Convective Heat Transfer of Metal Oxide-Based Nanofluids in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

  • Nishant Kumar
  • Shriram S. SonawaneEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)


Nanofluid is a solid–liquid mixture in which metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles are suspended in the base fluid. The convective heat transfer performance for CuO- and TiO2-based nanofluids was measured flowing in the tube side in shell and tube heat exchanger. The effect of CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles on the overall heat transfer coefficient of base fluid like distilled water was studied. Nanofluids showed an enhancement in the overall heat transfer coefficient. The investigation of thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient enhancement was analyzed with different concentration of nanoparticles, base fluids, sonication time, and temperature of fluids. The nanoparticles concentration was 0.01–0.06 vol% used in base fluids. The heat transfer performance was studied for different Peclet number and temperature of nanofluids. An increment in the heat transfer performance was found for the nanofluids, by increasing the concentration of nanoparticles, flow rate and temperature of nanofluid.


CuO/TiO2 nanofluids Convective heat transfer Heat exchanger Nuselt number Reynolds number Peclet number Volume fraction 


\( \emptyset \)

Volume fraction

\( \delta_{\text{f}} \)

Density of fluid

\( \delta_{\text{p}} \)

Density of particle

\( \delta_{\text{nf}} \)

Density of nanofluid

\( C_{\text{Pp}} \)

Specific heat of particle

\( C_{\text{Pf}} \)

Specific heat of fluid

\( C_{\text{Pnf}} \)

Specific heat of nanofluid

\( q \)

Convective heat transfer

\( A \)


\( Nu \)

Nusselt number (Dimensionless)

\( {Re} \)

Reynolds number (Dimensionless)

\( Pr \)

Prandtl number (Dimensionless)


Thermal conductivity



The authors are thankful to the Department of Science and Technology (DST) for their funding to this research project (No ETA/318/2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

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