Effect of Ratio of Protrusion Height to Print Diameter on Thermal Behaviour of Al2O3–H2O Nanofluid Flow in a Protrusion Obstacle Square Channel

  • Sunil Kumar
  • Alok Darshan Kothiyal
  • Mangal Singh Bisht
  • Anil Kumar
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 624)


Thermal behaviour of turbulent alumina nanofluids flow in a protrusion obstacles square channel is numerically investigated. The ratio of protrusion height to print diameter varied from 0.83 to 1.67, streamwise spacing of 1.8, spanwise spacing of 1.8, size of nanoparticles of 30 nm, and concentration of 4.0%. The computations are performed under uniform heat flux over a range of Reynolds number varied from 4,000 to 18,000. The best improvement in thermal performance is observed to be 4.35 times higher over smooth surface square duct for the ratio of protrusion height to print diameter of 1.0.


Energy Streamwise spacing Spanwise spacing Nanofluids 



Print diameter of protrusion obstacles, mm


Hydraulic diameter, mm


Height of protrusion, mm


Friction factor


Average flow friction of rough surface


Energy, J


Average flow friction of smooth surface


Heat flux, W/m2


Turbulent Kinetic energy, m2/s2


Reynolds number


Turbulent Mach number


Prandtl number


Turbulent Prandtl number


Total velocity, m/s


Velocity in X-direction, m/s


Streamwise spacing


Dimensionless distance from walls


Spanwise spacing


Average pressure drop across


Protrusion height to print diameter


Average Nusselt number of rough wall


Average Nusselt number without protrusion wall

Greek Symbols


Dynamic Viscosity, Ns/m2


Density, kg/m3


Turbulent Viscosity, Ns/m2


Model Constant


Hydraulic thermal parameter


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alok Darshan Kothiyal
    • 3
  • Mangal Singh Bisht
    • 4
  • Anil Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Civil EngineeringShoolini UniversitySolanIndia
  2. 2.Uttarakhand Technical UniversityDehradunIndia
  3. 3.Baba Farid Institute and Technology DehradunDehradunIndia
  4. 4.Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College Pauri GarhwalPauriIndia

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