Begomoviruses in Nigeria



The family Geminiviridae primarily constitutes an important family of circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plant-infecting viruses, which pose severe constraints in agricultural production globally and serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. There are seven known genera, Mastrevirus, Begomovirus, Curtovirus, Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus, and Turncurtovirus of viruses belonging to the family Geminiviridae. Of these, the best characterized economically important species belong to the genus Begomovirus. Begomovirus species are either monopartite (possessing only DNA-A) or bipartite (having both DNA-A and DNA-B components). Majority of the monopartite begomoviruses also have subviral ssDNA satellite components, called DNA α or DNA β. In some cases, defective interfering DNAs can be found in the helper virus due to deletions of some genomic parts associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. New begomoviral species and their associated subviral components continue to emerge globally, thereby, constituting a formidable challenge to the profitable production of vegetables and other crops. Key begomoviruses associated with major crops in Nigeria are documented in this review.


Geminiviridae Begomovirus Crops Diversity Nigeria 


  1. Alabi OJ, Ogbe FO, Bandyopadhyay R, Dixon AGO, Hughes J, Naidu RA (2007) The occurrence of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in natural hosts other than cassava in Nigeria (Abstr.) Phytopathology 97:S3Google Scholar
  2. Alabi OJ, Kumar PL, Naidu RA (2008) Multiplex PCR method for the detection of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in cassava. J Virol Methods 154:111–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alabi OJ, Kumar PL, Mgbechi-Ezeri JU, Naidu RA (2010) Two new ‘legumoviruses’ (genus Begomovirus) naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria. Arch Virol (2010) 155:643–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alabi OJ, Kumar PL, Naidu RA (2011) Cassava mosaic disease: a curse to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Online APSnet Features. doi: 10.1094/APSnetFeature-2011-0701
  5. Alegbejo MD (1995) Screening of tomato accessions for resistance to leaf curl virus. J Agric Tech 3:65–68Google Scholar
  6. Alegbejo MD, Ogunlana MO (1995) Assessment of losses in tomato caused by tomato leaf curl virus. Abstract of papers presented at the 24 Annual conference of the NSPP, held at the National Root Crops Research Institute (NCRI) Umudike, 28–31 May 1995 27Google Scholar
  7. Alegbejo MD, Olojede SO, Kashina BD, Abo ME (2002) Maize streak Mastrevirus in Africa: distribution, transmission, epidemiology, economic significance and management. J Sustain Agric 19(4):35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anaso CE, Lale NES (2001) Evaluation of aqueous neem kernel extract for the control of major insect pest of okra in Nigeria, Sudan savannah. J Arid Agric 11:65–72Google Scholar
  9. Aritua V, Olanya OM, El-Bedewy R and Ewell PT (2000) Yield and reaction of non-indigenous sweet potato clones to sweet potato virus disease in Uganda. Proceedings of International Workshop on Sweet potato Cultivar Decline Study, Miyakonojo, Japan, pp 48–54Google Scholar
  10. Askira AB (2012) A survey on the incidence of okra leaf curl virus on okra in Lake Alau area of Borno state, Nigeria. Int J Agric 4(1)Google Scholar
  11. Atiri GI, Ogbe FO, Dixon AGO, Winter S, Ariyo O (2004) Status of cassava mosaic virus diseases and cassava begomoviruses in sub-Saharan Africa. J Sustain Agric 24:5–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bailey MA (1934) Sudan empire cotton. Gr Rev 11:280Google Scholar
  13. Basu AN (1995) Bemisia tabaci (gen.) crop pest and principal whitefly vector of plant viruses. Westview press, Boulder, p 183Google Scholar
  14. Berrie LC, Palmer KE, Rybicki EP, Rey MEC (1998) Molecular characterisation of a distinct South African cassava infecting geminivirus. Arch Virol 143:2253–2260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Berry S, Rey MEC (2001) Molecular evidence for diverse populations of cassava infecting begomoviruses in southern Africa. Arch Virol 146:1795–1802CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bock KR, Woods RD (1983) Etiology of African cassava mosaic disease. Plant Dis 67:994–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Briddon RW, Liu S, Pinner MS, Markham PG (1998) Infectivity of African cassava mosaic virus clones to cassava by biolistic inoculation. Arch Virol 143:2487–2492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Briddon RW, Mansoor S, Bedford ID, Pinner MS, Markham PG (2000) Clones of cotton leaf curl geminivirus induce symptoms atypical of cotton leaf curl disease. Virus Genes 20:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown JK (1994) Current status of Bemisia tabaci as a pest and virus vector in agroecosystems worldwide. Plant Prot Bull 42:3–32Google Scholar
  20. Brown JK, Bird J (1992) Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses and associated disorders in the Americas and the Caribbean basin. Plant Dis 76:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown JK, Idris AM, Torres-Jerez I, Banks GK, Wyatt SD (2001) The core region of the coat protein gene is highly useful for establishing the provisional identification and classification of begomoviruses. Arch Virol 146:1581–1598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown JK, Zerbini FM, Navas-Castillo J, Moriones E, Ramos-Sobrinho R, Silva JCF, Fiallo-Olive E, Briddon RW, Herna’ndez-Zepeda C, Idris A, Malathi VG, Martin DP, Rivera-Bustamante R, Ueda S, Varsani A (2015) Revision of Begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons. Arch Virol 160:1593–1619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L, Zurcher EJ (1996) Plant viruses online: descriptions and lists from VIDE database. CAB International, Wallingford, p 1484Google Scholar
  24. Bull SE, Briddon RW, Sserubombwe WS, Ngugi K, Markham PG, Stanley J (2006) Genetic diversity and phylogeography of cassava mosaic viruses in Kenya. J Gen Virol 87:3053–3065CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cauquil J, Follin JC (1983) Presumed virus and mycoplasma-like organismal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world. Cotton FibresTropicales 38:293–317Google Scholar
  26. Czosnek H, Navot N, Laterrot H (1990) Geographical distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. A first survey using a specific DNA probe. Phytopath Med 29:1–6Google Scholar
  27. Dugje IY, Omoigui LO, Ekeleme F, Bandyopadhyay R, Kumar PL, Kamara YA (2009) Farmers’ guide to soybean production in northern Nigeria. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, p 21Google Scholar
  28. Esterhuizen LL, Mabasa KG, van Heerden SW, Czosnek H, Brown K, van Heerden H, Rey MEC (2012) Genetic identification of members of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex from South Africa reveals native and introduced haplotypes. J Appl Entomol. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2012.01720x
  29. Fajemisin JM 2003 Overview of maize viruses in sub-Saharan Africa. In: Hughes JH, Odu J (eds) Plant virology in sub-Saharan Africa. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Conference Ibadan, Nigeria. p 158–171Google Scholar
  30. Fakorede MAB, Fajemisin JM, Ladipo JL, Ajala SO, Kim SK 2001 Development and regional deployment of streak virus maize germplasm: an overview. In: Jacqueline d’A Hughes, Babajide O Odu (eds) Plant virology in sub-Saharan Africa. Proc. of a conference organized by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, pp 503–516. 4 th–8 th June, 2001Google Scholar
  31. FAOSTAT (2008) FAOSTAT. Available at
  32. FAOSTAT (2014) FAOSTAT. Available at Accessed 2 February 2017. FAO, Rome, Italy. FAO Statistics,
  33. Farquharson CO (1912) A report of the mycologist. A manual report of agricultural department of Nigeria. In: Siddique MA, Hungus LC (eds) Cotton growth in Gezira environment. W. Haffer and Sons Ltd, Cambridge, UK, p 106Google Scholar
  34. Fauquet CM, Stanley J (2003) Geminivirus classification and nomenclature: progress and problems. Ann Appl Biol 142(2):65–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fauquet CM, Briddon RW, Brown JK, Moriones E, Stanley J, Zerbini M, Zhou X (2008) Geminivirus strain demarcation and nomenclature. Arch Virol 153:783–821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fernandes FR, Cruz ARR, Faria JC, Zerbini FM, Araga˜o FJL (2009) Three distinct begomoviruses associated with soybean in central Brazil. Arch Virol 154:1567–1570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fondong VNF, Pita S, Rey MEC, de Kochko A, Beachy RN, Fauquet CM (2000) Evidence of synergism between African cassava mosaic virus and a new double-recombinant geminivirus infecting cassava in Cameroon. J Gen Virol 81:287–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghanim M, Czosnek H (2000) Tomato leaf curl virus (TYLCV-is) is transmitted among whitefly in a sex-related manner. J Virol 74:4738–4745CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Gilbertson RL, Faria JC, Hanson SF, Morales FJ, Ahlquist P, Maxwell DP, Russell DR (1991) Cloning of the complete DNA genomes of four bean-infecting geminiviruses and determining their infectivity by electric discharge particle acceleration. Phytopathology 81:980–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hamilton WDO, Bisaro DM, Coutts RHA, Buck KW (1983) Demonstration of the bipartite nature of the genome of a single-stranded DNA plant virus by infection with the cloned DNA components. Nucleic Acids Res 11:7387–7396CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Harrison BD, Liu YL, Zhou X, Robinson DJ, Calvert L, Munoz C, Otim-Nape GW (1997) Properties, differentiation and geographical distribution of geminivirus that cause cassava mosaic disease. Afr J Root Tuber Crops 2:19–22Google Scholar
  42. Harrison BD, Swanson MM, Fargette D (2002) Begomovirus coat protein: serology, variations and functions. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 60:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hong YG, Harrison BD (1995) Nucleotide sequences from tomato leaf curl viruses from different countries: evidence for three geographically separate branches in the evolution of the coat protein of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. J Virol 76:2043–2049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hong YG, Robinson DJ, Harrison BD (1993) Nucleotide sequence evidence for the occurrence of three distinct whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in cassava. J Gen Virol 74:2437–2443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hughes Jd’A, Shoyinka SA (2004) Overview of viruses of legumes other than groundnut in Africa. In: Hughes Jd’A, OduBO (eds) Plant virology in sub-Saharan Africa conference proceedings, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, p 553–568Google Scholar
  46. Jovel J, Reski G, Rothenstein D, Ringel M, Frischmuth T, Jeske H (2004) Sidamicrantha mosaic is associated with a complex infection of begomoviruses different from abutilon mosaic virus. Arch Virol 149:829–841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Karavina C (2014) Maize streak virus: a review of pathogen occurrence, biology and management options for smallholder farmers. Afr J Agric Res 9(36):2736–2742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kashina BD, Mbagala RB, andMpunami A.A. (2002) Molecular characterization of isolates of tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Tanzania. Arch Phytopath 35:225–267Google Scholar
  49. Kashina BD, Alegbejo MD, Banwo OO, Nielsen SL, Mogens N (2013) Molecular identification of a new begomovirus associated with mosaic disease of Jatropha curcas L. in Nigeria. Arch Virol 158(2):511–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan JA, Ahmad J (2005) Diagnosis, monitoring and transmission characters of cotton leaf curl virus. Curr Sci 88:1803–1809Google Scholar
  51. Kisha JSA (1981) The effect of insecticides on Bemisia tabaci, tomato leaf curl disease incidence and yield of tomato in Sudan. Ann Appl Biol 99:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kon T, Gilbertson RL (2012) Two genetically related begomoviruses causing tomato leaf curl disease in Togo and Nigeria differ in virulence and host range but do not require a betasatellite for induction of disease symptoms. Arch Virol 157(1):107–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lagat M, Danson J, Kimani M, Kuria A (2008) Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in maize genotypes used in hybrid development. Afr J Biotechnol 7(14):2573–2577Google Scholar
  54. Lapidot M, Frieedmann M, Pilowsky M, Ben-Joseph R, Cohen S (2001) Effect of resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TLCV) on virus acquisition and transmission by its whitefly vector. Phytopathology 90:1209–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Makkouk KM, Shebab S, Majdaeni SE (1976) Tomato yellow leaf curl, incidence, yield losses and transmission in Lebanon. Phytopathol Z 96:263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Malathi VG, Radhakrishnan G, Varma A (2003) Cotton. In: Loeberstein G, Thattappilly G (eds) Virus and virus-like diseases of major crops in developing countries. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, p 800Google Scholar
  57. Mansoor S, KhanS H, Saeed M (1997) Evidence for the association of a bipartite geminivirus with tomato leaf curls disease in Pakistan. Plant Dis 81:958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martin DP, Willment JA, Billharz R, Velders R, Odhiambo B, Njuguna J, James D, Rybicki EP (2001) Sequence diversity and virulence in Zea mays of maize streak virus isolates. Virology 288:247–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Thwaites RM, Banks GK, Gibson G, Seal S (2004) Reproductive incompatibility and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence variability amongst host-adapted and geographically separate Bemisia tabaci populations (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Syst Entomol 29:560–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Matthew AV, Muniyappa V (1992) Purification and characterization of Indian cassava mosaic virus. Phytopathology 135:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mgbechi-Ezeri J, Alabi OJ, Naidu RA, Kumar PL (2008) First report of the occurrence of African cassava mosaic virus in a mosaic disease of soybean in Nigeria. Plant Dis 92:1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Monde G, Walangululu J, Winter S, Bragard C (2010) Dual infection by cassava begomoviruses in two leguminous species (Fabaceae) in Yangambi, Northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Arch Virol 155:1865–1869CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Monjane AL, Harkins GW, Martins DP, Lemey P, Lefeuvre P, Shepherd DN (2011) Reconstructing the history of maize streak virus strain a dispersal to reveal diversification hot spots and its origin in southern Africa. Africa J Virol 85(18):9233–9636Google Scholar
  64. Moustafa SE (1991) Tomato cultivation and breeding programme for tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance in Egypt. Proceedings of the seminar of EEC contract DGX II – TS 2-A-0558 (CD) Partners 4–7 September, 1991. Notfe Vet-Avigon: 6–8Google Scholar
  65. Mukasa SB, Rubaihayo SB, Valkonen JPT (2006) Interactions between a crinivirus, an ipomovirus and a potyvirus in coinfected sweet potato plants. Plant Pathol 55:458–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Narayana DSA, Shankarappa KS, Govindappa MR, Prameela HA, Gururaj Rao MR, Rangaswamy KT (2006) Natural occurrence of Jatropha mosaic virus disease in India. Curr Sci 91:584–586Google Scholar
  67. Navas-Castillo J, Sanchez-Campos S, Diaz JA, Saez-Alonso E, Moriones E (1999) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus: it causes a novel disease of common bean and severe epidemics in tomato in Spain. Plant Dis 83:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Navas-Castillo J, Fiallo-Olive E, Sanchez-Campos S (2011) Emerging virus diseases transmitted by whiteflies. Annu Rev Phytopathol 49:15.1–15.30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ndunguru J, Legg JP, Aveling TAS, Thompson G, Fauquet CM (2005) Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses. Virol J 2:21CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Ogbe FO, Legg J, Raya MD, Muimba-kankolongo A, Theu MP, Kaitisha G, Phiri NA, Chalwe A (1997) Diagnostic survey of cassava mosaic viruses in Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia. Roots 4:12–15Google Scholar
  71. Ogbe FO, Dixon AGO, Hughes J’A, Alabi OJ, Okechukwu R (2006) Status of cassava begomoviruses and their new natural hosts in Nigeria. Plant Dis 90:548–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ogungbile AO, Kyari MM (1989) Problems associated with large scale cotton production in Nigeria. In: Ogunlela VB, Emechebe AM, Uchegbu BO (eds) Towards increased cotton production in Nigeria. IAR/ABU, ZariaGoogle Scholar
  73. Oluwafemi S, Kraberger S, Shepherd DN, Martin DP, Varsani A (2014) A high degree of African streak virus diversity within Nigerian maize fields includes a new Mastrevirus from Axonopus compressus. Arch Virol 159(10):2765–2770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pita JS, Fondong VN, Sangaré A, Kokora RNN, Fauquet CM (2001) Genomic and biological diversity of the African cassava geminiviruses. Euphytica 120:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Quazi J, Ilyas M, Mansoor S, Briddon RW (2007) Legume yellow mosaic viruses: genetically isolated begomoviruses. Mol Plant Pathol 8:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Raj SK, Snehi SK, Kumar S, Khan MS, Pathre U (2008) First molecular identification of a begomovirus in India that is closely related to Cassava mosaic virus and causes mosaic and stunting of Jatropha curcas L. Australas Plant Dis Notes 3:69–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ramkat RC, Calari A, Maghuly F, Laimer M (2011) Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas. Virol J 8:386CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Redinbaugh MG, Jones MW, Gingery RE (2004) The genetics of virus resistance in maize (Zea mays L.) Maydica 49:183–190Google Scholar
  79. Rey MEC, Ndunguru J, Berrie LC, Paximadis M, Berry S, Cossa N, Nuaila VN, Mabasa KG, Abraham N, Rybicki EP, Martin D, Pietersen G, Esterhuizen LL (2012) Diversity of Dicotyledonous-infecting geminiviruses and their Associated DNA molecules in southern Africa, including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands. Virus 4:1753–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Roberts IM, Robinson DJ, Harrison BD (1984) Serological relationships and genome homologies among geminiviruses. J Gen Virol 65:1723–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rossel HW, Thottappilly G (1988) Virus diseases of sweet potato in Nigeria. In: Improvement of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) in East Africa. Report of the Workshop on Sweet Potato Improvement held at ILRAD, Nairobi September 28–October 2, 1987 (UNDP Project CIAT-CIP-IITA). Lima, Peru: CIP, 53–63)Google Scholar
  82. Rybicki EP (1994) A phylogenetic and evolutionary justification for 3 genera of Geminiviridae. Arch Virol 139:49–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Samretwanich K, Kittipakorn K, Chiemsombat P, Ikegami M (2001) Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of soybean crinkle leaf virus. J Phytopathol 149:333–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Saunders K, Salim N, MaliV R, MalathiV G, Briddon RW, Markham PG, Stanley J (2002) Characterisation of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus and Indian cassava mosaic virus: evidence for acquisition of a DNA B component by a monopartite begomovirus. Virology 293:63–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Schaefers GA, Terry ER (1976) Insect transmission of sweet potato disease agents in Nigeria. Phytopathology 66(5):642–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Seal SE, van den Bosch F, Jeger MJ (2006) Factors influencing begomovirus evolution and their increasing global significance: implications for sustainable control. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:23–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Seif AA (1982) Effect of cassava mosaic virus on yield of cassava. Plant Dis 66:661–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sequeira JC, Harrison BD (1982) Serological studies on cassava latent virus. Ann Appl Biol 101:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shepherd DN, Martin DP, van der Walt E, Dent K, Varsani A, Rybicki EP (2010) Maize streak virus: an old enemy and complex “emerging” pathogen. Mol Plant Pathol 11(1):1–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Singh P, Singh S, Mishra SP, Bhatia SK (2010) Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in Jatropha curcas L. Genes Genomes Genomics 4:1–8Google Scholar
  91. Snehi SK, Raj SK, Khan MS, Prasad V (2011) Molecular identification of a new begomovirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of Jatropha gossypifolia in India. Arch Virol 156:2303–2307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stanley J, Gay MR (1983) Nucleotide sequences of cassava latent virus DNA. Nature 301:260–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tanveer M, Mirza MB (1996) Effect of cotton leaf curl virus on the yield components and fibre properties of four commercial varieties. Pak J Phytpath 8:68–70Google Scholar
  94. Thottappilly G, Thresh JM, Calvert LA, Winter S (2003) Cassava. In: Loebenstein G, Thottappilly G (eds) Virus and virus-like diseases of major crops in developing countries. Kluwer Academic Publ, Dordrecht, pp 107–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Valverde RA, Clark CA, Valkonen JPT (2007) Viruses and virus disease complexes of sweetpotato. Plant Viruses 1:116–126Google Scholar
  96. Varsani A, Oluwafemi S, Windram OP, Shepherd DN, Monjane AL, Owor BE, Rybicki EP, Lefeuvre P, Martin DP (2008) Panicum streak virus diversity is similar to that observed for maize streak virus. Arch Virol 153:601–604CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Wambugu F, Wafula J (2000) Advances in maize streak virus disease research in Eastern and Southern Africa. In: Workshop Report, 15–17 September, 1999, KARI and ISAAA Africa Center, ISAAA Brief No 16. Ithaca, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  98. Wasswa P, Otto B, Maruthi MN, Mukasa SB, Monger W, Gibson RW (2011) First identification of a sweet potato begomovirus (sweepovirus) in Uganda: characterization, detection and distribution. Plant Pathol 60:1030–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yassin AM, Abu HS (1972) Leaf curl of tomato. Tech Bull Agric Res Corp, Geizira and Udorba Res Stns Sudan 33:129Google Scholar
  100. Zhou X, Robinson DJ, Harrison BD (1998) Types of variation in DNA a among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. J Gen Virol 79:2835–2840CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhou XP, Xie Y, Tao XR, Zhang ZK, Li ZH, Fauquet CM (2003) Characterization of DNA beta associated with begomoviruses in China and evidence for co-evolution with their cognate viral DNA-A. J Gen Virol 84:237–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Agricultural ResearchAhmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria

Personalised recommendations