Classifications of Hand and Wrist Fractures

  • Yingze ZhangEmail author
  • Xin Xing


Over ten classifications have been reported, and majority of fractures are classified according to location of the fractures.


  1. 1.
    Green DP, O’Brien ET. Fractures of the thumb metacarpal. South Med J. 1972;65:807–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calif E, Stahl S. The surgical treatment of fractures of the base of the fifth metacarpal bone. Harefuah. 2001;140:813–5. 896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schenck RR. Classification of fractures and dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Hand Clin. 1994;10:179–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    London PS. Sprains and fractures involving the interphalangeal joints. Hand. 1971;3:155–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaplan L. Treatment of fractures and dislocations of the hand and fingers. Surg Clin North Am. 1940;20:1695–720.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cannon B, May LW. Skin contractures of the hand. In: Flynn JE, editor. Hand surgery. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1982. p. 111–80.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wehbé MA, Schneider LH. Mallet fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66:658–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kleinert H E, Williams D J. Blast injuries of the hand.[J]. Journal of Trauma, 1962, 2(1):10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Herbert TJ, Fisher WE. Management of the fractured scaphoid using a new bone screw. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1984;66:114–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Russe O. Fracture of the carpal navicular. Diagnosis, non-operative treatment, and operative treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42:759–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cooney WP 3rd. Scaphoid fractures: current treatments and techniques. Instr Course Lect. 2003;52:197–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neuhaus V, Jupiter JB. Current concepts review: carpal injuries - fractures, ligaments, dislocations. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cechoslov. 2011;78:395–403.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Charles AR, David PG. Rockwood and green’s fractures in adults. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1996.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Teisen H, Hjarbaek J. Classification of fresh fractures of the lunate. J Hand Surg Br. 1988;13:458–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopedicsThe Third Hospital of Hebei Medical UniversityShijiazhuangChina

Personalised recommendations