Allergic Rhinitis and Pollinosis

  • Takahiro Tokunaga
  • Shigeharu FujiedaEmail author


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the first symptom in the allergic march in children. Thereafter, in some patients, the condition progresses to bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) in adolescence and adult life. The percentage of patients with both AD and AR has been found to be 6–9% of children and adolescents in the entire population. Severe early-onset AD is associated with the development of AR, and, similarly, early-onset AR is associated with the development of AD. These facts suggest that the impairment of epithelial barrier function by AD in infants causes subsequent AR. Genome-wide association studies have shown several genes to be associated with both AD and AR. These genes hold the key to elucidating the mechanism of the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, risk factors and protective factors for atopic diseases have been identified. Among these factors, probiotics might have potential in the remission of AD and AR. Specific immunotherapy is also a promising treatment, and it is expected to provide an option for interventions to prevent the allergic march.


Allergic rhinitis Allergic march Genome-wide association study Probiotics Immunotherapy 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical ScienceUniversity of FukuiFukuiJapan

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