Atmospheric Stressors: Challenges and Coping Strategies

  • Santanu Kumar BalEmail author
  • Paramjit Singh Minhas


The basic principle of agriculture lies with how crop/livestock interacts with atmosphere and soil as a growing medium. Thus any deviation of external optimal atmospheric conditions affects the pathway through changes in atmospheric and edaphic/feed factors for crop/animal growth, development and/or productivity. Besides these, change and variability in atmospheric conditions have increased due to human activities to induce greenhouse gas emissions. In the continuation of current trend in carbon emissions, temperatures will rise by about 1 °C and 2 °C by the year 2030 and 2100, respectively. With warmer climate, frequency and severity of extreme weather events would increase as indicated by incidences of heat waves, extreme rains, hailstorm, etc. during recent years. Besides these, events like cloudburst, cyclone, sand/dust storm, frost and cold wave and deteriorated air quality are becoming regular events. However, the type and intensity of stress events will probably have varying impacts in different ecoregions. These events cause huge impact both in terms of mechanical and physiological on commodities across crop, livestock, poultry and fisheries. The quantum of impact on crops mainly depends on the type of stress and crop/animal/fish, its stage/age and mode of action of the stress. Management strategies for mitigation of these stresses require both application of current multidisciplinary knowledge, development of a range of technological innovations and timely interventions. It’s high time to update our knowledge regarding existing technologies and side by side explores new avenues for managing atmospheric stresses in agriculture. The first step for the scientific community will be to screen and identify species for tolerance to atmospheric stresses followed by complete insight of the biological processes behind the atmospheric stress response combined with emerging technologies in breeding, production, protection and postharvest which is likely to improve productivity and reduce losses. The type and level of stresses must be properly quantified through proper scientific planning for present as well as future references for finding mitigation and adaptation solutions. Keeping above in view, this chapter has been prepared which includes aspects covering atmospheric stresses, their challenges and coping strategies in various agricultural enterprises including crops, livestock, poultry and fisheries. This chapter will ignite the minds of all stakeholders including students and researchers to explore more in finding proper adaptation, and mitigation measures. This will pave the way for developing food and livelihood systems that will have greater economic and environmental resilience to risk.


  1. Aarnink AJA, Roelofs PFMM, Ellen H, Gunnink H (1999) Dust sources in animal houses. In: Proceedings of international symposium on dust control in animal production facilities Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 34–40Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal PK (2009) Global climate change and Indian agricultural Case studies from ICAR network project, ICAR pp 148Google Scholar
  3. Ahrens CD (2015) Essentials of meteorology: an invitation to the atmosphere. LENGAGE Learning PublishersGoogle Scholar
  4. Alavi M, Sharifi M (2015) Experimental effects of sand-dust storm on tolerance index, percentage phototoxicity and chlorophyll a fluorescence of Vigna radiata L. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci 5(1):16–24Google Scholar
  5. Al-Issawi M, Rihan HZ, El-Sarkassy N, Fuller MP (2012) Frost hardiness expression and characterisation in wheat at ear emergence. J Agron Crop Sci 199:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allan RP (2011) Climate change: human influence on rainfall. Nature 470(7334):344–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Allan JD, Abell R, Hogan ZEB, Revenga C, Taylor BW, Welcomme RL, Winemiller K (2005) Overfishing of inland waters. Biocontrol Sci 55:1041–1051Google Scholar
  8. Altan O, Pabuccuoglu A, Alton A, Konyalioglu S, Bayraktar H (2003) Effect of heat stress on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and some stress parameters in broilers. Br Poult Sci 44(4):545–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ames DR, Brink DR, Willms CL (1980) Adjusting protein in feedlot diet during thermal stress. J Anim Sci 50(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Angadi SV, Cutforth HW, Miller PR, McConkey EMH, Brabdt SA, Volkmar KM (2000) Response of three Brassica species to high temperature stress during reproductive growth. Can J Plant Sci 56:693–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anjum F, Wahid A, Farooq M, Javed F (2011) Potential of foliar applied thiourea in improving salt and high temperature tolerance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Int J Agric Biol 13:251–256Google Scholar
  12. Arogo J, Westerman PW, Heber AJ, Robarge WP, Classen JJ (2006) Ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. In: Rice JM, Caldwell DF, Humenik FJ (eds) Animal agriculture and the environment: national center for manure and animal waste management white papers. ASABE, St Joseph, pp 41–88Google Scholar
  13. Arora RK, Singh RK, Gulati S (2010) Managing loss from ground frost a major constraint to potato production in north western plans. Potato J 37(1–2):73–74Google Scholar
  14. Ashraf MA (2012) Waterlogging stress in plants: A review. Afr J Agr Res 7:1976–1981Google Scholar
  15. Aulakh MS, Singh B (1997) Nitrogen losses and fertilizer N use efficiency in irrigated porous soils. Nut Cyc Agroecosyst 47:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Awasthi LP (2015) Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of plant diseases. Springers India, p 285Google Scholar
  17. Baarendse PJ, Kemp B, Van Den Brand H (2006) Early-age housing temperature affects subsequent broiler chicken performance. Br Poult Sci 47(2):125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Badr MA, Abou El-Yazied AA (2007) Effect of fertigation frequency from sub-surface drip irrigation on tomato yield grown on sandy soil. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 1(3):279–285Google Scholar
  19. Bahga CS, Gangwar PC (1988) Seasonal variations in plasma hormones and reproductive efficiency in early postpartum buffalo. Theriogenology 30:1209–1223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bal SK, Minhas PS (2016) Managing abiotic stresses in agricultural field: ICAR-NIASM initiative. In: Proceedings of the IES international conference on “natural resource management: ecological perspectives” held at SKUAS&T (Jammu), J&K, India during 18–20 Feb 2016, p 44Google Scholar
  21. Bal SK, Saha S, Fand BB, Singh NP, Rane J, Minhas PS (2014) Hailstorms: causes, damage and post hail management in agriculture. Tech Bull No. 5 National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Baramati 413115, Pune, Maharashtra (India) pp. 44Google Scholar
  22. Banday T, Untoo M (2012) Adverse season and poultry farming: management of poultry in extreme weather. Available on: www.en.engormix.comGoogle Scholar
  23. Banhazi TM (2009) User-friendly air quality monitoring system. App Engr Agric 25:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Banhazi TM, Currie E, Reed S, Lee I-B, Aarnink AJA (2009) Controlling the concentrations of airborne pollutants in piggery buildings. In: Aland A, Madec F (eds) Sustainable animal production: the challenges and potential developments for professional farming. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp 285–311Google Scholar
  25. Banks S, King SA, Irvine DS, Saunders PTK (2005) Impact of a mild scrotal heat stress on DNA integrity in murine spermatozoa. Reproduction 129(4):505–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barange M, Perry RI (2009) Physical and ecological impacts of climate change relevant to marine and inland capture fisheries and aquaculture. In: Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture overview of current scientific Knowledge, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 530. FAO, Rome, pp 7–106Google Scholar
  27. Barnabas B, Jager K, Feher A (2008) The effect of drought and heat stress on reproductive processes in cereals. Plant Cell Environ 31(1):11–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Beede DK, Collier RJ (1986) Potential management strategies for intensively managed cattle during thermal stress. J Anim Sci 62(2):543–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bell JD, Johnson JE, Ganachaud AS, Gehrke PC, Hobdey AJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Le Borgne R, Lehodey P, Lough JM, Pickering T, Pratchett MS, Waycott M (2011) Vulnerability of tropical fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. pp 665Google Scholar
  30. Berlato MA, Farenzena H, Fontana DC (2005) Association between El Nino southern oscillation and corn yield in Rio Grande do Sul State. Pesq Agrop Brasileira 40:423–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bhatnagar A, Garg SK (2000) Causative factors of fish mortality in still water fish ponds under sub-tropical conditions. Aquaculture 1(2):91–96Google Scholar
  32. Bhattacharyya R, Ghosh BN, Mishra PK, Mandal B, Srinivasa Rao C, Sarkar D, Das K, Kokkuvayil Sankaranarayanan K, Lalitha M, Hati KM, Franzluebbers AJ (2015) Soil degradation in India: challenges and potential solutions. Sustain For 7:3528–3570. doi: 10.3390/su7043528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bita CE, Gerats T (2013) Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: Scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops. Front Plant Sci 4:273. (online)PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bonnet S, Geraert PA, Lessire M, Carre B, Guillaumin S (1997) Effect of high ambient temperature on feed digestibility in broilers. Poult Sci 76(6):857–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Boyhan GE, Kelley WT, (2001) Onion production guide, Bulletin 1198. College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Georgia, pp. 56Google Scholar
  36. Brahmane MP, Sajjanar B, Kumar N, Pawar SS, Bal SK, Krishnani KK (2017) Impact of rearing temperatures on Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia) growth, muscle morphology and gene expression. J Environ BiolGoogle Scholar
  37. Brander KM (2007) Global fish production and climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19709–19714PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brown DJA, Sadler K (1989) Fish survival in acid waters. In: Morris R, Taylor EW, DJA B, Brown JA (eds) Acid toxicity and aquatic animals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 31–44CCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cai T, Xu H, Peng D, Yin Y, Yang W, Ni Y, Chen X, Xu C, Yang D, Cui Z, Wang Z (2014) Exogenous hormonal application improves grain yield of wheat by optimizing tiller productivity. Field Crop Res 155:172–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Campos EJ (2000) Avicultura: razoes, fatos e divergencias. FEP-MVZ Escola de Veterinaria da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, 311 pGoogle Scholar
  41. Carrasco E, Devaux A, Garcla W, Esprella R (1997) Frost tolerant potato varieties for the Andean Highlands. In: Program Report 1995–1996. Int Potato Center, Lima pp, pp 237–232Google Scholar
  42. Chakraborty U, Pradhan D (2011) High temperature-induced oxidative stress in Lens culinaris, role of antioxidants and amelioration of stress by chemical pre-treatments. J Plant Interact 6:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Challinor AJ, Wheeler TR, Slingo TM, Hemming D (2005) Quantification of physical and biological uncertainty in the simulation of yield of a tropical crop using present-day and doubled CO2 climates. Philos Trans R Soc B 360:2085–2094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Challinor A, Wheeler T, Craufurd P, Ferro C, Stephenson D (2007) Adaptation of crops to climate change through genotypic responses to mean and extreme temperatures. Agric Ecosyst Environ 119(1–2):190–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Changi WYB, Ouyang H (1988) Dynamics of dissolved oxygen and vertical circulation in fish ponds. Aquaculture 74:263–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cho K, Tiwari S, Agrawal SB, Torres NL, Agrawal M, Sarkar A, Shibato J, Agrawal GK, Kubo A, Rakwal R (2011) Tropospheric ozone and plants: absorption, responses and consequences. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 212:61–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Choiniere YMJ (1993) Farm workers health problems related to air quality inside livestock barns. Ministry of Agriculture and Food Factsheet, 4, 3Google Scholar
  48. Chowdhury MTH, Sukhan ZP, Hannan MA (2010) Climate change and its impact on fisheries resource in Bangladesh ( Scholar
  49. Ciais P, Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A, Ogee J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Buchmann N, Bernhofer C, Carrara A et al (2005) Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437:529–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cohen SS, Gale J, Poljakoff-Mayber A, Shmida A, Suraqui S (1981) Transpiration and the radiation climate of the leaf on Mt. Hermon: a Mediterranean mountain. Aust J Ecol 69:391–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cole P, McCloud P (1985) Salinity and climatic effects on the yields of citrus. Aust J Exp Agric 25:711–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Colebrook EH, Thomas SG, Phillips AL, Hedden P (2014) The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress. J Exp Biol 217:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Collier RJ, Beede DK, Thatcher WW, Israel LA, Wilcox LS (1982) Influences of environment and its modification on dairy animal health and production. J Dairy Sci 65:2213–2227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Coppock CE, Grant PA, Portzer SJ (1982) Lactating dairy cow responses to dietary sodium, chloride, bicarbonate during hot weather. J Dairy Sci 65(4):566–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cueva S, Sillau H, Valenzuela A, Ploog H (1974) High altitude induced pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in broiler chickens. Res Vet Sci 16:370–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dai SF, Gao F, Xu XL, Zhang WH, Song SX, Zhou GH (2012) Effects of dietary glutamine and gamma aminobutyric acid on meat colour, pH, composition, and water-holding characteristic in broilers under cyclic heat stress. Br Poult Sci 53(4):471–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Das HP (2012) Agrometeorology in extreme events and natural disasters. BS Publications, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  58. Dat JF, Lopez-Delgado H, Foyer CH, Scott IM (1998) Parallel changes in H2O2 and catalase during thermotolerance induced by salicylic acid or heat acclimation in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiol 116(4):1351–1357PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. David B, Mejdell C, Michel V, Lund V, Moe RO (2015) Air quality in alternative housing systems may have an impact on laying hen welfare. Part II—Ammonia. Animals (Basel) 5(3):886–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Davis MS, Foster WM (2002) Inhalation toxicology in the equine respiratory tract (Last Updated: 28-Feb-2002). In: Lekeux P (ed) Equine respiratory diseases. International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca., 2002; B0319.0202
  61. Daw T, Adger WN, Brown K, Badjeck MC (2009) Climate change and capture fisheries: potential impacts, adaptation and mitigation. In: Cochrane K, De Young C, Soto D, Bahri T (eds) Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture: overview of current scientific knowledge, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 530. FAO, Rome, pp 107–150Google Scholar
  62. De US, Dube RK, Prakasa Rao GS (2005) Extreme weather events over India in last 100 years. J Indian Geophys Union 9:173–187Google Scholar
  63. Declercq AM, Haesebrouck F, Broeck WV, Bossier P, Decostere A (2013) Columnaris disease in fish: a review with emphasis on bacterium-host interactions. Vet Res 44(1):27PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dupont FM, Hurkman WJ, Vensel WH, Tanaka C, Kothari KM, Chung OK, Altenbach SB (2006) Protein accumulation and composition in wheat grains: effects of mineral nutrients and high temperature. Eur J Agron 25(2):96–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Duran-Zuazo VH, Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo CR (2008) Soil-erosion and runoff prevention by plant covers. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 28:65–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Easterling W, Apps M (2005) Assessing the consequences of climate change for food and forest resources: a view from the IPCC. Climate Change 70(1):165–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Etches RJ, John TM, Verrinder Gibbins AM (1995) Behavioural, physiological, neuroendocrine and molecular responses to heat stress. In: Daghir NJ (ed) Poultry production in hot climates. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 31–65Google Scholar
  68. FAO (2009) The state of food and agriculture 2009. Rome, FAOGoogle Scholar
  69. FAO (2012) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2012. Rome. pp. 209Google Scholar
  70. FAO (2016) Climate change and food security: risks and responses. Rome ( Scholar
  71. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Rehman H, Saleem BA (2008) Seed priming enhances the performance of late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by improving chilling tolerance. J Agron Crop Sci 194:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Farrell TC, Fukai S, Williams RL (2006) Minimizing cold damage during reproductive development among temperate rice genotypes. I. Avoiding low temperature with the use of appropriate sowing time and photoperiod-sensitive varieties. Aust J Agric Res 57:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Feddes JJR, Koberstein BS, Robinson FE, Ridell C (1992) Misting and ventilation rate effects on air quality, and heavy from turkey performance and health. Can Agric Eng 34(2):177–181Google Scholar
  74. Fischer R, Edmeades GO (2010) Breeding and cereal yield progress. Crop Sci 50:S-85–S-98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Freeman BM (1987) The stress syndrome. Worlds Poult Sci J 43(1):15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fuglestvedt JS, Berntsen TK, Godal O, Sausen R, Shine KP, Skodvin T (2003) Metrics of climate change: assessing radiative forcing and emission indices. Clim Chang 58(3):267–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fuhrer J, Skarby L, Ashmore MR (1997) Critical levels for effects of ozone on vegetation in Europe. Environ Pollut 97(1–2):91–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Geiger SC, Manu A, Bationo A (1992) Changes in a sandy Sahelian soil following crop residue and fertilizer additions. Soil Sci Soc Amer J 56(1):172–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ghazi SH, Habibian M, Moeini MM, Abdol Mohammadi AR (2012) Effects of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium on growth performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 146(3):309–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gilbert M, Slingenbergh J, Xiao X (2008) Climate change and avian influenza. Rev Sci Tech 27(2):459–466PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gleeson M (1986) Respiratory adjustments of the unanaesthetized chicken, gallus domesticus, to elevated metabolism elicited by 2,4 dinitrophenol or cold exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol 83(2):283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Graham AW, McDonald GK (2001) Effect of zinc on photosynthesis and yield of wheat under heat stress. In: Proceedings of the 10th Australian Agronomy Conference Hobart, January 29–February 1, 2001, Australian Society of Agronomy, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  83. Gregory NG (2010) How climatic changes could affect meat quality. Food Res Int 43:1866–1873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Griffiths H (2003) Effects of Air Pollution on Agricultural Crops. Factsheet Available on Scholar
  85. Groot-Koerkamp PW, Bleijenberg R (1998) Effect of type of aviary, manure and litter handling on the emission kinetics of ammonia from layer houses. Br Poult Sci 39:379–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Guis H, Caminade C, Calvete C, Morse AP, Tran A, Baylis M (2012) Modelling the effects of past and future climate on the risk of bluetounge emergence in Europe. J R Soc Interface 9(67):339–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gupta JP, Kar A and Faroda AS (1997) Desertification in India: problems and possible solutions. Yojana (Independence Day Issue on Development and Environment): 55–59Google Scholar
  88. Hader D, Williamson CE, Wangberg SA, Rautio M, Rose KC, Gao K, Helbling EW, Sinha RP, Worrest R (2015) Effects of UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with other environmental factors. Photochem Photobiol Sci 14:108–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hagan LJ, Armbrust DV (1994) Plant canopy effects on wind erosion saltation. Trans ASAE 37(2):461–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hartmann DL, Klein Tank AMG, Rusticucci M, Alexander LV, Brönnimann S, Charabi Y, Dentener FJ, Dlugokencky EJ, Easterling DR, Kaplan A, Soden BJ, Thorne PW, Wild M, Zhai PM (2013) Observations: atmosphere and surface. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis, Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Fujita M (2012) Exogenous nitric oxide alleviates high temperature induced oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings by modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. Aust J Crop Sci 6(8):1314–1323Google Scholar
  92. Havenhand JN, Buttler F, Thorndyke MC, Williamson JE (2008) Near-future levels of ocean acidification reduce fertilisation success in a sea urchin. Curr Biol 18:R651–R652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Heber AJ, Stroik M, Faubion JM, Willard LH (1988) Size distribution and identification of aerial dust particles in swine finishing buildings. Trans ASAE 31(3):882–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hedhly A, Hormaza JI, Herrero M (2009) Global warming and sexual plant reproduction. Trends Plant Sci 14:30–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hernandez J, Benedito JL, Abuelo A, Castillo C (2014) Ruminal acidosis in feedlot: from aetiology to prevention, The Scientific World J, ID 702572
  96. Hidema J, Kumagai T (2006) Sensitivity of rice to ultraviolet-B radiation. Ann Bot 97(6):933–942PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hilborn R, Branch TA, Ernst B, Magnusson A, Minte-Vera CV, Scheuerell MD, Valero JL (2003) State of the world’s fisheries. Annu Rev Environ Resour 28:359–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hirayama T, Shinozaki K (2010) Research on plant abiotic stress responses in the post genome era: past, present and future. Plant J 61(6):1041–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Holland GJ, Webster PJ (2007) Heightened tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic: natural variability or climate trend? Phil Trans the Royal Soc A 365(1860):2695–2716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Houghton JT, Collander BA, Ephraums JJ (eds) (1990) Climate change – the IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 135Google Scholar
  101. Hsu JC, Lin CY, Chiou PW (1998) Effects of ambient temperature and methionine supplementation of a low protein diet on the performance of laying hens. Anim Feed Sci Technol 74(4):289–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Huthwelker T, Ammann M, Peter T (2006) The uptake of acidic gases on ice. Chem Rev 106(4):1375–1444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hutton RJ, Landsberg JJ (2000) Temperature sums experienced before harvest partially determine the post-maturation juicing quality of oranges grown in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas (MIA) of New South Wales. J Sci Food Agric 80:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Iizumi T, Ramankutty N (2015) How do weather and climate influence cropping area and intensity? Global Food Sec 4:46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Imik H, Ozlu H, Gumus R, Atasever MA, Urgar S, Atasever M (2012) Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-lipoic acid on performance and meat quality of broilers subjected to heat stress. Br Poult Sci 53(6):800–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. India Meteorological Department (2015) Ministry of Earth Science, Govt of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  107. IPCC (2007a) In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis, Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York. 996 ppGoogle Scholar
  108. IPCC (2007b) Fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change: the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (Working Group III). Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. IPCC (2007c) Summary for policymakers. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M et al (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis, Contribution of the working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 22Google Scholar
  110. IPCC (2012) In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner GK, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation, A special report of working groups I and II of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York. pp 582Google Scholar
  111. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change‚ Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK‚ Boschung J‚ Nauels A‚ Xia Y‚ Bex V‚ Midgley PM (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  112. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability, Regional aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Isaksen ISA, Berntsen TK, Dalsoren SB, Eleftheratos K, Orsolini Y, Rognerud B, Stordal F, Amund Sovde O, Zerefos C, Holmes CD (2014) Atmospheric ozone and methane in a changing climate. Atmos 5:518–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Iwagami Y (1996) Changes in the ultrasonic of human cells related to certain biological responses under hyperthermic culture conditions. Hum Cell 9(4):353–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Izuta T (2017) Air pollution impacts on plants in East Asia. Springers, Japan. doi  10.1007/978-4-431-56438-6
  116. Jain M, Prasad PV, Boote KJ, Hartwell AL Jr, Chourey PS (2007) Effects of season-long high temperature growth conditions on sugar to starch metabolism in developing microspores of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Planta 227(1):67–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Jiang QW, Kiyoharu O, Ryozo I (2002) Two novel mitogen-activated protein signalling components, OsMEK1 and OsMAP1, are involved in a moderate low-temperature signaling pathway in Rice. Plant Physiol 129(4):1880–1891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Johkan M, Oda M, Maruo T, Shinohara Y (2011) Crop production and global warming. In: Casalegno S (ed) Global warming impacts: case studies on the economy, human health, and on urban and natural environments. InTech, Rijeka, pp 139–152Google Scholar
  119. Jones PD, New M, Parker DE, Martin S, Rigor IG (1999) Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years. Rev Geophys 37:173–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Julian RJ, McMillan I, Quinton M (1989) The effect of cold and dietary energy on right ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular failure and ascites in meat-type chickens. Avian Pathol 18(4):675–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kant S, Seneweera S, Rodin J, Materne M, Burch D, Rothstein SJ, Spangenberg G (2012) Improving yield potential in crops under elevated CO2: integrating the photosynthetic and nitrogen utilization efficiencies. Front Plant Sci 3(162). doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00162
  122. Kaur H, Arora SP (1984) Annual pattern of plasma progesterone in normal cycling buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed two different levels of nutrition. Anim Reprod Sci 7:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kaushal N, Gupta K, Bhandhari K, Kumar S, Thakur P, Nayyar H (2011) Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 17(3):203–213PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Khan NM, Qasim F, Ahmed R, Khan AK, Khan B (2003) Effects of sowing date on yield of maize under Agro climatic condition of Kaghan Valley. Asian J Plant Sci 1(2):140–147Google Scholar
  125. Kim YG, Lee BW (2011) Relationship between grain filling duration and leaf senescence of temperate rice under high temperature. Field Crop Res 122(3):207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kimothi SP, Ghosh CP (2005) Strategies for ameliorating heat stress in dairy animals. Dairy Year Book pp 371–377Google Scholar
  127. Kirunda DFK, Scheideler SE, Mckee SR (2001) The efficiency of Vitamin E (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation in hens diets ti alleviate egg quality deterioration associated with high temperature exposure. Poult Sci 80:1378–1383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kocaman B, Yaganoglu AV, Yanar M (2005) Combination of fan ventilation system and spraying of oil-water mixture on the levels of dust and gases in caged layer facilities in Eastern Turkey. J Appl Anim Res 27(2):109–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Koopmans A, Koppejan J (1997) Agricultural and forest residues; Generation, utilization and availability. Paper presented at the Regional Consultation on Modern Applications of Biomass Energy 6: 10Google Scholar
  130. Kozlowski TT, Pallardy SG (1997) Physiology of woody plants. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  131. Krishnan P, Ramakrishnan B, Reddy R, Reddy V (2011) High temperature effects on rice growth, yield, and grain quality. Adv Agron 111:87–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Krupa SV, Kickert RN (1993) The effects of elevated ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation on agricultural production. Report submitted to the formal commission on ‘Protecting the Earth’s Atmosphere’ of the German Parliament, Bonn, Germany. pp. 432Google Scholar
  133. Kumar A, Brahmanand PS, Nayak AK (2014) Management of cyclone disaster in agriculture sector in coastal areas. Directorate of Water Management NRM Division (ICAR) Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, p 108Google Scholar
  134. Kuriakose SL, Sankar G, Muraleedharan C (2009) History of landslide susceptibility and a chorology of landslide-prone areas in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Environ Geol 57(7):1553–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lafta AM, Lorenzen JH (1995) Effect of high temperature on plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in potato. Plant Physiol 109:637–643PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lara LJ, Rostagno MH (2013) Impact of heat stress on poultry production. Animals 3:356–369PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lemengar R, Johnson K (1997) Frost-damaged forages can be deadly
  138. Lenton T, Held H, Kriegler E, Hall J, Lucht W, Rahmstorf S, Schellnhuber H (2008) Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(6):1786–1793PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lin H, Mertens K, Kemps B, Govaerts T, De Ketelaere B, Baerdemaeker D, Decuypere J, Buyse J (2004) New approach of testing the effect of heat stress on eggshell quality: mechanical and material properties of eggshell and membrane. Br Poult Sci 45(4):476–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Loarie S, Duffy P, Hamilton H, Asner G, Field C, Ackerly D (2009) The velocity of climate change. Nature 462(7276):1052–1055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Logan CA (2010) A review of ocean acidification and America’s response. Biocontrol Sci 60(10):819–828Google Scholar
  142. Lynn BH, Carlson TN, Rosenzweig C, Goldberg R, Druyan L, Cox J, Civerolo K (2009) A modification to the NOAH LSM to simulate heat mitigation strategies in the New York City Metropolitan Area. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 48(2):199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Marai IFM, Haeeb AAM (2010) Buffalo’s biological functions as affected by heat stress – a review. Livest Sci 127:89–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Maxwell MH, Robertson GW (1997) World broiler ascites survey 1996. Poult Int 36:16–19Google Scholar
  145. Maxwell MH, Robertson GH, Spence S (1986) Studies on an ascitic syndrome in young broilers. 1. Hematology and pathology. Avian Pathol 15(3):511–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Maxwell MH, Tullett SG, Burton FG (1987) Haemotology and morphological changes in young broiler chicks with experimentally induced hypoxia. Res Vet Sci 43(3):331–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. McCormac BM, Varney R (1971) Introduction to the scientific study of atmospheric pollution. D. Reidel Publishing Company, HollandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Mckersie BD, Bowley SR (1997) Active oxygen and freezing tolerance in transgenic plants. In: Li PH, Chen THH (eds) Plant cold hardiness, molecular biology, biochemistry and physiology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 203–214Google Scholar
  149. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001) Principles of plant nutrition, 5th edn. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Menon AGK (1954) Fish geography of the Himalayas. Zoological Survey India, Calcutta 20(4):467–493Google Scholar
  151. Monteith JL, Ong CK, Corlett JE (1991) Microclimatic interactions in agroforestry systems. For Ecol Manag 45(1–4):31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Morita S, Yonermaru J, Takahashi J (2005) Grain growth and endosperm cell size under high night temperature in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ann Bot 95(4):695–701PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Morshed AMA (2013) Root reasons behind the unusual behaviours of the Earth climate thus the causes of natural disasters. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 7(2):05–07Google Scholar
  154. NDMA (2008) National disaster management guidelines, Government of India, Management of Cyclones. NDMC, Centaur Hotel, New Delhi, pp. 91–92Google Scholar
  155. Nelson GC (2009) Climate change: impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation. Int Food Policy Res Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  156. Nguyen PH, Greene E, Donoghue A, Huff G, Clark FD, Dridi S (2016) A new insight into cold stress in poultry production. Adv food Technol Nutr Sci open J 2(1):1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Nicholls RJ, Wong PP, Burkett VR, Codignotto JO, Hay JE, McLean RF, Ragoonaden S, Woodroffe CD (2007) Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Parry ML, OF Canziani, Palutikof JP, Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Contribution of working group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 315–356Google Scholar
  158. Nielsen DC, Hinkle SE (1994) Wind velocity, snow and soil water measurements in sunflower residues. Great Plains Agric Council Bull 150:93–100Google Scholar
  159. NOAA (2015) National centres for environmental information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for Annual Report 2015.;
  160. NOAA (2017) Monthly mean CO2 level at Mauna Loa observatory, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. Scholar
  161. Olien CR, Smith MN (1997) Ice adhesions in relation to freeze stress. Plant Physiol 60(4):499–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Olsen DP, Paparian CJ, Ritter RC (1980) The effects of cold stress on neonatal calves. ll. Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins. Can J Comp Med 44(1):19–23Google Scholar
  163. Orr JC, Fabry VJ, Aumont O, Bopp L, Doney SC, Feely RA, Gnanadesikan A et al (2005) Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437(681–686)Google Scholar
  164. Ortiz R, Braun HJ, Crossa J, Crouch JH, Davenport G, Dixon J (2008) Wheat genetic resources enhancement by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genet Resour Crop Evol 55(7):1095–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Palta P, Mondal S, Prakash BS, Madan ML (1997) Peripheral inhibin levels in relation to climatic variations and stage of estrous cycle in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 47:989–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Parmar AP, Mehta VM (1994) Seasonal endocrine changes in steroid hormones of developing ovarian follicles in Surti buffaloes. Indian J Anim Sci 64:111–113Google Scholar
  167. Patel N, Rajput TBS (2004) Fertigation a technique for efficient use of granular fertilizer through drip irrigation. J Agric Eng 85(2):50–54Google Scholar
  168. Pathak H, Ladha JK, Aggarwal PK, Peng S, Das S, Singh Y, Singh B, Kamra SK, Mishra B, Sastri ASRAS, Aggarwal HP, Das DK, Gupta RK (2003) Trends of climatic potential and on-farm yields of rice and wheat in the Indo Gangetic Plains. Field Crop Res 80(3):223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Pawar SS, Sajjanar B, Lonkar VD, Kurade NP, Kadam AS, Nirmal AV, Brahmane MP, Bal SK (2016) Assessing and mitigating the impact of heat stress on poultry. Adv Anim Vet Sci 4(6):332–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Poorter H (1993) Interspecific variation in the growth response of plants to an elevated ambient CO2 concentration. Vegetatio 104(1):77–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Portner HO, Langenbuch M (2005) Synergistic effects of temperature extremes, hypoxia, and increases in CO2 on marine animals: from Earth history to global change. J Geophys Res 110:C09S10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Postma JA, Lynch JP (2011) Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Plant Physiol 156(3):1190–1201PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Pradhan GP, Prasad PVV, Fritz AK, Kirkham MB, Gill BS (2012) Response of Aegilops species to drought stress during reproductive stages of development. Funct Plant Biol 39(1):51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH Jr (2006) Adverse high temperature effects on pollen viability, seed-set, seed yield and harvest index of grain-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) are more severe at elevated carbon dioxide due to higher tissue temperatures. Agric Forest Metero 139(3–4):237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Prasad PVV, Staggenborg SA, Ristic Z (2008) Impacts of drought and/or heat stress on physiological, developmental, growth, and yield processes of crop plants. In: Ahuja LH, Saseendran SA (eds) Response of crops to limited water: understanding and modeling water stress effects on plant growth processes, Adv Agric Sys Model Series, vol 1. ASA-CSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 301–355Google Scholar
  176. Quarles CL, Kling HF (1974) Evaluation of ammonia and infectious bronchitis vaccination stress on broiler performance and carcass quality. Poult Sci 53(4):1592–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rahal A, Kumar A, Singh V, Yadav B, Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, Dhama K (2014) Oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants: the interplay. Biomed Res Int. doi: 10.1155/2014/761264
  178. Rahman K (2007) Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clin Interv Aging 2(2):219–236PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G (2008) Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nat Geosci 1:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rathore AC, Raizada A, Jaya Prakash J, Sharda VN (2012) Impact of chilling injury on common fruit plants in the Doon Valley. Curr Sci 102(8):1107–1111Google Scholar
  181. Ravichandra NG (2013) Fundamentals of plant pathology. PHI Learning Private Limited, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  182. Ravussin Y, Xiao C, Gavrilova O, Reitman ML (2014) Effect of intermittent cold exposure on brown fat activation, obesity, and energy homeostasis in mice. PLoS One 9(1):e85876. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Reece FN, Lott BD (1980) The effect of ammonia and carbon dioxide during brooding on the performance of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 59:1654–1661Google Scholar
  184. Robson S (2007) Prussic acid poisoning in livestock. PRIMEFACT 417, Regional Animal Health Leader, Animal and Plant Biosecurity, WaggaGoogle Scholar
  185. Rogers S (1996) Hail damage: physical meteorology and crop losses. Proc Fla State Hort Soc 109:97–103Google Scholar
  186. Rogers HH, Runion GB, Krupa SV, Prior SA (1997) Plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment: implications in root-soil microbe interactions. In: Allen LH Jr, Kirkham MB, Olszyk DM, Whitman CE (eds) Advances in carbon dioxide effects research, ASA Special Publication No. 61. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  187. Sahin N, Sahin K, Kucuk O (2001) Effects of vitamin E and vitamin A supplementation on performance, thyroid status and serum concentrations of some metabolites and minerals in broilers reared under heat stress (32°C). Vet Med 46(11–12):286–292Google Scholar
  188. Sajjanar B, Deb R, Singh U, Kumar S, Brahmane M, Nirmale A, Bal SK, Minhas PS (2015) Identification of SNP in HSP90AB1 and its association with relative thermotolerance and milk production traits in Indian dairy cattle. Anim Biotechnol 26(1):45–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sanchez WK, Beede DK, Cornell JA (1994) Interactions of Na+, K+ and Cl on lactation, acid-base status and mineral concentrations. J Dairy Sci 77:1661–1675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Schlenker W, Roberts MJ (2009) Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 106:15594–15598PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sen A, Chander M (2003) Disaster management in India: the case of livestock and poultry. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 22(3):915–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. SEPA (2016) Scottish pollutant release inventory (2016) Scottish environment protection agency. SEPA Stirling Office Strathallan House Castle Business Park, Stirling, FK9 4TZ, pp. 39Google Scholar
  193. Shelton C (2014) Climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture compilation of initial examples, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1088. Rome, FAO, p 34Google Scholar
  194. Sherwood SC, Huber M (2010) An adaptability limit to climate change due to heat stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107(21):9552–9555PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Shivakumar MVK (2005) Impact of sand storms/dust storms on agriculture. Natural Disasters and Extreme Events in Agriculture. Publisher-Springer eBook, pp 159–177Google Scholar
  196. Shlosberg A, Pano G, Handji J, Berman E (1992) Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of ascites in broiler chickens. Br Poult Sci 33(1):141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Sicher RC (2015) Temperature shift experiments suggest that metabolic impairment and enhanced rates of photorespiration decrease organic acid levels in soybean leaflets exposed to supra-optimal growth temperatures. Meta 5:443–454Google Scholar
  198. Shivakumar MVK, Stefanski R (2007) Climate and land degradation: an overview. In: Shivakumar MVK, Ndiangui N (eds) Climate and land degradation. Springer, Berlin, p 623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Sohail MU, Hume ME, Byrd JA, Nisbet DJ, Ijaz A, Sohail A, Shabbir MZ, Rehman H (2012) Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannanoligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress. Poult Sci 91(9):2235–2240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Speer MS (2013) Dust storm frequency and impact over Eastern Australia determined by state of Pacific climate system. Weather Climate Extremes 2:16–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Srinivasarao NK, Shivashankara RH, Laxman RH (2016) Abiotic physiology of horticultural crops. Springers (India) Pvt. Ltd. pp. 12Google Scholar
  202. Starr JR (1980) Weather, climate, and animal performance. WMO Technical Note No. 190. WMO Publication No. 684. WMO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  203. Stefanski R, Sivakumar MVK (2009) Impacts of sand and dust storms on agriculture and potential agricultural applications of a SDSWS. IOP Conf Series Earth Environ Sci 7(2009):012016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Stockwell CE, Yokelson RJ, Kreidenweis SM, Robinson AL, DeMott PJ, Sullivan RC, Reardon J, Ryan KC, Griffith DWT, Stevens L (2014) Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). Atmos Chem Phys 14:9727–9754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Stott GH, Wiersma F, Mevefec BE, Radwamki FR (1976) Influence of environment on passive immunity in calves. J Dairy Sci 59(7):1306–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. St-Pierre NR, Cobanov B, Schnitkey G (2003) Economic losses from heat stress by U.S. livestock industries. J Dairy Sci 86:52–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Streets D, Yarber K, Woo J, Carmichael G (2003) Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 17(4):1099–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Suma M, Balaram PS (2014) Perspective study of coastal disaster management at Andhra Pradesh 16(12): 55–60Google Scholar
  209. Sunil Kumar BV, Singh G, Meur SK (2010) Effects of addition of electrolyte and ascorbic acid in feed during heat stress in buffaloes. Asian Aust J Anim Sci 23(7):880–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Surya P (2012) Training module on comprehensive landslides risk management. National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi, p 282Google Scholar
  211. Svobodova Z, Lloyd R, Máchova J, Vykusova B (1993) Water quality and fish health, EIFAC Technical Paper. No. 54. FAO, Rome, 59 pGoogle Scholar
  212. Takeoka Y, Mamun AA, Wada T, Kanj BP (1992) Reproductive adaptation of rice to environmental stress. Japan Sci Soc Press Tokyo, Japan, pp 8–10Google Scholar
  213. Takizawa H (2011) Impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Korean J Intern Med 26(3):262–273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Taylor OC (1973) Acute responses of plants to aerial pollutants. Adv Chemother 122:9–20Google Scholar
  215. Temple PJ (1990) Growth form and yield responses of four cotton cultivars to ozone. Agron J 82:1045–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Teramura AH, Ziska LH, Sztein AE (1991) Changes in growth and photo-synthetic capacity of rice with increased UV-B radiation. Physiol Plant 83:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Thakur P, Kumara S, Malika JA, Bergerb JD, Nayyar H (2010) Cold stress effects on reproductive development in grain crops: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 67(3):429–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Thara SB, Hemanthkumar NK, Shobha J (2015) Micro-morphological and biochemical response of Muntingia calabura L. and Ixora coccinea L. to air pollution. J Res Plant Biol 5(4):11–17Google Scholar
  219. Tinoco IFF (2001) Avicultura industrial: novos conceitos de materiais, concepcoes e tecnicas construtivas disponiveis para galpoes avicolas brasileiros. Rev Bras Cienc Avic 3(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Tulloch DG (1988) The importance of the wallow to the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) Buffalo J 4:1–8Google Scholar
  221. Tuwilika SV (2016) Impact of flooding on rural livelihoods of the Cuvelai Basin in Northern Namibia. J Geo Regio Plan 9(6):104–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. UNISDR (2015) Making development sustainable: the future of disaster risk management. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), pp. 266Google Scholar
  223. Upadhyay RC, Ashutosh, Raina VS, Singh SV (2009) Impact of climate change on reproductive functions of cattle and buffaloes. In: Aggarwal PK (ed) Global climate change and Indian agriculture: case studies from the ICAR network project. ICAR Publication, New Delhi, pp 107–110Google Scholar
  224. Van-Der-Kraak G, Pankhurst NW (1997) Temperature effects on the reproductive performance of fish. In: Wood CM, McDonald DG (eds) Global warming: implications for freshwater and marine fish. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 159–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Vass KK, Das MK, Srivastava PK, Dey S (2009) Assessing the impact of climate change on inland fisheries in River Ganga and its plains in India. Aquat Ecosyst Health Manage 12(2):138–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Venkataraman C, Habib G, Kadamba D, Shrivastava M, Leon J, Crouzille B, Boucher O, Streets D (2006) Emissions from open biomass burning in India: integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data. Global Biogeochem Cycles 20(2):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Venkateswarlu B, Maheswari M, Srinivasa Rao M, Rao VUM, Srinivasa Rao Ch, Reddy KS, Ramana DBV, Rama Rao CA, Vijay Kumar P, Dixit S, Sikka AK (2013) National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA), Research Highlights (2012–13). Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  228. Victor VM, Guayerbas N, Garrote D, Del Rio M, De La Fuente M (1999) Modulation of murine macrophage function by N-Acetyl cytosine in a model of endotoxic shock. Biofactors 5:234Google Scholar
  229. Vingarzan R (2004) A review of surface ozone background levels and trends. Atmos Environ 38:3431–3442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Vough L (1978) Preventing prussic acid poisoning of livestock. Extension Circular 950. Oregon State University Extension Service.
  231. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad M (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61(3):199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Wathes CM, Phillips VR, Holden MR, Sneath RW, Short JL, White RPP, Hartung J, Seedorf J, Schroder M, Linkert KH, Pedersen S, Takai H, Johnsen JO, Groot Koerkamp PWG, Uenk GH, Metz JHM, Hinz T, Caspary V, Linke S (1998) Emissions of aerial pollutants in livestock buildings in Northern Europe: overview of a multinational project. J Agril Eng Res 70(1):3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Waycott M, McKenzie LJ, Mellors JE, Ellison JC, Sheaves MT, Collier C, Schwarz AM et al (2011) Vulnerability of mangroves, sea grasses and intertidal flats in the tropical Pacific to climate change. In: Bell JD, Johanna EJ, Hobday AJ (eds) Vulnerability of tropical pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, pp 297–368Google Scholar
  234. Webb AAR, McAinsh MR, Taylor JE, Hetherington AM (1996) Calcium ions as intercellular second messengers in higher plants. Adv Bot Res 22:45–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Weiss RF (1970) The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and sea water. Deep-Sea Res 17:721–735Google Scholar
  236. West JW (1999) Nutritional strategies for managing the heat stressed dairy cows. J Anim Sci 77(2):21–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. West JJ, Fiore AM, Naik V, Horowitz LW, Schwarzkopf MD, Mauzerall DL (2007) Ozone air quality and radiative forcing consequences of changes in ozone precursor emissions. Geophy Res Lett 34(6). doi: 10.1029/2006GL029173
  238. Wideman RF (1988) Ascites in poultry. Monsanto Nutr Update 6:1–7Google Scholar
  239. Wideman RF (2001) Pathophysiology of heart/lung disorders: pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens. World’s Poult Sci 57(3):289–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. WMO (2016) Hotter, drier, wetter. Face the future. WMO Bulletin 65(1):2016Google Scholar
  241. Yahav S, Straschnow A, Plavnik I, Hurwitz S (1997) Blood system response of chickens to changes in environmental temperature. Poult Sci 76(4):627–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Yalcin S, Settar P, Ozkan S, Cahaner A (1997) Comparative evaluation of three commercial broiler stocks in hot versus temperate climates. Poult Sci 76(7):921–929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Yamori W, Hikosaka K, Way DA (2014) Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and CAM plants: temperature acclimation and temperature adaptation. Photosynth Res 119(1–2):101–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Yersin AG, Huff WE, Kubena LF, Elissalde MH, Harvey RB, Witzel DA, Giror LE (1992) Changes in haematological, blood gas, and serum biochemical variables in broilers during exposure to simulated high altitude. Avian Dis 36(2):189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Young BA (1981) Cold stress as it affects animal production. J Anim Sci 52(1):154–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Young LW, Wilen RW, Bonham-Smith PC (2004) High temperature stress of Brassica napus during flowering reduces micro and mega gametophyte fertility, induces fruit abortion, and disrupts seed production. J Exp Bot 55(396):485–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Zhang ZY, Jia GQ, Zuo JJ, Zhang Y, Lei J, Ren L, Feng DY (2012) Effects of constant and cyclic heat stress on muscle metabolism and meat quality of broiler breast fillet and thigh meat. Poult Sci 91(11):2931–2937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Zhou WT, Fijita M, Yamamoto S, Iwasaki K, Ikawa R, Oyama H, Horikawa H (1998) Effects of glucose in drinking water on the changes in whole blood viscosity and plasma osmolality of broiler chickens during high temperature exposure. Poult Sci 77(5):644–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-National Institute of Abiotic Stress ManagementBaramati, PuneIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Abiotic Stress ManagementIndian Council for Agricultural ResearchBaramatiIndia

Personalised recommendations