Advertisement

Is a Combination of Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy Superior to Each Alone?

  • Kwang-Yeon Choi
  • Yong-Ku Kim
Chapter

Abstract

Current evidence supports the idea that a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is superior for treating depression than each treatment alone. Here, we provide neurobiological explanations to advocate for combination therapy over each therapy alone, from the perspective of neuroplasticity. Furthermore, we assert that there is still room for improvement in this strategy. In psychotherapy, clinical practice can be improved based on our knowledge of memory reconsolidation. Memory retrieval-driven reconsolidation-updating processes enable past emotional memories to be updated by new information. In pharmacotherapy, different classes of pharmacologic agents, such as antidepressants and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are known to enhance neuroplasticity. A reconsolidation-targeted, time-limited combination of drugs will synergistically enhance neuroplasticity, safely and tolerably. Improving the accessibility of psychotherapeutic therapies with more flexibility in time and place is important.

Keywords

Reconsolidation Psychotherapy Combined therapy Antidepressant HDAC inhibitor Valproate 

References

  1. Agren T, Engman J, Frick A, Björkstrand J, Larsson E-M, Furmark T, Fredrikson M. Disruption of reconsolidation erases a fear memory trace in the human amygdala. Science. 2012;337:1550–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn H-N, Wampold BE. Where oh where are the specific ingredients? A meta-analysis of component studies in counseling and psychotherapy. J Couns Psychol. 2001;48:251–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alboni S, van Dijk RM, Poggini S, Milior G, Perrotta M, Drenth T, Brunello N, Wolfer DP, Limatola C, Amrein I, Cirulli F, Maggi L, Branchi I. Fluoxetine effects on molecular, cellular and behavioral endophenotypes of depression are driven by the living environment. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22(4):635.Google Scholar
  4. Alme MN, Wibrand K, Dagestad G, Bramham CR. Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces brain region-specific upregulation of genes associated with BDNF-induced long-term potentiation. Neural Plast. 2007;2007:26496–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Autry AE, Adachi M, Nosyreva E, Na ES, Los MF, Cheng P-F, Kavalali ET, Monteggia LM. NMDA receptor blockade at rest triggers rapid behavioural antidepressant responses. Nature. 2011;475:91–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow DH, Gorman JM, Shear MK, Woods SW. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2000;283:2529–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barth J, Munder T, Gerger H, Nüesch E, Trelle S, Znoj H, Jüni P, Cuijpers P. Comparative efficacy of seven psychotherapeutic interventions for patients with depression: a network meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001454.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumel A. Online emotional support delivered by trained volunteers: users’ satisfaction and their perception of the service compared to psychotherapy. J Ment Health. 2015;24:313–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beardslee WR, Brent DA, Weersing VR, Clarke GN, Porta G, Hollon SD, Gladstone TRG, Gallop R, Lynch FL, Iyengar S, DeBar L, Garber J. Prevention of depression in at-risk adolescents: longer-term effects. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70:1161–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bee PE, Bower P, Lovell K, Gilbody S, Richards D, Gask L, Roach P. Psychotherapy mediated by remote communication technologies: a meta-analytic review. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berardi N, Pizzorusso T, Maffei L. Extracellular matrix and visual cortical plasticity: freeing the synapse. Neuron. 2004;44:905–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Björkstrand J, Agren T, Åhs F, Frick A, Larsson E-M, Hjorth O, Furmark T, Fredrikson M. Think twice, it’s all right: long lasting effects of disrupted reconsolidation on brain and behavior in human long-term fear. Behav Brain Res. 2017;324:125–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Björkstrand J, Agren T, Frick A, Engman J, Larsson E-M, Furmark T, Fredrikson M. Disruption of memory reconsolidation erases a fear memory trace in the human amygdala: an 18-month follow-up. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0129393.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boldrini M, Butt TH, Santiago AN, Tamir H, Dwork AJ, Rosoklija GB, Arango V, Hen R, Mann JJ. Benzodiazepines and the potential trophic effect of antidepressants on dentate gyrus cells in mood disorders. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;17:1923–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Branchi I, Santarelli S, Capoccia S, Poggini S, D’Andrea I, Cirulli F, Alleva E. Antidepressant treatment outcome depends on the quality of the living environment: a pre-clinical investigation in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8:e62226.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brent DA, Brunwasser SM, Hollon SD, Weersing VR, Clarke GN, Dickerson JF, Beardslee WR, Gladstone TRG, Porta G, Lynch FL, Iyengar S, Garber J. Effect of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program on depression 6 years after implementation among at-risk adolescents: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72:1110–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown WA. Placebo as a treatment for depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1994;10:265–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Browne CA, Lucki I. Antidepressant effects of ketamine: mechanisms underlying fast-acting novel antidepressants. Front Pharmacol. 2013 Dec 27;4:161.Google Scholar
  19. Brunoni AR, Lopes M, Kaptchuk TJ, Fregni F. Placebo response of non-pharmacological and pharmacological trials in major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2009;4:e4824.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buntrock C, Ebert DD, Lehr D, Smit F, Riper H, Berking M, Cuijpers P. Effect of a web-based guided self-help intervention for prevention of major depression in adults with subthreshold depression: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315:1854–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chawla N, Ostafin B. Experiential avoidance as a functional dimensional approach to psychopathology: an empirical review. J Clin Psychol. 2007;63:871–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheng SK, Dizon J. Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81:206–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiamulera C, Hinnenthal I, Auber A, Cibin M. Reconsolidation of maladaptive memories as a therapeutic target: pre-clinical data and clinical approaches. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:107.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiarotti F, Viglione A, Giuliani A, Branchi I. Citalopram amplifies the influence of living conditions on mood in depressed patients enrolled in the STAR*D study. Transl Psychiatry. 2017;7:e1066.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chin SO, Keum C, Woo J, Park J, Choi HJ, Woo JT, Rhee SY. Successful weight reduction and maintenance by using a smartphone application in those with overweight and obesity. Sci Rep. 2016;6:34563.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi K-Y, Kim Y-K. Plasticity-augmented psychotherapy for refractory depressive and anxiety disorders. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;70:134–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coelho CM, Waters AM, Hine TJ, Wallis G. The use of virtual reality in acrophobia research and treatment. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23:563–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen A, Houck PR, Szanto K, Dew MA, Gilman SE, Reynolds CF. Social inequalities in response to antidepressant treatment in older adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:50–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Colloca L, Miller FG. How placebo responses are formed: a learning perspective. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci. 2011;366:1859–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Corruble E, Swartz HA, Bottai T, Vaiva G, Bayle F, Llorca P-M, Courtet P, Frank E, Gorwood P. Telephone-administered psychotherapy in combination with antidepressant medication for the acute treatment of major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:6–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Costanzi M, Cannas S, Saraulli D, Rossi-Arnaud C, Cestari V. Extinction after retrieval: effects on the associative and nonassociative components of remote contextual fear memory. Learn Mem. 2011;18:508–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Covington HE III, Maze I, Vialou V, Nestler EJ. Antidepressant action of HDAC inhibition in the prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience. 2015;298:329–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Covington HE, Maze I, LaPlant QC, Vialou VF, Ohnishi YN, Berton O, Fass DM, Renthal W, Rush AJ, Wu EY, Ghose S, Krishnan V, Russo SJ, Tamminga C, Haggarty SJ, Nestler EJ. Antidepressant actions of histone deacetylase inhibitors. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11451–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Covington HE, Vialou VF, LaPlant Q, Ohnishi YN, Nestler EJ. Hippocampal-dependent antidepressant-like activity of histone deacetylase inhibition. Neurosci Lett. 2011;493:122–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cox GR, Callahan P, Churchill R, Hunot V, Merry SN, Parker AG, Hetrick SE. Psychological therapies versus antidepressant medication, alone and in combination for depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;CD008324.Google Scholar
  36. Cuijpers P, Geraedts AS, van Oppen P, Andersson G, Markowitz JC, van Straten A. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:581–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cuijpers P, van Straten A, Hollon SD, Andersson G. The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010;121:415–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cuijpers P, van Straten A, Warmerdam L, Andersson G. Psychotherapy versus the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depression: a meta-analysis. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26:279–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dagöö J, Asplund RP, Bsenko HA, Hjerling S, Holmberg A, Westh S, Öberg L, Ljótsson B, Carlbring P, Furmark T, Andersson G. Cognitive behavior therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder delivered via smartphone and computer: a randomized controlled trial. J Anxiety Disord. 2014;28:410–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Maat SM, Dekker J, Schoevers RA, de Jonghe F. Relative efficacy of psychotherapy and combined therapy in the treatment of depression: a meta-analysis. Eur Psychiatry. 2007;22:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Duman RS, Aghajanian GK, Sanacora G, Krystal JH. Synaptic plasticity and depression: new insights from stress and rapid-acting antidepressants. Nat Med. 2016;22:238–49.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dunlop BW, Rajendra JK, Craighead WE, Kelley ME, McGrath CL, Choi KS, Kinkead B, Nemeroff CB, Mayberg HS. Functional connectivity of the subcallosal cingulate cortex and differential outcomes to treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy or antidepressant medication for major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2017;174:533–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ecker B, Ticic R, Hulley L. Unlocking the emotional brain: eliminating symptoms at their roots using memory reconsolidation. Eliminating Symptoms at Their Roots Using Memory Reconsolidation, Routledge. 2012.Google Scholar
  44. Fledderus M, Bohlmeijer ET, Pieterse ME, Schreurs KMG. Acceptance and commitment therapy as guided self-help for psychological distress and positive mental health: a randomized controlled trial. Psychol Med. 2012;42:485–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frewen PA, Evans EM, Maraj N, Dozois DJA, Partridge K. Letting go: mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cogn Ther Res. 2007;32:758–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Furukawa TA, Streiner DL, Young LT. Antidepressant plus benzodiazepine for major depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;7:CD001026.Google Scholar
  47. Gelfin Y, Gorfine M, Lerer B. Effect of clinical doses of fluoxetine on psychological variables in healthy volunteers. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:290–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gellatly J, Bower P, Hennessy S, Richards D, Gilbody S, Lovell K. What makes self-help interventions effective in the management of depressive symptoms? Meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychol Med. 2007;37:1217–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Germeroth LJ, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, Froeliger B, LaRowe SD, Saladin ME. Effect of a brief memory updating intervention on smoking behavior: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74:214–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goltseker K, Bolotin L, Barak S. Counterconditioning during reconsolidation prevents relapse of cocaine memories. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42:716–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gräff J, Joseph NF, Horn ME, Samiei A, Meng J, Seo J, Rei D, Bero AW, Phan TX, Wagner F, Holson E, Xu J, Sun J, Neve RL, Mach RH, Haggarty SJ, Tsai L-H. Epigenetic priming of memory updating during reconsolidation to attenuate remote fear memories. Cell. 2014;156:261–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gryglewski G, Lanzenberger R, Kranz GS, Cumming P. Meta-analysis of molecular imaging of serotonin transporters in major depression. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:1096–103.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guan J-S, Haggarty SJ, Giacometti E, Dannenberg J-H, Joseph N, Gao J, Nieland TJF, Zhou Y, Wang X, Mazitschek R, Bradner JE, DePinho RA, Jaenisch R, Tsai L-H. HDAC2 negatively regulates memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Nature. 2009;459:55–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guina J, Rossetter SR, Derhodes BJ, Nahhas RW, Welton RS. Winner of resident paper award 2014: Benzodiazepines for PTSD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Pract. 2015;21:281–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hanson ND, Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB. Depression, antidepressants, and neurogenesis: a critical reappraisal. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2589–602.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hetrick SE, Parker AG, Hickie IB, Purcell R, Yung AR, McGorry PD. Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: towards a clinical staging model. Psychother Psychosom. 2008;77:263–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hirschfeld RM. Clinical importance of long-term antidepressant treatment. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2001;42:S4–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hollon SD, DeRubeis RJ, Fawcett J, Amsterdam JD, Shelton RC, Zajecka J, Young PR, Gallop R. Effect of cognitive therapy with antidepressant medications vs antidepressants alone on the rate of recovery in major depressive disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71:1157–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Huijbers MJ, Spijker J, Donders ART, van Schaik DJF, van Oppen P, Ruhé HG, Blom MBJ, Nolen WA, Ormel J, van der Wilt GJ, Kuyken W, Spinhoven P, Speckens AEM. Preventing relapse in recurrent depression using mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, antidepressant medication or the combination: trial design and protocol of the MOMENT study. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:125.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jacobson NS, Martell CR, Dimidjian S. Behavioral activation treatment for depression: returning to contextual roots. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2001;8:255–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jeffreys M, Capehart B, Friedman MJ. Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: review with clinical applications. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49:703–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kanzari A, Bourcier-Lucas C, Freyssin A, Abrous DN, Haddjeri N, Lucas G. Inducing a long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is sufficient to produce rapid antidepressant-like effects. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;420:21.Google Scholar
  63. Karpova NN, Pickenhagen A, Lindholm J, Tiraboschi E, Kulesskaya N, Agústsdóttir A, Antila H, Popova D, Akamine Y, Bahi A, Sullivan R, Hen R, Drew LJ, Castrén E. Fear erasure in mice requires synergy between antidepressant drugs and extinction training. Science. 2011;334:1731–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kavalali ET, Monteggia LM. Synaptic mechanisms underlying rapid antidepressant action of ketamine. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:1150–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, Arnow B, Dunner DL, Gelenberg AJ, Markowitz JC, Nemeroff CB, Russell JM, Thase ME, Trivedi MH, Zajecka J. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1462–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kelley JM, Kaptchuk TJ, Cusin C, Lipkin S, Fava M. Open-label placebo for major depressive disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81:312–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Khan A, Faucett J, Lichtenberg P, Kirsch I, Brown WA. A systematic review of comparative efficacy of treatments and controls for depression. PLoS One. 2012;7:e41778.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kim H, Faw M, Michaelides A. Mobile but connected: harnessing the power of self-efficacy and group support for weight loss success through mHealth intervention. J Health Commun. 2017;22:395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kirsch I. Antidepressants and the Placebo effect. Z Psychol. 2014;222:128–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Kvam S, Kleppe CL, Nordhus IH, Hovland A. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;202:67–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lane RD, Ryan L, Nadel L, Greenberg L. Memory reconsolidation, emotional arousal, and the process of change in psychotherapy: new insights from brain science. Behav Brain Sci. 2015;38:e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Leal G, Comprido D, Duarte CB. BDNF-induced local protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity. Neuropharmacology. 2014;76 Pt C:639–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lennartsson A, Arner E, Fagiolini M, Saxena A, Andersson R, Takahashi H, Noro Y, Sng J, Sandelin A, Hensch TK, Carninci P. Remodeling of retrotransposon elements during epigenetic induction of adult visual cortical plasticity by HDAC inhibitors. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2015;8:55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lepack AE, Fuchikami M, Dwyer JM, Banasr M, Duman RS. BDNF release is required for the behavioral actions of ketamine. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;18:pyu033.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leuchter AF, Hunter AM, Tartter M, Cook IA. Role of pill-taking, expectation and therapeutic alliance in the placebo response in clinical trials for major depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2014;205:443–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mataix-Cols D, Fernández de la Cruz L, Monzani B, Rosenfield D, Andersson E, Pérez-Vigil A, Frumento P, de Kleine RA, Difede J, Dunlop BW, Farrell LJ, Geller D, Gerardi M, Guastella AJ, Hofmann SG, Hendriks G-J, Kushner MG, Lee FS, Lenze EJ, Levinson CA, McConnell H, Otto MW, Plag J, Pollack MH, Ressler KJ, Rodebaugh TL, Rothbaum BO, Scheeringa MS, Siewert-Siegmund A, Smits JAJ, Storch EA, Ströhle A, Tart CD, Tolin DF, van Minnen A, Waters AM, Weems CF, Wilhelm S, Wyka K, Davis M, Rück C, DCS Anxiety Consortium. D-cycloserine augmentation of exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74:501–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McHugh RK, Whitton SW, Peckham AD, Welge JA, Otto MW. Patient preference for psychological vs pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74:595–602.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Monfils MH, Cowansage KK, Klann E, LeDoux JE. Extinction-reconsolidation boundaries: key to persistent attenuation of fear memories. Science. 2009;324:951–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mora MS, Nestoriuc Y, Rief W. Lessons learned from placebo groups in antidepressant trials. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci. 2011;366:1879–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nader K, Einarsson EÖ. Memory reconsolidation: an update. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1191:27–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ng KL, Gibson EM, Hubbard R, Yang J, Caffo B, O’Brien RJ, Krakauer JW, Zeiler SR. Fluoxetine maintains a state of heightened responsiveness to motor training early after stroke in a mouse model. Stroke. 2015;46:2951–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nordgren M, Karlsson T, Svensson M, Koczy J, Josephson A, Olson L, Tingström A, Brené S. Orchestrated regulation of nogo receptors, lotus, AMPA receptors and BDNF in an ECT model suggests opening and closure of a window of synaptic plasticity. PLoS One. 2013;8:e78778.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oestergaard S, Møldrup C. Optimal duration of combined psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with moderate and severe depression: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2011;131:24–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Oh Y-S, Gao P, Lee K-W, Ceglia I, Seo J-S, Zhang X, Ahn J-H, Chait BT, Patel DJ, Kim Y, Greengard P. SMARCA3, a chromatin-remodeling factor, is required for p11-dependent antidepressant action. Cell. 2013;152:831–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ohira K, Takeuchi R, Iwanaga T, Miyakawa T. Chronic fluoxetine treatment reduces parvalbumin expression and perineuronal nets in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons of the frontal cortex in adult mice. Mol Brain. 2013;6:43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Oken BS. The placebo treatments in neurosciences: new insights from clinical and neuroimaging studies. Neurology. 2009;72:2053–author reply 2053–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Overton DA. State-dependent learning produced by depressant and atropine-like drugs. Psychopharmacologia. 1966;10:6–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Palpacuer C, Gallet L, Drapier D, Reymann J-M, Falissard B, Naudet F. Specific and non-specific effects of psychotherapeutic interventions for depression: Results from a meta-analysis of 84 studies. J Psychiatr Res. 2017;87:95–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Parikh SV, Segal ZV, Grigoriadis S, Ravindran AV, Kennedy SH, Lam RW, Patten SB, Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT). Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. II. Psychotherapy alone or in combination with antidepressant medication. J Affect Disord. 2009;117 suppl 1:S15–25.Google Scholar
  90. Patten AR, Sickmann H, Hryciw BN, Kucharsky T, Parton R, Kernick A, Christie BR. Long-term exercise is needed to enhance synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Learn Mem. 2013;20:642–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Peciña M, Bohnert ASB, Sikora M, Avery ET, Langenecker SA, Mickey BJ, Zubieta J-K. Association between placebo-activated neural systems and antidepressant responses: neurochemistry of placebo effects in major depression. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72:1087–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Perera TD, Dwork AJ, Keegan KA, Thirumangalakudi L, Lipira CM, Joyce N, Lange C, Higley JD, Rosoklija G, Hen R, Sackeim HA, Coplan JD. Necessity of hippocampal neurogenesis for the therapeutic action of antidepressants in adult nonhuman primates. PLoS One. 2011;6:e17600.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Porro CA. Open your mind to placebo conditioning. Pain. 2009;145:2–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reynolds CF, Dew MA, Martire LM, Miller MD, Cyranowski JM, Lenze E, Whyte EM, Mulsant BH, Pollock BG, Karp JF, Gildengers A, Szanto K, Dombrovski AY, Andreescu C, Butters MA, Morse JQ, Houck PR, Bensasi S, Mazumdar S, Stack JA, Frank E. Treating depression to remission in older adults: a controlled evaluation of combined escitalopram with interpersonal psychotherapy versus escitalopram with depression care management. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;25:1134–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Reynolds CF, Perel JM, Frank E, Cornes C, Miller MD, Houck PR, Mazumdar S, Stack JA, Pollock BG, Dew MA, Kupfer DJ. Three-year outcomes of maintenance nortriptyline treatment in late-life depression: a study of two fixed plasma levels. Am J Psychiatr. 1999;156:1177–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rief W, Barsky AJ, Bingel U, Doering BK, Schwarting R, Wöhr M, Schweiger U. Rethinking psychopharmacotherapy: the role of treatment context and brain plasticity in antidepressant and antipsychotic interventions. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;60:51–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rothbaum BO, Price M, Jovanovic T, Norrholm SD, Gerardi M, Dunlop B, Davis M, Bradley B, Duncan EJ, Rizzo A, Ressler KJ. A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Am J Psychiatry. 2014;171:640–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rutherford BR, Roose SP. A model of placebo response in antidepressant clinical trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170:723–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schiller D, Monfils MH, Raio CM, Johnson DC, LeDoux JE, Phelps EA. Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms. Nature. 2010;463:49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schmauss C. An HDAC-dependent epigenetic mechanism that enhances the efficacy of the antidepressant drug fluoxetine. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8171.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schramm E, van Calker D, Dykierek P, Lieb K, Kech S, Zobel I, Leonhart R, Berger M. An intensive treatment program of interpersonal psychotherapy plus pharmacotherapy for depressed inpatients: acute and long-term results. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:768–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schroeder FA, Lin CL, Crusio WE, Akbarian S. Antidepressant-like effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate, in the mouse. BPS. 2007;62:55–64.Google Scholar
  103. Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Richards J, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Stubbs B. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;77:42–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schwitzguébel AJ-P, Benaïm C, Carda S, Torea Filgueira AM, Frischknecht R, Rapin P-A. GABAergic drug use and global, cognitive, and motor functional outcomes after stroke. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2016;59:320–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Scully ID, Napper LE, Hupbach A. Does reactivation trigger episodic memory change? A meta-analysis. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2016;142:99–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Seo JS, Wei J, Qin L, Kim Y, Yan Z, Greengard P. Cellular and molecular basis for stress-induced depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;38:1–8.Google Scholar
  107. Shapiro SC, Anstey J, Pape DE, Nayak TD, Kandefer M, Telhan O. The trial the trail, act 3 A virtual reality drama using intelligent agents. In: Presented at the proceedings of the 1st artificial intelligence and interactive digital entertainment conference, AIIDE 2005. 2005. p. 157–8.Google Scholar
  108. Silingardi D, Scali M, Belluomini G, Pizzorusso T. Epigenetic treatments of adult rats promote recovery from visual acuity deficits induced by long-term monocular deprivation. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:2185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sun Y, Evans J, Russell B, Kydd R, Connor B. A benzodiazepine impairs the neurogenic and behavioural effects of fluoxetine in a rodent model of chronic stress. Neuropharmacology. 2013;72:20–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Svenningsson P, Kim Y, Warner-Schmidt J, Oh Y-S, Greengard P. p11 and its role in depression and therapeutic responses to antidepressants. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14:673–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tanaka J-I, Horiike Y, Matsuzaki M, Miyazaki T, Ellis-Davies GCR, Kasai H. Protein synthesis and neurotrophin-dependent structural plasticity of single dendritic spines. Science. 2008;319:1683–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tedesco V, Mutti A, Auber A, Chiamulera C. Nicotine-seeking reinstatement is reduced by inhibition of instrumental memory reconsolidation. Behav Pharmacol. 2014;25:725–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thorp SR, Fidler J, Moreno L, Floto E, Agha Z. Lessons learned from studies of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder via video teleconferencing. Psychol Serv. 2012;9:197–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Warden D, Ritz L, Norquist G, Howland RH, Lebowitz B, McGrath PJ, Shores-Wilson K, Biggs MM, Balasubramani GK, Fava M, STAR*D Study Team. Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: implications for clinical practice. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:28–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tsankova NM, Berton O, Renthal W, Kumar A, Neve RL, Nestler EJ. Sustained hippocampal chromatin regulation in a mouse model of depression and antidepressant action. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:519–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. van der Vaart R, Witting M, Riper H, Kooistra L, Bohlmeijer ET, van Gemert-Pijnen LJEWC. Blending online therapy into regular face-to-face therapy for depression: content, ratio and preconditions according to patients and therapists using a Delphi study. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:355.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. van Schaik DJF, Klijn AFJ, van Hout HPJ, van Marwijk HWJ, Beekman ATF, de Haan M, van Dyck R. Patients’ preferences in the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004;26:184–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vetencourt JFM, Sale A, Viegi A, Baroncelli L, De Pasquale R, O'Leary OF, Castrén E, Maffei L. The antidepressant fluoxetine restores plasticity in the adult visual cortex. Science. 2008;320:385–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Walker MP, Brakefield T, Hobson JA, Stickgold R. Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Nature. 2003;425:616–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wampold BE. How important are the common factors in psychotherapy? An update. World Psychiatry. 2015;14:270–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Watkins E, Newbold A, Tester-Jones M, Javaid M, Cadman J, Collins LM, Graham J, Mostazir M. Implementing multifactorial psychotherapy research in online virtual environments (IMPROVE-2): study protocol for a phase III trial of the MOST randomized component selection method for internet cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:345.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Weitz E, Kleiboer A, van Straten A, Hollon SD, Cuijpers P. Individual patient data meta-analysis of combined treatments versus psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for adult depression: a protocol. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e013478.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wolff A, Hölzel LP, Westphal A, Härter M, Kriston L. Combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of chronic depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Xue Y-X, Deng J-H, Chen Y-Y, Zhang L-B, Wu P, Huang G-D, Luo Y-X, Bao Y-P, Wang Y-M, Shaham Y, Shi J, Lu L. Effect of selective inhibition of reactivated nicotine-associated memories with propranolol on nicotine craving. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74:224–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yang W-Z, Liu T-T, Cao J-W, Chen X-F, Liu X, Wang M, Su X, Zhang S-Q, Qiu B-L, Hu W-X, Liu L-Y, Ma L, Yu Y-C. Fear erasure facilitated by immature inhibitory neuron transplantation. Neuron. 2016;92:1352–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M. Postsynaptic BDNF-TrkB signaling in synapse maturation, plasticity, and disease. Dev Neurobiol. 2010;70:304–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Young SN. Acute tryptophan depletion in humans: a review of theoretical, practical and ethical aspects. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2013;38:294–305.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, College of MedicineChungnam National UniversityDaejeonSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, College of MedicineChungnam National University HospitalDaejeonSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, College of MedicineKorea UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryKorea University Ansan HospitalAnsanSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations