Neurobiology and Evidence-Based Review on Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD)

  • Salih Selek
  • Jair C. Soares


Treatment refractory depression (TRD) causes more burden although newer antidepressants have been introduced in last decades. In this chapter, the authors will discuss the novel treatment approaches based upon new neurobiological models and review the evidence-based treatments. Special consideration will be given to the inflammation hypothesis, ketamine, ECT, and deep brain stimulation.


Treatment-resistant depression Neuroinflammation Electroconvulsive therapy Deep brain stimulation Ketamine 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, McGovern Medical SchoolUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHoustonUSA

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