. J Entomol Zool Stud 4(2):241–246Google Scholar
  79. Nieto KF, Frankenberger WT Jr (1989) Biosynthesis of cytokinins by Azotobacter chroococcum. Soil Biol Biochem 21:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Brien KP, Franjevic S, Jones J (2009) Green chemistry and sustainable agriculture: the role of biopesticides
  81. Ongena M, Daayf F, Jacques P, Thonart P, Benhamou N, Paulitz TC, Cornelis P, Koedam N, Belanger RR (1999) Protection of cucumber against Pythium root rot by fluorescent pseudomonads: predominant role of induced resistance over siderophores and antibiosis. Plant Pathol 48:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Oostendorp M, Sikora RA (1990) In-vitro interrelationships between rhizosphere bacteria and Heterodera schachtii. Rev Nematol 13:269–274Google Scholar
  83. Parada M, Vinardell J, Ollero F, Hidalgo A, Gutiérrez R (2006) Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 mutants affected in capsular polysaccharide (KPS) are impaired for nodulation with soybean and Cajanus cajan. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Patel AK, Ahire JA, Pawar SP, Chaudhari BL (2010) Evaluation of probiotic characteristics of siderophorogenic Bacillus spp. isolated from dairy waste. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 160:140–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Patil S, Bheemaraddi MC, Shivannavar CT, Gaddad SM (2014) Biocontrol activity of siderophore producing Bacillus subtilis CTS-G24 against wilt and dry root rot causing fungi in chickpea. J Agri Vet Sci 7(9):63–68Google Scholar
  86. Patten CL, Glick BR (1996) Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Can J Microbiol 42:207–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pawan W (2001) An overview of the IPSN Program in India paper presented at regional workshop on Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) development & rural poverty alleviation, Bangkok, 18–20 SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  88. Pii Y, Mimmo T, Tomasi N, Terzano R, Cesco S, Crecchio C (2015) Microbial interactions in the rhizosphere: beneficial influences of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on nutrient acquisition process. a review. Biol Fertil Soils 51(4):403–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Planning Commission (2002) Tenth Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  90. Prasanna L, Eijsink VG, Meadow R, Gaseidnes S (2013) A novel strain of Brevibacillus laterosporus produces chitinases that contribute to its biocontrol potential. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97(4):1601–1611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Qingwen Z, Ping L, Gang W, Qingnian C (1998) The biochemical mechanism of induced resistance of cotton to cotton bollworm by cutting off young seedling at plumular axis. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica 25:209–212Google Scholar
  92. Qureshi MA, Ahmed ZA, Akhtar N, Iqbal A, Mujeeb F, Shakir MA (2012) Role of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in enhancing P availability and promoting cotton growth. J Animal Plant Sci 22(1):204–210Google Scholar
  93. Rai M (2006) Organic farming: potentials and strategies; Available on: htp://
  94. Raja N (2013) Biopesticides and biofertilizers: ecofriendly sources for sustainable agriculture. J Biofertil Biopestici 4:e112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rajkumar M, Ae N, Prasad MNV, Freitas H (2010) Potential of siderophore-producing bacteria for improving heavy metal phytoextraction. Trends Biotechnol 28:142–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ramamoorthy V, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2002) Induction of defense-related proteins in tomato roots treated with Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Plant Soil 239(1):55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ramirez LEF, Mellado JC (2005) PGPR: Biocontrol and Biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 143–172Google Scholar
  98. Reddy BP, Reddy MS, Kumar KVK (2009) Characterization of antifungal metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens and their effect on mycelia growth of Magnaporthe grisea and Rhizoctonia solani. Inter J PharmTech Res 1(4):1490–1493Google Scholar
  99. Revathi K, Chandrasekaran R, Thanigaivel A, Kirubakaran SA, Satish-Naraayanan S, Senthil-Nathan S (2013) Effects of Bacillus subtilis metabolites larval Aedes aegypti L. Pestic Biochem Physiol 107:369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rivas R, Peix A, Mateos PF, Trujillo ME, Martínez-Molina E, Velázquez E (2007) Biodiversity of populations of phosphate solubilizing rhizobia that nodulates chickpea in different Spanish soils. In: First International meeting on microbial phosphate solubilization, Developments in plant and soil Science, vol 102. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ryu CM, Farag MA, CH H, Reddy MS, Wei HX, Kloepper JW (2004) Bacterial volatiles induce systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 134:1017–1026PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sadhana B (2014) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as a biofertilizer–a review. Inter J Curr Microb Appl Sci 3(4):384–400Google Scholar
  103. Santhi A, Sivakumar V (1995) Biocontrol potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Migula) against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. J Biol Control 9:113–115Google Scholar
  104. Saravanakumar D, Samiyappan R (2007) ACC deaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens mediated saline resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogea) plants. J Appl Microbiol 102:1283–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Saravanakumar D, Muthumeena K, Lavanya N, Suresh S, Rajendran L, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2007) Pseudomonas–induced defence molecules in rice plants against leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) pest. Pest Manag Sci 63:714–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schnider U, Blumer C, Troxler J, Défago G, Haas D (1994) In: Ryder MH, Stephens PM, Bowen GD (eds) Improving plant productivity with rhizosphere bacteria. CSIRO, Adelaide, pp 120–121Google Scholar
  107. Schulz TJ, Thelen KD (2008) Soybean seed inoculant and fungicidal seed treatment effects on soybean. Crop Sci 48:1975–1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Senthil-Nathan S (2015) A review of biopesticides and their mode of action against insect pests. Environ Sustain.
  109. Shali A, Ghasemi S, Ahmadian G, Ranjbar G, Dehestani A, Khalesi N, Motallebi E, Vahed M (2010) Bacillus pumilus SG2 chitinases induced and regulated by chitin, show inhibitory activity against Fusarium graminearum and Bipolaris sorokiniana. Phytoparasitica 38(2):141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sharma A, Johri BN (2003) Growth promoting influence of siderophore-producing Pseudomonas strains GRP3A and PRS9 in maize (Zea mays L.) under iron limiting conditions. Microbiol Res 158(3):243–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sharma A, Johri BN, Sharma AK, Glick BR (2003) Plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain GRP3 influences iron acquisition in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilzeck). Soil Biol Biochem 35:887–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sharma A, Shankhdhar D, Shankhdhar SC (2013) Enhancing grain iron content of rice by the applicationof plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Plant Soil Environ 59:89–94Google Scholar
  113. Shilev S (2013) Soil rhizobacteria regulating the uptake of nutrients and undesirable elements by plants. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant microbe symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. Springer, India, pp 147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sikora RA (1992) Management of the antagonistic potential in agricultural ecosystems for the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30:245–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sikora RA, Hoffmann-Hergarten S (1992) Importance of plant health-promoting rhizobacteria for the control of soil-borne fungal diseases and plant parasitic nematodes. Arab J Plant Prot 10:53–58Google Scholar
  116. Simmons J (2011) The three rights: food, choice, sustainability. Elanco Animal Health. All rights reservedGoogle Scholar
  117. Singh N, Varma A (2015) Antagonistic activity of siderophore producing rhizobacteria isolated from the semi-arid regions of Southern India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 4(9):501–510Google Scholar
  118. Singleton P, Keyser H, Sande E (2002) Development and evaluation of liquid inoculants. In: Herridge D (ed) Inoculants and nitrogen fixation of legumes in Vietnam. ACIAR Proceedings 109e. Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp 52–66Google Scholar
  119. Sneh B, Dupler M, Elad Y, Baker R (1984) Chlamydospore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum as affected by fluorescent and lytic bacteria from Fusarium-suppressive soil. Phytopathology 74:1115–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Souza R, Meyer J, Schoenfeld R, Costa PB, Passaglia LMP (2014) Characterization of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with rice cropped in iron-stressed soils. Ann Microbiol 65:951–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Spiegel Y, Cohn E, Galper S, Sharon E, Chet I (1991) Evaluation of a newly isolated bacterium, Pseudomonas chitinolytica sp. nov., for controlling the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Biocontrol Sci Tech 1:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stock CA, Mcloughlin TJ, Klein JA, Adang MJ (1990) Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins gene in Pseudomonas cepacia 526. Can J Microbiol 36:879–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sullia SB (1991) Use of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) as bio-fertilizer for horticultural plants in developing countries. Curr Plant Sci Biotechnol Agri 12:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Szilagyi-Zecchin VJ, Ikeda AC, Hungria M, Adamoski D, Kava-Cordeiro V, Glienke C, Galli-Terasawa LV (2014) Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture. AMB Express 4:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tariq M, Hameed S, Yasmeen T, Zahid M (2014) Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.) World J Microbiol Biotechnol 30:719–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Taurian T, Anzuay MS, Angelini JG, Tonelli ML, Luduena L, Pena D, Ibanez F, Fabra A (2010) Phosphate-solubilizing peanut associated bacteria: screening for plant growth-promoting activities. Plant Soil 329:421–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tewari S, Arora NK (2014) Multifunctional exopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF23 involved in plant growth stimulation, biocontrol and stress amelioration in sunflower under saline conditions. Curr Microbiol 69:484–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Toyoda H, Utsumi R (1991) Method for the prevention of Fusarium diseases and microorganisms used for the same. US Patent No. 4, 988, p 586Google Scholar
  129. Vandenbergh PA, Gonzalez CF (1984) Method for protecting the growth of plants employing mutant siderophore producing strains of Pseudomonas putida. U.S. Patent #4,479,936Google Scholar
  130. Van Peer R, Niemann GJ, Schippers B (1991) Induced resistance and phytoalexin accumulation in biological control of Fusarium wilt of carnation by Pseudomonas sp. strain WCS417r. Phytopathology 81:728–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Verma M, Brar SK, Tyagi RD, Surampalli RY, Valero JR (2007) Antagonistic fungi, Trichoderma spp: panoply of biological control. Biochem Eng J 37(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vikram A, Hamzehzarghani H (2008) Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on nodulation and growth parameters of greengram (Vigna radiate L. Wilczec). Res J Microbiol 3:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vimala P, Lalithakumari D (2003) Characterization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Leuconostoc sp. V 41. Asian J Microbiol Biotechnol Environ Sci 5(2):161–165Google Scholar
  134. Vinale F, Marra R, Scala F, Ghisalberti EL, Lorito M, Sivasithamparam K (2006) Major secondary metabolites produced by two commercial Trichoderma strains active against different phytopathogens. Letters. Appl Microbiol 43(2):143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Voisard C, Keel C, Haas D, Dèfago G (1989) Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens helps suppress black root rot of tobacco under gnotobiotic conditions. EMBO J 8:351–358PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Vora MS, Shelat HN, Vyas RV (2008) Liquid biofertilizers: a new vistas. In: Vora MS, Shelat HN, Vyas RV (eds) Handbook of biofertilizers and microbial pesticides. Satish serial publishing house, New Delhi, pp 87–90Google Scholar
  137. Wandersman C, Delepelaire P (2004) Bacterial iron sources: from siderophores to hemophores. Annu Rev Microbiol 58:611–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wang YH, Irving HR (2011) Developing a model of plant hormone interactions. Plant Signal Behav 6(4):494–500PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wei G, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1991) Induction of systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum orbiculare by select strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 81:1508–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Weller DM (2007) Pseudomonas biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens: looking back over 30 years. Phytopathology 97:250–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Whipps JM (2001) Microbial interactions and biocontrol in the rhizosphere. J Exp Bot 52:487–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Xiao L, Xie Chi C, Cai J, Lin ZJ, Chen YH (2009) Identification and characterization of a chitinase-produced Bacillus showing significant antifungal activity. Curr Microbiol 58(5):528–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Zahran HH (2001) Rhizobia from wild legumes: diversity, taxonomy, ecology, nitrogen fixation and biotechnology. J Biotechnol 91:143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zaidi A (1999) Synergistic interactions of nitrogen fixing microorganisms with phosphate mobilizing microorganisms. Ph.D. Thesis, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  145. Zhang S, Moyne AL, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW (2002) The role of salicylic acid in induced systemic resistance elicited by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria against blue mold of tobacco. Biol Control 25:288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pinkee Phukon
    • 1
  • Joyashree Baruah
    • 2
  • Debojit Kumar Sarmah
    • 1
  • Brijmohan Singh Bhau
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Sciences DivisionCentral University of JammuJammuIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)CSIR-North East Institute of Science and TechnologyJorhatIndia

Personalised recommendations