Cognitive Engagement in Virtual Worlds Language Learning

  • Michael Henderson
  • Lyn Henderson
  • Scott Grant
  • Hui Huang
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter adds to our understanding of learner engagement in terms of learner cognition while experiencing lessons in Second Life. The context of this research is in Higher Education second language acquisition. The methodology and implications are useful for others wanting to identify thinking processes students utilise during virtual world lessons. The stimulated recall methodology, centred within Information Processing Theory and a Mediating Process Paradigm, is described along with the screen capture technology utilised for the stimulated recall interviews. The data revealed that all students reported a variety of cognition, five particular forms were commonly reported as most frequent: affect, strategy planning, evaluating, metacognising, and justifying. This chapter explains this pattern, thereby beginning to unravel the complex relationship between learner cognition, instructional design and other triggers. A series of conclusions are made relating to instructional design to support learners’ cognitive engagement.

References

  1. Allen, L. A. (1999). Functions of nonverbal communication in teaching and learning a foreign language. The French Review, 72(3), 469–480.Google Scholar
  2. Carr, K. (1995). Introduction. In K. Carr & R. England (Eds.), Simulated and virtual realities. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  3. Chun, D., & Plass, J. L. (2000). Networked Multimedia Environments for Second Language Acquisition. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 151–170). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Collentine, K. (2011). Learner Autonomy in a task-based 3D world and production. Language Learning & Technology, 15(3), 50–67.Google Scholar
  5. Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2010). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 22. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01038.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Diehl, W. C., & Prins, E. (2008). Unintended outcomes in second life: Intercultural literacy and cultural identity in a virtual world. Language and Intercultural Communication, 8(2), 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2000). Stimulated recall methodology in second language research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Grant, S., & Clerehan, R. (2011). Finding the discipline: assessing student activity in Second Life. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(5), 813–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grant, S., & Huang, H. (2012). Learning a second language in second life. In O. L. T. Islam, J. Peterson, & M. Piscioneri (Eds.), Effectively implementing information communication technology in higher education in the Asia-Pacific Region. Hauppauge, NY: NOVA Science.Google Scholar
  10. Grant, S., Huang, H., & Pasfield-Neofitou, S. (2013). Language learning in virtual worlds: The role of foreign language and technical anxiety. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 6(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  11. Harmon-Jones, E., Gable, P., & Price, T. F. (2013). Does negative affect always narrow and positive affect always broaden the mind? Considering the influence of motivational intensity on cognitive scope. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(4), 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hauck, M., & Hurd, S. (2005). Exploring the link between language anxiety and learner selfmanagement in open language learning contexts. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2005(2).Google Scholar
  13. Henderson, L. (2005). Video games: A significant cognitive artifact of contemporary youth culture. Paper presented at the DiGRA 2005 Conference, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  14. Henderson, L., Henderson, M., Grant, S., & Huang, H. (2010). What are users thinking in a virtual world lesson? Using stimulated recall interviews to report student cognition, and its triggers. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 3(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
  15. Henderson, L., Putt, I., Ainge, D., & Coombs, G. (1997). Comparison of students’ thinking processes when studying with WWW, IMM and text-based materials. In F. Verdejo & G. Davies (Eds.), Virtual campus: Trends for higher education and training (pp. 124–162). London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  16. Henderson, L., & Tallman, J. (2006). Stimulated recall and mental models: Tools for teaching and learning computer information literacy. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  17. Henderson, M. (1996). Multimedia interactivity: An investigation into learners’ mediating processes during click-drag activities. Townsville, Qld: James Cook University.Google Scholar
  18. Henderson, M., Huang, H., Grant, S., & Henderson, L. (2012). The impact of Chinese language lessons in a virtual world on university students’ self-efficacy beliefs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(3), 400–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jonassen, D. H. (1992). What are cognitive tools? In P. Kommers, D. Jonassen, & J. Mayes (Eds.), Cognitive tools for learning. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  20. Levy, M. (2009). Technologies in use for second language learning. The Modern language journal, 93(1), 769–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marland, P. W., Patching, W. G., & Putt, I. (1992). Learning from text: Glimpses inside the minds of distance learners. Townsville: James Cook University.Google Scholar
  22. Peterson, M. (2011). Digital gaming and second language development: Japanese learners interactions in a MMORPG. Digital Culture & Education, 3(1), 56–73.Google Scholar
  23. Schwienhorst, K. (2002). Why virtual, why environments? Implementing virtual reality concepts in computer-assisted language learning. Simulation & Gaming, 33(2), 196–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shi, Y., & Fan, S. (2010). An analysis of non-verbal behaviour in intercultural communication. The International Journal - Language Society and Culture (31), 113–120.Google Scholar
  25. Shulman, L. (1986). Paradigms and research programs in the study of teaching: A contemporary perspective. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 3–36). New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  26. Sykes, J. M. (2005). Synchronous CMC and pragmatic development: Effects of oral and written chat. CALICO Journal, 22(3), 399–431.Google Scholar
  27. Thorne, S. (2008). Mediating technologies and second language learning. In J. Coiro, M. Knobel, C. Lankshear, & D. J. Leu (Eds.), Handbook of research on new literacies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Woolfolk, A. E. (1990). Educational psychology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  29. Zhao, Y., & Lai, C. (2009). Massively multi-player online role playing games (MMORPGS) and foreign language education. In R. Ferdig (Ed.), Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education (pp. 402–421). New York: IDEA Group.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zheng, D., Young, M. F., Wagner, M., & Brewer, R. A. (2009). Negotiation for action: English language learning in game-based virtual worlds. The Modern language journal, 93(4), 489–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Henderson
    • 1
  • Lyn Henderson
    • 2
  • Scott Grant
    • 1
  • Hui Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations