Advertisement

Casualization and Shift of Rural Workers to Non-farm Activities

  • Partha Saha
  • Sher Verick
Chapter

Abstract

The faster growth of rural non-farm employment (RNFE) in the last decade in India attracted considerable analytical alteration, some even anticipating it as an indication of an alternative path of structural change. This chapter analyzes the changes in RNFE in terms of gender, class, activity, and quality. The analysis presented in this chapter finds a significant shift in favor of RNFE in both principal status and subsidiary status, with the rise in the former is driven by male workers’ share, it is female labor in the latter. In terms of class, the shift from agriculture to non-agriculture is more pronounced among poorer households; construction is the major absorber of labor in non-farm activities but increasingly casual in nature. Manufacturing, though small, is moving from self-employment toward regular and casual wage employment, construction increasingly toward casual wage employment, and services toward self-employment and regular employment. Qualitatively RNFE is increasing casual in nature.

References

  1. Basant, R. (1993). Diversification of Economic Activities in Rural Gujarat: Key Results of a Field Study (Working Paper Series No. 53). Ahmedabad: Gujarat Institute of Development Research.Google Scholar
  2. Census of India. (2011). Registrar General of India, Government of India.Google Scholar
  3. de Janvry, A., Sadoulet, E., & Zhu, N. (2005). The Role of Non-farm Incomes in Reducing Rural Poverty and Inequality in China (Working Paper). Berkeley: Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University of California.Google Scholar
  4. Dev, M. S. (2002, March 23). Bold Initiatives Needed on Agricultural and Rural Employment. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  5. Epstein, S. (1973). South India: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Mysore Village Revisited. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghuman, R. S. (2005, October 8). Rural Non-farm Employment Scenario: Reflections from Recent Data in Punjab. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  7. Government of India. (2013). Economic Survey 2012–13. New Delhi: Ministry of Finance.Google Scholar
  8. Haque, T. (2012). MGNREGS and Its Effects on Agriculture. In A. Pankaj (Ed.), Right to Work and Rural India. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Hazell, P., & Haggblade, S. (1990). Rural-Urban Growth Linkages in India (PRE Working Paper Series No. 430). Washington, DC: Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank.Google Scholar
  10. India Human Development Report. (2011). India Human Development Report: Towards Social Inclusion. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Institute for Human Development. (2014). India Labor and Employment Report, 2014. Institute for Human Development and Academic Foundation.Google Scholar
  12. Jatav, M., & Sen, S. (2013, June 29). Drivers of Non-farm Employment in Rural India. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  13. Lanjouw, P., & Shariff, A. (2004, October 2). Rural Non-farm Employment in India: Access, Incomes and Poverty Impact. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  14. Mathur, L. (2007, December 29). Employment Guarantee: Progress So Far. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  15. Mehrotra, S. (Ed.). (2014). India’s Skills Challenge: Reforming Vocational Education and Training to Harness the Demographic Dividend. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Mellor, J. (Ed.). (1976). Agriculture on the Road to Industrialization. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Ministry of Rural Develoment (MoRD). (2012). MGNREGA Sameeksha: An Anthology of Research Studies on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005. New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan.Google Scholar
  18. Panagariya, A., & More, V. (2013). Poverty by Social, Religious & Economic Groups in India and Its Largest States 1993–94 to 2011–12 (Working Paper No. 2013–03). Programme on Indian Economic Policies, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  19. Patnaik, U. (2006). Unleashing the Market: Global Capitalism, Deflation and Agrarian Crisis in Developing Countries. In M. E John et al. (Eds.), Contested Transformation: Changing Economies and Identities in Contemporary India. New Delhi: Tulika Books.Google Scholar
  20. Ranjan, S. (2009, January 24). Growth of Rural Non-farm Employment in Uttar Pradesh: Reflections from Recent Data. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  21. Rawal, V. (2013). Changes in Distribution of Operational Holdings of Land in Rural India. Review of Agrarian Studies, 3(3).Google Scholar
  22. Rawal, V., & Saha, P. (forthcoming). Women’s Employment in India: What Do Recent NSS Surveys of Employment and Unemployment Show? In C. P. Chandrasekhar (Ed.), Essays in Honour of Utsa Patnaik. Tulika Publisher.Google Scholar
  23. Saha, P. (2014). Participation in Tenancy Market: An Analysis of Caste and Class in Two Villages in Uttar Pradesh. In K. Suman Chandra, V. Suresh Babu, & P. K. Nath (Eds.), Agrarian Crisis in India. New Delhi: Academic Foundation.Google Scholar
  24. Saith, A., & Tankha, A. (1992). Longitudinal Analysis of Structural Change in a North Indian Village 1970–1987 (Working Paper Series No. 128). The Hague: Institute of Social Studies.Google Scholar
  25. Sarkar, A. (2013). Tractor Production and Sales in India, 1989–2009. Review of Agrarian Studies, 3(1): 55–72.Google Scholar
  26. Srinivas, M. N. (1976). The Remembered Village. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Vaidyanathan, A. (1986, December 27). Labor Use in Rural India. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  28. Wiser, W., & Wiser, C. (1971). Behind Mud Walls. Berkeley: California.Google Scholar
  29. World Bank. (2012). More and Better Jobs in South Asia. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Partha Saha
    • 1
  • Sher Verick
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Development StudiesAmbedkar UniversityDelhiIndia
  2. 2.ILO Decent Work Team for South Asia and Country Office for IndiaNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations