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Process Intensification: Definition and Application to Membrane Processes

  • Andrzej Benedykt KoltuniewiczEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)

Abstract

The main ways of intensification of membrane processes were classified into three groups. In the first group those methods, which depend on the selection of the type of the membrane in terms of material and microstructure, were described. The second group includes information relating to concentration polarization, which is always present in membrane separation processes. In practice, the occurrence of concentration polarization exerts even more distinct effect than resistance of the membrane itself with respect to performance. Reduction of the concentration polarization allows greater permeate flux but requires additional actions and additional energy. The third way of the intensification of membrane processes is to design a suitable configuration, i.e., the selection of membrane modules and their connections. The most spectacular way of process intensification of separation is the use of modern hybrid processes, which are discussed later in this chapter.

Keywords

Process intensification Membrane properties Concentration polarization Plant configuration Membrane-based hybrid processes 

List of Symbols

A

Surface area [m2]

A

Accumulation at Eqs. 3.19 and 3.20 [s−1]

C

Concentration [kg m−3]

CF

Concentration factor (CF = C R /C F ) [−]

D

Diffusion coefficient [m2 s−1]

d

Diameter [m]

f

Age function [–]

J

Volumetric permeate flux [m3 m−2s−1]

Ji

Mass permeate flux for ith component [kg m−2 s−1]

J(t)

Instantaneous flux [m3 m−2 s−1]

j

By-pass ratio (j = m b /m F ) [−]

K

Permeability factor [kg m−1 s−1 bar−1]

k

Boltzmann constant (1.38064852 × 10−23) [m2 kg s−2 K−1]

k

Constant in Hermia’s Eq. 3.3. [−]

k

Mass transport coefficient (overall) [m/s]

l

Thickness of the membrane [m]

M

Molecular mass [kg/kmol]

m

Mass flow rate [kg/s]

m

The ratio of dry mass to the wet mass [−]

n

Constant in Hermia’s equation Eq. 3.21 [−]

n

Circulation ratio (n = m c /m R ) [−]

P

Pressure [bar]

Q

Volumetric flow rate [m3 s−1]

R

Universal gas constant (8.314459848) [J K−1 mol−1]

R

Volumetric flow resistance [bar s m−1]

r

Pore radius [m]

R

Retention coefficient [−]

RC

Recovery factor (RC = mP/mF) [–]

Re

Reynolds number (Re = udρ/μ) [−]

S

Solubility factor (S = ΔCP) [kg m−3 bar]

s

Rate of surface renewal (by Danckwerts) [m s−1]

Sh

Sherwood number (Sh = k d/D) [−]

Sc

Schmidt number (Sc = µ/) [−]

T

Temperature [K]

t

Time [s]

U

Electrical potential [V]

u

Velocity [m s−1]

V

Volume [m3]

Greek Symbols

α

Specific resistance of the cake [−]

γ

Shear rate [s−1]

δ

Thickness of the boundary layer [m]

η

Viscosity [kg m−1 s−1]

ϕ

Solid fraction in suspension [−]

λ

Mean free path of molecules [m]

μ

Chemical potential [J mol−1]

π

Osmotic pressure [bar]

ρ

Density [kg m−3]

ψ

The shape constant [-]

Subscripts

A

Component A

crit

Critical (flux)

c

Cleaning (time)

drag

Drag (force)

F

Feed

G

Gel

lift

Lifting (force)

p

Process (time)

P

Permeate

R

Retentate

W

Wall

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Process EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

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