Social security is the income protection the government and society offer to individuals and households, to prevent various unexpected factors from influencing their most basic survival and development. The core role played by social security is to ensure social fairness. At the same time, social security has many functions, including maintenance of social order and promotion of economic development. The rural social security system, which covers the rural population, is an important component of the overall social security system. In this chapter, we give a brief summary of China’s rural social security system prior to reform and opening up, offer a review and assessment of the evolution and development of the rural social security system over the past 30-plus years of reform and opening up, make an outlook on future development, and suggest measures to deepen reforms.