Water Quality Assessment and Correlation Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sukinda Chromite Mining Area, Odisha, India

  • R. K. TiwaryEmail author
  • Binu Kumari
  • D. B. Singh
Conference paper
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 77)


The Sukinda Chromite Valley of Odisha state is endowed with the highest reserve of chromite ore in India and produces 98% of the chromite ore of the country. Cr (VI) is a highly toxic form of chromium metal being used in different industries like leather tanning, electroplating, dye and pigment. Due to open cast mining process in Sukinda chromite valley, huge quantity of over burden dump (OB) are being generated and during rainy season Cr (VI) leached from the OB dump and contaminate the ground water as well as surface water of the surrounding area. Different water samples were collected from mines, surface water and groundwater and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties including heavy metals and Cr (VI). The result shows that at some locations, the total Cr and Cr (VI) concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/L as per Indian water quality standards, despite mine water treatment at mine sites. The concentration of total Cr in mine water ranged from 0.32 to 1.46 mg/L before treatment and between 0.02 and 0.42 mg/L after treatment. Total chromium for surface water varied from 0.04 to 0.38 mg/L and for groundwater varied from 0.001 to 0.678 mg/L which exceeds the permissible limit of 0.1 mg/L for inland surface water. Cr (VI) content in these water samples also exceeds the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/L. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that the Cr exhibited a significant positive correlation with pH (0.688), temperature (0.428), Total hardness (0.568) and sulphate (0.686). Cr (VI) also showed the similar results with total chromium.


Hexavalent chromium Correlation study Heavy metals Contamination 



The authors acknowledge Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi for financial help through networking project. We also acknowledge our colleagues of Environment Management Group for rendering cooperation during field survey and laboratory analysis.


  1. Abbasi SA, Soni R (1984) Teratogenic effects of chromium (VI) in the environment as evidenced by the impact of larvae of amphibian Rana tigrina: implications in the environmental management of chromium. Int J Environ Stud 23:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (American Public Health Association) (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st edn. APHA, American Water Works Assoc, Water Environment Fed, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards), 2490 part I, (1981), Tolerance limits for industrial effluentsGoogle Scholar
  4. BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) 10500 (1991). Water quality guidelines for drinking water and aquatic lifeGoogle Scholar
  5. Dhakate R, Singh VS (2008) Heavy metal contamination in groundwater due to mining activities in Sukinda valley, Orissa—a case study. J Geogr Reg Plann 1(4):058–067Google Scholar
  6. Khatoon N, Khan AH, Rehman M, Pathak V (2013) Correlation study for the assessment of water quality and its parameters of Ganga River, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. IOSR J Appl Chem (IOSR-JAC), 5(3):80–90Google Scholar
  7. Lottermoser B (2012) Mine wastes: characterization, treatment and environmental impacts. Springer, New York, p 400Google Scholar
  8. Mancuso TF (1951) Occupational cancer and other health hazards in a chrome plant: a medical appraisal. II clinical and toxicological aspects. Ind Med Surg 20:393–407Google Scholar
  9. Mancuso TF, Heuper WC (1951) Occupational cancer and other health hazards in a chrome plant: a medical. appraisal: I. Lung cancers in chromate workers. Ind Med Surg 20:358–363Google Scholar
  10. Mishra H, Sahu HB (2013) Environmental scenario of chromite mining at Sukinda Valley—a review. Int J Env Manag. 4(4):287–292Google Scholar
  11. Mohanty M, Patra HK (2011) Attenuation of chromium toxicity in mine waste water hyacinth. J Stress Phys Biochem 7(4):336–346Google Scholar
  12. Ono BL (1988) Genetic approaches in the study of chromium toxicity and resistance in yeast and bacteria. In: Nriagu JO, Niebor R (eds) Chromium in the natural and human environments. Wiley, New York, pp 351–368Google Scholar
  13. Pejman AH, Bidhendi GRN, Karbassi AR, Mehrdadi N, Bidhendi ME (2009) Evaluation of spatial and seasonal variations in surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques. Int J Environ Sci Technol 6(3):467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rao AV, Dhakate RR, Singh VS, Jain SC (2003) Geophysical and hydrogeological investigations to delineate aquifer geometry at Kaliapani, Sukinda, Orissa. NGRI technical report no.GW-367Google Scholar
  15. Tiwary RK, Gupta JP, Banerjee NN, Dhar BB (1995) Impact of coal mining activities on water and human health in Damodar river basin. 1st world mining environment congress, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  16. Tiwary RK, Dhakate R, Rao VA, Singh VS (2005) Assessment and prediction of contaminant migration in ground water from chromite waste dump. Environ Geol 48:420–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Waterhouse JAH (1975) Cancer among chromium platers. Br J Cancer 32(2):262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. WHO (World Health Organization) (1984) Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organization. Washington, DC, pp 333–335Google Scholar
  19. Yassi A, Nieboer E (1988) Carcinogenicity of chromium compounds. In: Nriagu JO, Nieboer E (eds) Chromium in the natural and human environments. Wiley, New York, pp 443–496Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environment Management GroupCSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel ResearchDhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations