Begomovirus: An Introduction



The genus Begomovirus belonging to the family Geminiviridae constitutes the largest group of plant-infecting DNA viruses affecting a wide range of dicotyledonous plants. The genus is one of the nine genera of the family Geminiviridae which have characteristic geminate (paired) particles (20 × 38 nm) consisting of two incomplete icosahedra (T = 1) containing a total of 110 coat protein subunits organized as 22 pentameric capsomers, encapsidating single-stranded circular DNA genome of 2.5–2.9 kb (Harrison et al. 1977; Stanley 1985). The members of the genus Begomovirus are transmitted by only one vector Bemisia tabaci and have either monopartite (DNA A) or bipartite (DNA A and DNA B) genome. The genus derives its name from the type member, bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) that causes golden mosaic disease in bean in Central America.


  1. Bisaro DM, Hamilton WD, Coutts RH, Buck KW (1982) Molecular cloning and characterisation of the two DNA components of tomato golden mosaic virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 25 10(16):4913–4922CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bock KR, Guthrie EJ, Woods RD (1974) Purification of maize streak virus and its relationship to viruses associated with streak diseases of sugar cane and Panicum maximum. Ann Appl Biol 77:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Briddon RW, Bull SE, Amin I, Idris AM, Mansoor S, Bedford ID, Dhawan P, Rishi N, Siwatch SS, Abdel-Salam AM, Brown JK, Zafar Y, Markham PG (2003) Diversity of DNA β, a satellite molecule associated with some monopartite begomoviruses. Virology 312:106–121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown JK, Zerbini FM, Navas-Castillo J et al (2015) Revision of begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons. Arch Virol 160:1593–1619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dean FB, Nelson JR, Giesler TL, Lasken RS (2001) Rapid amplification of plasmid and phage DNA using phi29 DNA polymerase and multiply-primed rolling circle amplification. Genome Res 11:1095–1099CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Goodman RM (1977) Single-stranded DNA genome in a whitefly-transmitted plant virus. Virology 83:171–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Goodman RM, Bird J (1978) Bean golden mosaic virus. CMI/AAB descriptions of plant viruses No 192Google Scholar
  8. Grimsley N, Hohn T, Davies JW, Hohn B, Wagner RR (1987) Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of infectious maize streak virus into maize plants. Nature 325:177–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gutierrez C (2000) DNA replication and cell cycle in plants: learning from geminiviruses. EMBO J 19:792–799CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Haber S, Ikegami M, Bajet NB, Goodman RM (1981) Evidence for a divided genome in bean golden mosaic virus, a geminivirus. Nature 289:324–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haber S, Howarth AJ, Goodman RM (1983) Restriction map and southern analysis of the bean golden mosaic virus genome. Virology 129:469–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Haible D, Kober S, Jeske H (2006) Rolling circle amplification revolutionizes diagnosis and genomics of geminiviruses. J Virol Methods 135:9–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Settlage SB, Orozco BM, Nagar S, Robertson D (1999) Geminiviruses: models for plant DNA replication, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 18:71–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Bejarano ER, Robertson D, Mansoor S (2013) Geminiviruses: masters at redirecting and reprogramming plant processes. Nat Rev Microbiol 11:777–788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Harrison BD, Robinson DJ (1999) Natural genomic and antigenic variation in whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses). Annu Rev Phytopathol 37:369–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Harrison BD, Barker H, Bock KR, Guthrie EJ, Meredith G, Atkinson M (1977) Plant viruses with circular single-stranded DNA. Nature 270:760–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeske H, Lutgemeier M, Preiss W (2001) DNA forms indicate rolling circle and recombination-dependent replication of abutilon mosaic virus. EMBO J 20:6158–6167CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Lozano G, Trenado HP, Fiallo-Olivé E, Chirinos D, Geraud-Pouey F, Briddon RW, Navas-Castillo J (2016) Characterization of non-coding DNA satellites associated with Sweepoviruses (genus begomovirus, geminiviridae) – definition of a distinct class of begomovirus-associated satellites. Front Microbiol 7:162–173CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Navot N, Pichersky E, Zeiden M, Zamir D, Czosnek H (1991) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a Bemisia tabaci-transmitted geminivirus with a single genomic component. Virology 185:151–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rochester DE, DePaulo JJ, Fauquet CM, Beachy RN (1994) Complete nucleotide sequence of the geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Thailand isolate. J Gen Virol 75:477–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rojas MR, Hagen C, Lucas WJ, Gilbertson RL (2005) Exploiting chinks in the plant’s armor: evolution and emergence of geminiviruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:361–394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Saunders K, Norman A, Gucciardo S, Stanley J (1999) The DNA β satellite component associated with ageratum yellow vein disease encodes an essential pathogenicity protein (βC1). Virology 324(1):37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sequiera JC, Harrison BD (1982) Serological studies on cassava latent virus. Ann Appl Biol 101:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stanley J (1985) The molecular biology of geminiviruses. Adv Virus Res 30:139–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Stanley J, Gay M (1983) Nucleotide sequence of cassava latent virus DNA. Nature 301:260–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Varsani A, Roumagnac P, Fuchs M et al (2017) Capulavirus and grablovirus: two new genera in the family geminiviridae. Arch Virol 162:1819CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Zerbini FM, Briddon RW, Idris A, Martin DP et al (2017) ICTV virus taxonomy profile: geminiviridae. J Gen Virol 98:131–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations