Strengthening of RC Buildings with Composites

  • Giorgio Monti
  • Floriana Petrone
Part of the Building Pathology and Rehabilitation book series (BUILDING, volume 9)


The use of composite materials for reinforced concrete (RC) structures strengthening has become a well-established practice in the last decades, especially in seismic zones, either for retrofitting RC buildings not designed to resist seismic loads or for post-event structural rehabilitations. The most common composite materials used in structural engineering applications are Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). A large number of guidelines and codes have been developed, collecting the most advanced concepts in FRP-strengthening: this chapter makes reference to one such document, the Italian CNR DT-200 R1/2013 (Instructions for design, execution and control of strengthening interventions through fibre-reinforced composites. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Roma, 1), and deals with all the aspects relevant to a correct design process, which should start with a proper structural safety assessment and then move to the definition of material properties, main strengthening schemes and design equations. The concepts discussed herein can also be found in EN 1998-3 (Eurocode 8: design of structures for earthquake resistance. European Committee for Standardization, Brussel, 2) and in a recent State-of-the-Art book by RILEM (3).


Composite materials Reinforced concrete strengthening Debonding Flexural strengthening Shear strengthening Torsion strengthening Confinement Ductility 


  1. 1.
    CNR-DT 200 R1/2013: Instructions for design, execution and control of strengthening interventions through fibre-reinforced composites. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Roma, Italy. 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    EN. Eurocode 8: design of structures for earthquake resistance. Brussel: European Committee for Standardization; 1998. p. 2004.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pellegrino C, Sena-Cruz J (eds) Design procedures for the use of composites in strengthening of reinforced concrete structures. RILEM State-of-the-Art Report 19, Springer, The Netherlands (2016). Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Petrone F, Monti G. FRP-RC beam in shear: mechanical model and assessment procedure for pseudo-ductile behavior. Polymers. 2014;6(7):2051–64.Google Scholar

Other Selected References


    1. 5.
      Alam MS, Kanakubo T, Yasojima A. Shear-peeling bond strength between continuous fiber sheet and concrete. ACI Struct J. 2012;109(1):75–82.Google Scholar
    2. 6.
      Bilotta A, Faella C, Martinelli E, Nigro E. Indirect identification method for bilinear bond-law relationship. J. Compos Constr ASCE. 2011;. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000253).
    3. 7.
      Bilotta A, Faella C, Martinelli E, Nigro E. Indirect identification method of bilinear interface laws for FRP bonded on a concrete substrate. J Compos Constr. 2012;16:171–184. ISSN: 1090-0268. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000253.
    4. 8.
      Bizindavyi L, Neale KW. Transfer lengths and bond strengths for composites bonded to concrete. J Compos Constr ASCE. 1999;3:153–60.Google Scholar
    5. 9.
      Bizindavyi L, Neale KW, Erki MA. Experimental Investigation of Bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading. J Compos Constr ASCE. 2003;7(2):127–34.Google Scholar
    6. 10.
      Ceroni F, Pecce M. Evaluation of bond Strength in concrete element externally reinforced with CFRP sheets and anchoring devices. J Compos Constr ASCE. 2010;14(5):521–30.Google Scholar
    7. 11.
      Chajes MJ, Finch WW, Januszka TF, Thomson TA. Bond and force transfer of composite material plates bonded to concrete. ACI Struct J. 1996;93(2):208–17.Google Scholar
    8. 12.
      Chen JF, Teng JG. Anchorage strength models for FRP and steel plates bonded to concrete. ASCE J Struct Eng. 2001;127(7):784–91.Google Scholar
    9. 13.
      De Lorenzis L, Miller B, Nanni A. Bond of fiber-reinforced polymer laminates to concrete. ACI Mater J. 2001;98:256–64.Google Scholar
    10. 14.
      Ferracuti B, Savoia M, Mazzotti C. Interface law for FRP-concrete delamination. Compos Struct. 2007;80(4):523–31.Google Scholar
    11. 15.
      Ko H, Sato Y. Bond stress-slip relationship between FRP sheet and concrete under cyclic load. J Compos Constr ASCE. 2007;11(4):419–26.Google Scholar
    12. 16.
      Mazzotti C, Savoia M, Ferracuti B. An experimental study on delamination of FRP plates bonded to concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2008;22:1409–21.Google Scholar
    13. 17.
      Nakaba K, Kanakubo T, Furuta T, Yoshizawa H. Bond behaviour between fiber-reinforced polymer laminates and concrete. ACI Struct J. 2001;98(3):359–67.Google Scholar
    14. 18.
      Oller E, Cobo Del Arco D, Marì Bernat AR. Design proposal to avoid peeling failure in FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams. J Compos Constr. 2009;13(5):384–93.Google Scholar
    15. 19.
      Smith ST, Teng JG. FRP-strengthened RC beams-II: assessment of debonding strength models. Eng Struct. 2002;24(4):397–417.Google Scholar

Flexure and Shear Strengthening

  1. 20.
    Bousselham A, Chaallal O. Behaviour of reinforced concrete T-beams strengthened in shear with carbon fibre-reinforced polymer—An experimental study. ACI Struct J. 2006;103(3):339–47.Google Scholar
  2. 21.
    Bousselham A, Chaallal O. Mechanisms of shear resistance of concrete beams strengthened in shear with externally bonded FRP. J Compos Constr. 2008;12(5):302–14.Google Scholar
  3. 22.
    Bukhari IA, Vollum RL, Ahmad S, Sagaseta J. Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research. 2010;62(1):65–77.Google Scholar
  4. 23.
    Chen JF, Teng JG. Shear capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beams: FRP debonding. Constr Build Mater. 2003;17:27–41.Google Scholar
  5. 24.
    Carolin A, Taljsten B. Theoretical study on strengthening for increased shear bearing capacity. J Compos Constr. 2005;9(6):497–506.Google Scholar
  6. 25.
    Chen GM, Teng JG, Chen JF. Shear strength for FRP-strengthened RC beams with adverse FRP-steel interaction. J Compos Constr. 2013;17(1):50–66.Google Scholar
  7. 26.
    Chen GM, Teng JG, Chen JF, Rosenboom OA. Interaction between steel stirrups and shear-strengthening FRP strips in RC beams. J Compos Constr. 2010;14(5):498–509.Google Scholar
  8. 27.
    Chen JF, Teng JG. Shear capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beams: FRP rupture. J Struct Eng. 2003;129(5):615–25.Google Scholar
  9. 28.
    D’Antino T, Pellegrino C, Salomoni V, Mazzucco G. Shear behavior of RC structural members strengthened with FRP materials: a three dimensional numerical approach. ACI SP286-05, p. 69–84, 2012.Google Scholar
  10. 29.
    Khalifa A, Gold WJ, Nanni A, Abdel Aziz MI. Contribution of externally bonded FRP to shear capacity of RC flexural members. J Compos Constr. 1998;2(4):195–202.Google Scholar
  11. 30.
    Lima J, Barros J. Reliability analysis of shear strengthening externally bonded FRP models. Proc Inst Civ Eng (ICE) Struct. Build. 2011;164(1):43–56.Google Scholar
  12. 31.
    Modifi A, Chaallal O. Shear strengthening of RC beams with EB FRP: Influencing factors and conceptual debonding model. J Compos Constr. 2011;15(5):62–74.Google Scholar
  13. 32.
    Monti G, Liotta MA. Tests and design equations for FRP-strengthening in shear. Constr Build Mater. 2007;21:799–809.Google Scholar
  14. 33.
    Pellegrino C, Modena C. FRP shear strengthening of RC beams with transverse steel reinforcement. J Compos Constr. 2002;6(2):104–11.Google Scholar
  15. 34.
    Pellegrino C, Vasic M. Assessment of design procedures for the use of externally bonded FRP composites in shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams. Compos B Eng. 2013;45(1):727–41.Google Scholar
  16. 35.
    Petrone F, Monti G. FRP-RC beam in shear: Mechanical model and assessment procedure for pseudo-ductile behavior. Polymers. 2014;6:2051–64.Google Scholar
  17. 36.
    Regan PE. Research on shear: A benefit to humanity or a waste of time? Structural Engineering. 1993;71:337–47.Google Scholar
  18. 37.
    Sas G, Täljsten B, Barros J, Lima J, Carolin A. Are available models reliable for predicting the FRP contribution to the shear resistance of RC beams? J Compos Constr. 2009;13(6):514–34.Google Scholar


  1. 38.
    Carey SA, Harries KA. Axial behaviour and modeling of confined small, medium, and large-scale circular sections with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer jackets. ACI Struct J. 2005;102(4):596–604.Google Scholar
  2. 39.
    Chaallal O, Shahawy M, Hassa M. Performance of axially loaded short rectangular columns strengthened with carbon FRP wrapping. J Compos Constr. 2003;7(3):200–8.Google Scholar
  3. 40.
    De Lorenzis L, Tepfers R. Comparative study of models on confinement of concrete cylinders with fiber reinforced polymer composites. ASCE J Compos Constr. 2003;7(3):219–37.Google Scholar
  4. 41.
    Fahmy MFM, Wu Z. Evaluating and proposing models of circular concrete columns confined with different FRP composites. Compos B. 2010;41(3):199–213.Google Scholar
  5. 42.
    Girgin ZC. Modified failure criterion to predict ultimate strength of circular columns confined by different materials. ACI Struct J. 2009;106(6):800–9.Google Scholar
  6. 43.
    Harajli MH, Dagher F. Seismic strengthening of bond-critical regions in rectangular reinforced concrete columns using fiber-reinforced polymer wraps. ACI Struct J. 2008;105(1):68–77.Google Scholar
  7. 44.
    Harajli MH. Axial stress–strain relationship for FRP confined circular and rectangular concrete columns. Cem Concr Compos. 2006;28:938–48.Google Scholar
  8. 45.
    Harajli MH, Hantouche E, Soudki K. Stress-strain model for fiber-reinforced polymer jacketed concrete columns. ACI Struct J. 2006;103(5):672–80.Google Scholar
  9. 46.
    Ilki A, Kumbasar N. Compressive behaviour of carbon fibre composite jacketed concrete with circular and non circular cross-section. J Earthq Eng. 2003;7(3):381–406.Google Scholar
  10. 47.
    Ilki A, Peker O, Karamuk E, Demir C, Kumbasar N. FRP retrofit of low and medium strength circular and rectangular reinforced concrete columns. ASCE J Mater Civ Eng. 2008;20(2):169–88.Google Scholar
  11. 48.
    Jiang T, Teng JG. Analysis-oriented models for FRP-confined concrete: a comparative assessment. Eng Struct. 2007;29(11):2968–86.Google Scholar
  12. 49.
    Lignola GP, Nardone F, Prota A, Manfredi G. Analytical model for the effective strain in FRP-wrapped circular RC columns. Compos Part B. 2012;43(8):3208–18.Google Scholar
  13. 50.
    Lignola GP, Nardone F, Prota A, De Luca A, Nanni A. Analysis of RC hollow columns strengthened with GFRP. ASCE J Compos Constr. 2011;15(4):545–56.Google Scholar
  14. 51.
    Lin JL, Liao CI. Compressive strength of reinforced concrete column confined by composite material. Compos Struct. 2004;65:239–50.Google Scholar
  15. 52.
    Matthys S, Toutanji H, Audenaert K, Taerwe L. Axial load behavior of large-scale columns confined with fiber-reinforced polymer composites. ACI Structural Journal. 2005;102(2):258–67.Google Scholar
  16. 53.
    Mirmiran A, Shahawy M, Samaan M, El Echary H, Mastrapa JC, Pico O. Effect of column parameters on FRP-confined concrete. ASCE J Compos Constr. 1998;2(4):175–85.Google Scholar
  17. 54.
    Ozbakkaloglu T, Lim JC, Vincent T. FRP-confined concrete in circular sections: review and assessment of stress–strain models. Eng Struct. 2013;49:1068–88.Google Scholar
  18. 55.
    Pessiki S, Harries KA, Kestner JT, Sause R, Ricles JM. Axial behaviour of reinforced concrete columns confined with FRP jackets. ASCE J Compos Constr. 2001;5(4):237–45.Google Scholar
  19. 56.
    Realfonzo R, Napoli A. Concrete confined by FRP systems: confinement efficiency and design strength models. Compos B. 2011;42(4):736–55.Google Scholar
  20. 57.
    Spoelstra MR, Monti G. FRP-confined concrete model. ASCE J Compos Constr. 1999;3(3):143–50.Google Scholar
  21. 58.
    Tan KH. Strength enhancement of rectangular RC columns using FRP. ASCE J Compos Constr. 2002;6(3):175–83.Google Scholar
  22. 59.
    Teng JG, Lam L. Behaviour and modeling of fiber reinforced polymer-confined concrete. ASCE J Struct Eng. 2004;130(11):1713–23.Google Scholar
  23. 60.
    Wang LM, Wu YF. Effect of corner radius on the performance of CFRP-confined square concrete columns: test. Eng Struct. 2008;30(2):493–505.Google Scholar
  24. 61.
    Wu YF, Wang LM. Unified strength model for square and circular concrete columns confined by external jacket. ASCE J Struct Eng. 2009;135(3):253–61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Structural Engineering and GeotechnicsSapienza Università di RomaRomeItaly
  2. 2.College of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Tech UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Energy Geosciences DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations