Prevalence of Mistreatment of Older Persons and Their Associated Psychological Distress in a Selected Population of North India
Elder abuse and its detection are challenging and highly sensitive issues in India. A study to identify the prevalence of mistreatment among older persons and assess their psychological distress was undertaken by the authors in a selected population of Uttarakhand State in North India. The prevalence of mistreatment was 15.6%. Neglect and exploitation were the most common types of mistreatment and they were positively associated with psychological distress and people aged above 80, while being negatively associated with availability of their social support.
The authors are thankful to all the participants of the study. There was no conflict of interest. No funds were taken from anyone for the study.
- Abdel Rahman, Tomader T., and Maha M. El Gaafary. 2011. Elder mistreatment in a rural area in Egypt. Geriatrics and Gerontology International 12: 532–537. Accessed 2 December 2015. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2011.00780.x.
- Acierno, Ron, Melba A. Hernandez, Ananda B. Amstadter, Heidi S. Resnick, Kenneth Steve, Wendy Muzzy, et al. 2010. Prevalence and correlates of emotional, physical, sexual, and financial abuse and potential neglect in the United States: The National Elder Mistreatment Study. American Journal of Public Health 100: 292–297. Accessed 12 December 2015. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2009.163089.
- Ahmad, M., and M.S. Lachs. 2002. Elder abuse and neglect: What physicians can and should do. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 69 (10): 801–808. Accessed 2 January 2016. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.69.10.801.
- Alter, Michael J. 2004. Science of Flexibility. 3rd ed. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
- Amstadter, Ananda B., Kristyn Zajac, Martha Strachan, Melba A. Hernandez, Dean G. Kilpatrick, and Ron Acierno. 2011. Prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment in South Carolina: The South Carolina elder mistreatment study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26: 2947–2972. Accessed 8 December 2015. doi: 10.1177/0886260510390959.
- Atkins, Joanna, Sharon L. Naismith, Georgina M. Luscombe, and Ian B. Hickie. 2013. Psychological distress and quality of life in older persons: Relative contributions of fixed and modifiable risk factors. BMC Psychiatry 13. Accessed 5 April 2015. doi: 10.1186/1471-244x-13-249.
- Birren, J.E., and L.M. Fisher. 1995. Aging and speed of behavior: Possible consequences for psychological functioning. Annual Review of Psychology 46: 329–353. Accessed 2 January 2016. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.001553.
- Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel, Pablo Jesús López-Soto, Ana Isabel Coimbra-Roca, Ruth Mary Gálvez-Rioja, Thomas Goergen, et al. 2015. Elder abuse in a developing area in Bolivia. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Accessed 12 December 2015. doi: 10.1177/0886260515608803.
- Disabled Persons in India, National Sample Survey Organization 58th Round. 2003. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. Accessed 10 November 2015.Google Scholar
- Dong, Xinqi. 2009. Elder self-neglect and abuse and mortality risk in a community-dwelling population. Journal of the American Medical Association 302: 517. Accessed 10 December 2015. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1109.
- Dong, Xinqi, Melissa A. Simon, Martin Gorbien, Jeffrey Percak, and Robyn Golden. 2007. Loneliness in older Chinese adults: A risk factor for elder mistreatment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 55: 1831–1835. Accessed 11 December 2015. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01429.x.
- Dongre, Amolr, and Pradeepr Deshmukh. 2012. Social determinants of quality of elderly life in a rural setting of India. Indian Journal of Palliative Care 18: 181–189. Accessed 15 January 2015. doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.105688.
- Elder Abuse. 2015. World Health Organization. Accessed 2 November 2015. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs357/en/.
- Elder Abuse. 2016. World Health Organization. Accessed 10 January 2016. http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/elder_abuse/en/.
- Elder Abuse and Neglect: In Search of Solutions. 2016. Accessed 10 January 2016. http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/resources/guides/elder-abuse.aspx.
- Fulmer, Terry, Rachel F. Rodgers, and Allison Pelger. 2014. Verbal mistreatment of the elderly. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 26: 351–364. Accessed 2 December 2015. doi: 10.1080/08946566.2013.801817.
- Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia, Carmen García-Peña, Carlos Alberto Durán-Muñoz, Yvonne N. Flores, and Jorge Salmerón. 2009. Relationship between social support and the physical and mental wellbeing. Revista de Investigación Clínica 61: 383–391. Accessed 2 January 2015. http://www.medigraphic.com/pdfs/revinvcli/nn-2009/nn095f.pdf.
- Gupta, Rashmi, and Anoshua Chaudhuri. 2008. Elder abuse in a cross-cultural context: Assessment, policy and practice. Indian Journal of Gerontology 22(3&4): 373–393. Accessed 5 October 2015. http://www.gerontologyindia.com/pdf/vol-22-3-4.pdf.
- HelpAge India. 2015. A Report on Elder Abuse and Crime in India. Accessed 12 November 2015. https://www.helpageindia.org/pdf/surveysnreports/elderabuseindia2011.pdf.
- HelpAge India. 2016. Elder Abuse in India. Accessed 5 January 2016. https://www.helpageindia.org/pdf/surveysnreports/elderabuseindia2012.pdf.
- Joseph, Nitin, Maria Nelliyanil, Srirakshar Nayak, Vyom Agarwal, Arjun Kumar, Harsh Yadav, Gourav Ramuka, and Kshirabdhitanaya Mohapatra. 2015. Assessment of morbidity pattern, quality of life and awareness of government facilities among elderly population in South India. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 4: 405–410. Accessed 8 December 2015. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.161339.
- Kleinschmidt, Kurt C. 1997. Elder abuse: A review. Annals of Emergency Medicine 30(4): 463–472. Accessed 5 December 2015. doi: 10.1016/s0196-0644(97)70006-4.
- Kruger, Maj Robert M., and Capt Christopher H. Moon. 1999. Can you spot the signs of elder mistreatment? Postgraduate Medicine 106(2): 169–183. Accessed 5 December 2015. doi: 10.3810/pgm.1999.08.657.
- Kumar, P.N. Suresh, P.K. Anish, and Biju George. 2015. Risk factors for suicide in elderly in comparison to younger age groups. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 57: 249–254. Accessed 15 December 2015. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.166614.
- Kurre, S. 2004. Elder abuse. Australian Family Physician 33(10): 807–812. Accessed 5 December 2015.Google Scholar
- Kurz, Rosemarie. 2015. Who is considered an old person? Speech, The EURAG Congress, Spain, Leon, November 15, 2015. http://generationen.oehunigraz.at/files/2012/07/Who-is-considered-an-old-person.pdf.
- Loughlin, Anne O., and Joseph Duggan. 1998. Abuse, neglect and mistreatment of older people: An exploratory study. National Council on Ageing and Older People 52: 1–122.Google Scholar
- Lowenstein, Ariela, Zvi Eisikovits, Tova Band-Winterstein, and Guy Enosh. 2009. Is elder abuse and neglect a social phenomenon? Data from the first national prevalence survey in Israel. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 21: 253–277. Accessed 2 January 2016. doi: 10.1080/08946560902997629.
- Luo, Y., and L. J. Waite. 2011. Mistreatment and psychological well-being among older adults: Exploring the role of psychosocial resources and deficits. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 66B: 217–229. Accessed 10 December 2015. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbq096.
- Martins, Rosa, Maria João Neto, Ana Andrade, and Carlos Albuquerque. 2014. Abuse and maltreatment in the elderly. Atención Primaria 46: 206–209. Accessed 10 December 2015. doi: 10.1016/s0212-6567(14)70093-9.
- Mental Health and Older Adults. 2016. World Health Organization. Accessed 2 January 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs381/en/.
- Missing Voices: Views of Older Persons on Elder Abuse. 2016. World Health Organization. Accessed 12 January 2016. http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/missing_voices/en/.
- Nainital District: Census 2011 Data. Accessed 5 January 2016. http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/584-nainital.htm.
- National Policy on Older Persons. 1999. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India. Accessed 12 December 2015. http://socialjustice.nic.in/hindi/pdf/npopcomplete.pdf.
- Naughton, C., J. Drennan, I. Lyons, A. Lafferty, M. Treacy, A. Phelan, A. O’loughlin, and L. Delaney. 2011. Elder abuse and neglect in Ireland: Results from a national prevalence survey. Age and Ageing 41: 98–103. Accessed 20 November 2015. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afr107.
- Nisha, Catherin, Steve Manjaly, Pretesh Kiran, Betsy Mathew, and Arvind Kasturi. 2015. Study on elder abuse and neglect among patients in a medical college hospital, Bangalore, India. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect 28: 34–40. Accessed 10 January 2015. doi: 10.1080/08946566.2015.1113599.
- Old Age Solutions. 2015. NGOs and Voluntary Organizations. Accessed 10 December 2015. http://www.oldagesolutions.org/facilities/NGOVOL.aspx.
- Older People’s Health Issues. 2016. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Accessed 5 January 2016. http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/older-people%E2%80%99s-health-issues.
- Oliveira, Amanda Maria Souza De, and Larissa Chaves Pedreira. 2012. Being elderly with functional dependence and their family caregivers. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem 25: 143–149. Accessed 5 December 2015. doi: 10.1590/s0103-21002012000800022.
- Problems of Elderly. 2015. Help-age India. Accessed 5 January 2015. http://www.helpageindiaprogramme.org/Elderly%20Issues/problems_of_the_elderly/index.html.
- Protecting Elders Against Neglect and Abandonment. 2015. Accessed 10 November 2015. http://www.swd.gov.hk/doc/family/elderly-NE&AB.pdf.
- Rajan, S. Irudaya. 2006. Population ageing and health in India. The Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes. Accessed 5 December 2015. http://www.cehat.org/humanrights/rajan.pdf.
- Saikia, Ankumoni, Neelakshi Mahanta, Ajaya Mahanta, Ashokjyoti Deka, and Arupjyoti Kakati. 2015. Prevalence and risk factors of abuse among community dwelling elderly of Guwahati City, Assam. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 40: 279–281. Accessed 14 December 2015. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.164406.
- Salokangas, Raimo K.R., and Matti Joukamaa. 1999. Physical and mental health changes in retirement age. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 55(2–4): 100–107. Accessed 3 January 2016. doi: 10.1159/000288415.
- Sampath Kumar, S., S. Girijakumari, and V. Brindha. 2015. Understanding elderly abuse—A special reference to elderly in an urban slum of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 5: 1–3. Accessed 10 December 2015. http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0615/ijsrp-p4273.pdf.
- Satheesh, N.V., Anuj Nautiyal, and Madhav Abhijeet Ojha. 2015. Prevalence of depression among geriatric people in Dehradun City of Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Depression and Anxiety 04. Accessed 9 December 2015. doi: 10.4172/2167-1044.1000208.
- Sharoni, Siti Khuzaimah Ahmad, Emad Adel Shdaifat, Hayati Adilin Mohd Abd Majid, Norhafizatul Akma Shohor, Fazimah Ahmad, and Zalina Zakaria. 2015. Social support and self-care activities among the elderly patients with diabetes in Kelantan. Malaysian Family Physician 10: 34–43. Accessed 10 December 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4567891/.
- Shivakumar, Prafulla, Shilpa Sadanand, N. Girish, Mariamma Philip, and Mathew Varghese. 2015. Identifying psychological distress in elderly seeking health care. Indian Journal of Public Health 59: 18–23. Accessed 3 December 2015. doi: 10.4103/0019-557x.152849.
- Skirbekk, Vegard, and K.S. James. 2014. Abuse against elderly in India—The role of education. BMC Public Health 14: 1. Accessed 15 December 2015. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-336.
- Srinivasan, Chokkanathan. 2015. Elder mistreatment and health status of rural older adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30(18): 3267–3282. Accessed 5 January 2016. doi: 10.1177/0886260514555014.
- Srinivasan, Chokkanathan, and Alex E.Y. Lee 2005. Elder mistreatment in urban India: A community based study. J Elder Abuse & Neglect 17: 45–61.Google Scholar
- Strasser, Sheryl, Megan Smith, Scott Weaver, Shimin Zheng, and Yan Cao. 2013. Screening for elder mistreatment among older adults seeking legal assistance services. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 14: 309–315. Accessed 12 January 2015. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2013.2.15640.
- The Council on Scientific Affairs, AMA, Chicago. 1987. Elder abuse and neglect. The Journal of the American Medical Association 257(7): 966–971. Accessed 5 December 2015. doi: 10.1001/jama.1987.03390070086030.
- Uttarakhand Population Census Data. 2011. Accessed 5 January 2016. http://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/uttarakhand.html.
- Wang, Jing-Jy, Jong-Ni Lin, and Feng-Ping Lee. 2006. Psychologically abusive behavior by those caring for the elderly in a domestic context. Geriatric Nursing 27: 284–291. Accessed 15 December 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2006.08.016.
- Wu, Li, Hui Chen, Yang Hu, Huiyun Xiang, Xiang Yu, Tao Zhang, Zhongqiang Cao, and Youjie Wang. 2012. Prevalence and associated factors of elder mistreatment in a rural community in People’s Republic of China: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 7. Accessed 22 December 2015. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033857.
- Wu, L., Y. Hu, X. Yu, T. Zhang, Z.Q. Cao, and Y.J. Wang. 2015. Association between social support and mistreatment on elderly in the rural community of Hubei province (Abstract). Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 32: 978–982. Accessed 5 November 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22333078.