Organic Farming from Perspective of Three Pillars of Sustainability
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the term “sustainability” has been gaining worldwide attention, not just in regard of natural environment but in far more complex entities such as human societies, cultural traditions, or social institutions. The inclusion of this concept in case of farming sector became prevalent when it was realized that green revolution might not be the ideal way to solve the issues of food insecurity, resource degradation, and regional imbalance of benefits. There is no doubt that the green revolution, which commonly is also known as conventional farming, profoundly increased crop production with the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and high-yielding crop varieties and contributed significantly in reducing world hunger. But overtime we have started to realize that such production system has its own share of drawbacks in the form of environmental degradation, health implication, and imbalance of benefit entitlement across regions. Excessive and inappropriate use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides polluted groundwater, streams, rivers, and oceans; triggered land degradation through soil erosion; and severed deterioration of the arable soil. It caused professional hazard; killed beneficial insects and other wildlife; reduced biodiversity; increased pest adaptation and resistance, desertification, and water eutrophication; and affected those who consumed it through food residue.