Characterization of Wood Apple Shell Particles

  • O. ShakuntalaEmail author
  • G. Raghavendra
  • S. K. Acharya
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)


Characterization of bio waste fiber/particulates for the fabrication of bio composite is essential, because the performance of composite depends upon several factors, including chemical composition, physical properties, and environmental condition of fiber/particulates. In this research, a new bio waste lignocellulosic wood apple shell particles have been chosen and characterized their properties through various analyses such as proximate, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), whether it is a suitable reinforcement for fabrication of polymer composite. From the analysis, it is concluded that the lignin percentage is more which helps to increase the carbon percentage in the shell particles. EDS result shows that wood apple shell contains hard particles which are suitable for the fabrication of polymer composite.


Wood apple shell Proximate BET EDS 


  1. 1.
    Reddy N, Yang Y (2005) Biofibers from agricultural byproducts for industrial applications. Trends Biotechnol 23(1):22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ojha S, Acharya SK, Raghavendra G (2014) A novel approach to utilize waste carbon as reinforcement in thermoset composite. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part E J Process Mech Eng p 0954408914547118Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mwaikambo LY, Bisanda ETN (1999) Performance of cotton-kapok fabric-polyester composites. Polym Test 18(3):181–198Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Joseph K, Varghese S, Kalaprasad G et al (1996) Influence of interfacial adhesion on the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of short sisal fibre reinforced polymer composites. EurPolym J 32(10):1243–1250Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    John Maya Jacob, Thomas Sabu (2008) Biofibres and biocomposites. Carbohyd Polym 71(3):343–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harmsen P, Huijgen W, Bermudez L, Bakker R (2010) Literature review of physical and chemical pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic. Biomass 1–49Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abdul Khalil HPS, Firoozian P, Bakare IO, Akil HM, Noor AM (2010) Exploring biomass based carbon black as filler in epoxy composites: flexural and thermal properties. Mater Des 31:3419–3425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Raju GU, Kumarappa S (2011) Mechanical and physical characterization of agricultural waste reinforced polymer composite. J Reinf Plast Compos 30:1029Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jacob M, Thomas S, Varughese KT (2004) Mechanical properties of sisal/oil palm hybrid fiber reinforced natural rubber composites. Compos Sci Technol 64:955–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hattotuwa G, Premalal B, Ismail H, Baharin A (2002) Polym Test 21(7):833–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNIT WarangalWarangalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNITRourkelaIndia

Personalised recommendations