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Atmospheric Stressors: Challenges and Coping Strategies

  • Santanu Kumar BalEmail author
  • Paramjit Singh Minhas
Chapter

Abstract

The basic principle of agriculture lies with how crop/livestock interacts with atmosphere and soil as a growing medium. Thus any deviation of external optimal atmospheric conditions affects the pathway through changes in atmospheric and edaphic/feed factors for crop/animal growth, development and/or productivity. Besides these, change and variability in atmospheric conditions have increased due to human activities to induce greenhouse gas emissions. In the continuation of current trend in carbon emissions, temperatures will rise by about 1 °C and 2 °C by the year 2030 and 2100, respectively. With warmer climate, frequency and severity of extreme weather events would increase as indicated by incidences of heat waves, extreme rains, hailstorm, etc. during recent years. Besides these, events like cloudburst, cyclone, sand/dust storm, frost and cold wave and deteriorated air quality are becoming regular events. However, the type and intensity of stress events will probably have varying impacts in different ecoregions. These events cause huge impact both in terms of mechanical and physiological on commodities across crop, livestock, poultry and fisheries. The quantum of impact on crops mainly depends on the type of stress and crop/animal/fish, its stage/age and mode of action of the stress. Management strategies for mitigation of these stresses require both application of current multidisciplinary knowledge, development of a range of technological innovations and timely interventions. It’s high time to update our knowledge regarding existing technologies and side by side explores new avenues for managing atmospheric stresses in agriculture. The first step for the scientific community will be to screen and identify species for tolerance to atmospheric stresses followed by complete insight of the biological processes behind the atmospheric stress response combined with emerging technologies in breeding, production, protection and postharvest which is likely to improve productivity and reduce losses. The type and level of stresses must be properly quantified through proper scientific planning for present as well as future references for finding mitigation and adaptation solutions. Keeping above in view, this chapter has been prepared which includes aspects covering atmospheric stresses, their challenges and coping strategies in various agricultural enterprises including crops, livestock, poultry and fisheries. This chapter will ignite the minds of all stakeholders including students and researchers to explore more in finding proper adaptation, and mitigation measures. This will pave the way for developing food and livelihood systems that will have greater economic and environmental resilience to risk.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-National Institute of Abiotic Stress ManagementBaramati, PuneIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Abiotic Stress ManagementIndian Council for Agricultural ResearchBaramatiIndia

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