Classification of Hip Joint and Lower Extremity Dislocations

  • Yingze ZhangEmail author
  • Haotian Wu


A classification of hip joint dislocations was first proposed by Ashley Copper in 1791, which divided them into four types; types I–III were associated with different degrees of acetabular fractures, and type IV was associated with femoral head and neck fractures.


  1. 1.
    Brumback RJ, Kenzora JE, Levitt LE, et al. Proceedings of the hip society, 1986. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1987. p. 181–206.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marsh JL, Slongo TF, Agel J, Broderick JS, Creevey W, DeCoster TA, Prokuski L, Sirkin MS, Ziran B, Henley B, Audigé L. Fracture and dislocation classification compendium—2007: Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification, database and outcomes committee. J Orthop Trauma. 2007;21(10 Suppl):S1–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Alan M, et al. Skeletal trauma, 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Harcount Publishers Limited; 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thompson VP, Epstein HA. Traumatic dislocation of the hip, a survey of 204 cases covering a period of twenty-one years. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1951;33:746–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weber MJ. Ankle fractures and dislocations. In: Chapman MW, editor. Operative orthopaedics. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Company; 1993. p. 731–48.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang Y. Bone and joint injuries. 3rd ed. Beijing: People’s Health Publishing House; 2001. p. 1039. [Yicong Wang Classification].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ogden JA. Subluxation and dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1974;56:145–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Myerson MS, Fisher RT, Burgess AR, et al. Fracture dislocations of the TMT joints: end results correlated with pathology and treatment. Foot Ankle. 1986;6:228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jahss MH. Disorders of the hallux and the first ray. In: Jahss MH, editor. Disorders of the foot and ankle. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1991. p. 943–1106.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopedicsThe Third Hospital of Hebei Medical UniversityShijiazhuangChina

Personalised recommendations