The Empowerment of Local Community Groups as a New Innovation in Cross-Border Disaster Governance Frameworks
Asia remains a distinguished place prone to different sized of natural disasters ranging from tsunamis to earthquakes, floods and forest fires, among others, that have produced profound cross borders impacts. Many studies on disaster governance have discussed the subject from a macro-policy level perspective, with less attention being paid to the role of the community. However, in many cases of disasters, local communities are the first to handle emergency efforts before the arrival of international and national disaster assistance. The role of communities needs to be empowered by including them in disaster governance frameworks so that they can be a new driver of policy innovation in building social resilience to future disasters.
Based on the empirical evidence from the Indian Ocean tsunami and undersea earthquake of December 2004 that devastated Indonesia’s north-westernmost province of Aceh, this paper explores the power of Acehnese community groups in the governance of disasters across borders. The Acehnese response to the tsunami and subsequent rehabilitation process offers important lessons for cross border disasters, not only in Asian contexts but more widely. The chapter will provide policy recommendations for establishing a model of cross border disaster governance that can better accommodate the innovations of communities in dealing with disasters through the creation of stronger state-civil society partnerships over time.
KeywordsCross-border disasters Collaborative governance Community networks Aceh State-civil society partnerships
- Bappenas. (2005a). Indonesia: Preliminary damage and loss assessment, The December 26, 2004 natural disaster. Jakarta: Bappenas (Ministry of National Development Planning).Google Scholar
- Bappenas. (2005b). Master plan for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the regions and communities of the province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and the Islands of Nias, Province of North Sumatra, main book. Jakarta: Bappenas (Ministry of National Development Planning).Google Scholar
- BRR (2005). Aceh and Nias one tear after the tsunami the recovery effort and way forward, A Joint Report of The BRR and International Partners. Jakarta.Google Scholar
- BRR. (2009). Housing, roofing the pillars of hope. Jakarta: The Executing Agency of Rehabilitation and Reconstruction for Aceh and Nias.Google Scholar
- Cousins, William (1991). Non-governmental initiatives. In ADB, The urban poor and basic infrastructure services in Asia and the Pacific. Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
- Daly, P., & Rahmayati, Y. (2012). Cultural heritage and community recovery in post-tsunami Aceh. In P. Daly, R. M. Feener, & A. Reid (Eds.), From the ground up, perspective on post-tsunami and post-conflict Aceh (pp. 57–78). Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.Google Scholar
- Dombo, E., & Ahearn, F. (2015). The aftermath of humanitarian crises: A model for addressing social work interventions with individuals, groups, and communities. Illness, Crisis & Loss, 23(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
- DTE. (2005). Community-centred reconstruction needed. Down to Earth, 64, 5–10.Google Scholar
- ILO (2007). International programme on the elimination of child labour, Aceh post-tsunami response, Internal Project Report. Jakarta.Google Scholar
- Miller, M & Bunnell, T (2013). Urban-rural connections: Banda Aceh through conflict, tsunami, and decentralization. In Bunnell, T., Parthasarathy, D. & Thompson, E.C. (eds.), Cleavage, connection and conflict in rural, urban and contemporary Asia (pp. 83–98), Springer.Google Scholar
- Nakagawa, Y., & Shaw, R. (2004). Social capital: A missing link to disaster recovery. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 22(1), 5–34.Google Scholar
- Newport, J. K., & Jawahar, G. G. P. (2003). Community participation and public awareness in disaster mitigation. Disasters, 12(1), 33–36.Google Scholar