Advertisement

Immigrant Entrepreneurship and Diasporic Development: The Case of New Chinese Migrants in the USA

  • Min Zhou
  • Hong Liu
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter traces the histories of long-standing Chinese migrations to the United States to examine the link between immigrant entrepreneurship and diasporic development. Based on data collected from two parallel research projects and multisite fieldwork in the United States and China, Zhou and Liu show that immigrant entrepreneurship has continued to serve as a key pattern of adaptation among new Chinese migrants and that this long-standing pattern is shaped by different migration histories, structural circumstances in both sending and receiving societies, and locations in the transnational social fields. The authors also show that rapid globalization, changing geopolitics in the Asia Pacific region, and the rise of China have opened up new avenues for transnational entrepreneurship. They conclude that immigrant entrepreneurship is conducive to integration, as it enhances not only an individual’s economic opportunities but also his or her sociocultural opportunities, by way of diasporic development.

References

  1. Alba, R., & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and the New Immigration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrich, H. E., & Waldinger, R. (1990). Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 111–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, T., & Waldinger, R. (1991). Primary, Secondary, and Enclave Labor Markets: A Training System Approach. American Sociological Review, 56(4), A32–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates, T. (1998). Race, Self-Employment, and Upward Mobility: An Illustrative American Dream. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bonacich, E. (1973). A Theory of Middleman Minorities. American Sociological Review, 38, 583–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borjas, G. J. (1990). Friend or Strangers: The Impact of Immigrants on the US Economy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  7. Butler, J. (1991). Entrepreneurship and Self-Help Among Black Americans: A Reconsideration of Race and Economics. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chan, S. (1994). The Exclusion of Chinese Women, 1870–1943. In S. Chan (Ed.), Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America, 1882–1943 (pp. 94–146). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Chun, G. H. (2004). Shifting Ethnic Identity and Consciousness: US-Born Chinese American Youth in the 1930s and 1950s. In J. Lee & M. Zhou (Eds.), Asian American Youth: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity (pp. 113–128). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Daniels, R. (2006). Immigration Policy in a Time of War: The United States, 1939–1945. Journal of American Ethnic History, 25(2/3), 107–116.Google Scholar
  11. Evans, M. D. R. (1989). Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Effects of Ethnic Market Size and Isolated Labor Pool. American Sociological Review, 54(6), 950–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gamlen, A. (2008). The Emigration State and the Modern Geopolitical Imagination. Political Geography, 27, 840–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldscheider, C. (1986). Jewish Continuity and Change: Emerging Patterns in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hooper, K., & Batalova, J. (2015, January 28). Chinese Immigrants in the United States. Spotlight. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Center. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/chinese-immigrants-united-states
  15. Li, W. (1997). Spatial Transformation of an Urban Ethnic Community from Chinatown to Chinese Ethnoburb in Los Angeles. PhD Dissertation. Department of Geography, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  16. Light, I. (1972). Ethnic Enterprise in America: Business and Welfare Among Chinese, Japanese, and Blacks. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. Liu, H. (1998). Old Linkages, New Networks: The Globalization of Overseas Chinese Voluntary Associations and Its Implications. The China Quarterly, 155, 588–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu, H. (2012). Transnational Chinese Sphere in Singapore: Dynamics, Transformations and Characteristics. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 41(2), 37–60.Google Scholar
  19. Mata, R., & Pendakur, R. (1999). Immigration, Labor Force Integration, and the Pursuit of Self-Employment. International Migration Review, 33(2), 378–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McKeown, A. (2001). Chinese Migrant Networks and Cultural Change: Peru, Chicago, and Hawaii 1900–1936. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  21. Popkin, E. (1999). Guatemalan Mayan Migration to Los Angeles: Constructing Transnational Linkages in the Context of the Settlement Process. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2), 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Portes, A. (1994). Paradoxes of the Informal Economy: The Social Basis of Unregulated Entrepreneurship. In N. J. Smelser & R. Swedberg (Eds.), Handbook of Economic Sociology (pp. 426–449). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Portes, A., & Bach, R. L. (1985). The Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Portes, A., & Guarnizo, L. E. (1991). Tropical Capitalists: US-Bound Immigration and Small Enterprise Development in the Dominican Republic. In S. Diaz-Briquets & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Migration, Remittances, and Small Business Development: Mexico and Caribbean Basin Countries (pp. 101–131). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  25. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. (2006). Immigrant America: A Portrait (3rd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1992). Gaining the Upper Hand: Economic Mobility Among Immigrant and Domestic Minorities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15(4), 491–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1996). Self-Employment and the Earnings of Immigrants. American Sociological Review, 61(2), 219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (2012). Transnationalism and Development: Mexican and Chinese Immigrant Organizations in the United States. Population and Development Review, 38(2), 191–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. E., & Landolt, P. P. (1999). The Study of Transnationalism: Pitfalls and Promise of an Emergent Research Field. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22, 217–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Portes, A., Escobar, C., & Radford, A. W. (2007). Immigrant Transnational Organizations and Development: A Comparative Study. International Migration Review, 41, 242–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saxenian, A. L. (2006). The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Saxton, A. (1971). The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Spener, D., & Bean, F. D. (1999). Self-Employment Concentration and Earnings Among Mexican Immigrants in the United States. Social Forces, 77(3), 1021–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Waldinger, R. (1986). Through the Eye of the Needle: Immigrants and Enterprise in New York’s Garment Trades. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Wang, G. (1991). China and the Chinese Overseas. Singapore: Times Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Wong, B. P. (1988). Patronage, Brokerage, Entrepreneurship and the Chinese Community of New York. New York: AMS Press.Google Scholar
  37. Wong, K. S. (2005). Americans First: Chinese Americans and the Second World War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhou, M. (1992). Chinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclave. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Zhou, M. (2004a). Revisiting Ethnic Entrepreneurship: Convergences, Controversies, and Conceptual Advancements. International Migration Review, 38(3), 1040–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhou, M. (2004b). Are Asian Americans Becoming White? Contexts, 3(1), 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhou, M. (2009). Contemporary Chinese America: Immigration, Ethnicity, and Community Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Zhou, M., & Cho, M. (2010). Noneconomic Effects of Ethnic Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Chinatown and Koreatown in Los Angeles, USA. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(2), 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhou, M., & Kim, R. (2001). Formation, Consolidation, and Diversification of the Ethnic Elite: The Case of the Chinese Immigrant Community in the United States. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2(2), 227–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhou, M., & Lee, R. (2013). Transnationalism and Community Building: Chinese Immigrant Organizations in the United States. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 647, 22–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou, M., & Lee, R. (2015). Traversing Ancestral and New Homelands: Chinese Immigrant Transnational Organizations in the United States. In A. Portes & P. Fernadez-Kelly (Eds.), The State and the Grassroots: Immigrant Transnational Organizations in Four Continents (pp. 27–50). Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  46. Zhou, M., & Liu, H. (2015). Transnational Entrepreneurship and Immigrant Integration: New Chinese Immigrants in Singapore and the United States. In J. A. Vallejo (Ed.), Immigration and Work. Research in the Sociology of Work (Vol. 27, pp. 169–201). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhou, M., & Liu, H. (2016). Homeland Engagement and Host-Society Integration: A Comparative Study of New Chinese Immigrants in the United States and Singapore. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 57(1–2), 30–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhou, Y., & Tseng, Y. (2001). Regrounding the ‘Ungrounded Empires’: Localization as the Geographical Catalyst for Transnationalism. Global Networks, 1(2), 131–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhou, M., Tseng, Y.-F., & Kim, R. Y. (2008). Rethinking Residential Assimilation Through the Case of Chinese Ethnoburbs in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 34(3), 55–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min Zhou
    • 1
  • Hong Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations