Cosmopolitanism and Beyond: Towards Planetary Realizations

  • Ananta Kumar Giri


This inaugural chapter in our volume discusses the issue of cosmopolitanism and explores the multiverse of transformations that it is confronted with. It submits that cosmopolitanism is part of an ongoing process of cosmopolitanization. Cosmopolitization as an ongoing process of critique, creativity and border-crossing involves transformations in self, culture, society, economy and polity. It involves multidimensional processes of self-development, inclusion of the other and planetary realizations. In the field of self-development, cosmopolitanization involves development of a transcendental self, transnational citizenship and cultivation of our cosmic humanity. Cosmopolitanization, as inclusion of the other, builds upon contemporary strivings in economics, politics, religions and spiritual mobilizations embodying post-capitalist, post-national and post-religious spiritual formations. The chapter also discusses the issue of cosmopolitan responsibility and notes three major challenges here—realization of global justice; realization of ‘cross-species dignity’; and dialogue among civilizations, cultures, religions and traditions. It outlines the pathways of going beyond cosmopolitanism by striving for a post-colonial cosmopolis characterized by global justice, trans-civilizational dialogues and dignity for all.


  1. Appiah, K.A. 2006. The Case for Contamination. New York Times, 1 January.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson, John, and Birte Siim, eds. 2004. The Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment: Gender, Class and Citizenship. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, Ulrich. 1998. The Cosmopolitan Manifesto. New Statesman, 20 March.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2002. The Cosmopolitan Society and Its Enemies. Theory, Culture & Society 19 (1–2): 17–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ———. 2003. Toward a New Critical Theory with a Cosmopolitan Intent. Constellations 10 (4): 453–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. 2004. Cosmopolitan Realism: On the Distinction between Cosmopolitanism in Philosophy and Social Sciences. Global Networks 4 (2): 131–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellah, Robert N. 1970. Beyond Belief: Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  8. Bhaskar, Roy. 2002. Reflections on Meta-Reality: Transcendence, Everyday Life and Emancipations. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Chakraborty, Dipesh. 2000. Provincializing Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Charlesworth, Hilary. 2000. Martha Nussbaum’s Feminist Internationalism. Ethics 111 (1): 64–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clammer, John. 2018. Nature, Culture and Debate with Modernity: Japanese Critical Theory. In Social Theory and Asian Dialogues: Cultivating Planetary Conversations, ed. Ananta Kumar Giri. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Dallmayr, Fred. 1998. Alternative Visions: Pathways in the Global Village. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 1999. Border Crossing: Towards a Comparative Political Theory. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2001. Achieving Our World: Toward a Global and Plural Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2002. Dialogue Among Civilizations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ———. 2003. Cosmopolitanism Moral and Political. Political Theory 31 (3): 421–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ———. 2004. Peace Talks: Who Will Listen? Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2005. Small Wonder: Global Power and Its Discontent. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  19. Derrida, Jacques. 2008. The Animal that Therefore I Am. Ed. Marie-Louise Mallet, and Tran. David Wills. New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Ezzat, Hebba. 2005. Beyond Methodological Modernism: Towards a Multicultural Paradigm Shift in the Social Sciences. In Global Civil Society 2004/2005, ed. Helmut Anheier et al. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Faubion, James D., ed. 1995. Rethinking the Subject: An Anthology of Contemporary European Social Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  22. Giri, Ananta Kumar. 2002. Conversations and Transformations: Toward a New Ethics of Self and Society. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 2004a. Self-Development, Inclusion of the Other and Planetary Realizations. In Religion of Development, Development of Religion, ed. Oscar Salemink et al. Eburon: Delft.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2004b. Knowledge and Human Liberation: Jurgen Habermas, Sri Aurobindo and Beyond. European Journal of Social Theory 7 (1): 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. ———. 2004c. Reflections and Mobilizations: Dialogues with Movements and Voluntary Organizations. New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2005. Introduction, the Modern Prince and Modern Sage: Transforming Power and Freedom. Special issue of Asian Journal of Social Sciences 33 (1): 1–3.Google Scholar
  27. Gorbachev, Mikhail, and Daisaku Ikeda. 2005. Moral Lessons of the Twentieth Century: Gorbachev and Ikeda on Buddhism and Communism. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  28. Gray, John. 2006. Easier Said Than Done: A Review Article on K. Anthony Appiah’s Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. The Nation, 30 January.Google Scholar
  29. Guha, Ranajit. 2002. History at the Limit of World History. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Habermas, Jurgen. 1990. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 1998. Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 2002. Religion and Rationality. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hannerz, Ulf. 2002. Where We Are and Who We Want to Be. In The Postnational Self: Belonging and Identity, ed. Ulf Hedetoft and Metter Hjort, 217–232. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  34. Harvey, David. 2000. Cosmopolitanism and the Banality of Geographical Evil. Public Culture 12 (2): 529–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. 2004. Multitude. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  36. Hedetoft, Ulf, and Mette Hjort. 2002. Introduction. In The Postnational Self, ed. Ulf Hedetoft and Metter Hjort, viii. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  37. Henderson, Hazel, and Daisaku Ikeda. 2004. Planetary Citizenship: Your Values, Beliefs and Actions Can Shape a Sustainable World. Santa Monica, CA: Middleway Press.Google Scholar
  38. Ikeda, Daisaku with Johan Galtung. 1995. Choose Peace. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  39. Ikeda, Daisaku with Majid Teheranian. 2000. Global Civilization: A Buddhist Islamic Dialogue. London: British Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ikeda, Daisaku with Arnold J. Toynbee. 1976. Choose Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Irigaray, Luce. 2002. Between East and West: From Singularity to Community. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Kant, Immanuel. 1795. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch.
  43. ———. 1798/2006. In Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, ed. Robert B. Louden and Manfred Kuehn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Mohanty, J.N. 2000. Self and Other: Philosophical Essays. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Nussbaum, Martha. 1990. Love’s Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 1997. Kant and Stoic Cosmopolitanism. Journal of Political Philosophy 5 (1): 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. ———. 2000. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. ———. 2006. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Pani, Narendra. 2001. Inclusive Economics: Gandhian Method and Contemporary Policy. Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  50. Quarles van Ufford, Philip, and Ananta Kumar Giri, eds. 2003. A Moral Critique of Development: In Search of Global Responsibilities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Radhakrishnan, R. 2003. Theory in an Uneven World. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roy, Ramashray. 1999. Beyond Ego’s Domain: Being and Order in the Vedas. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.Google Scholar
  53. Safranski, Rudiger. 2005. How Much Globalization Can We Bear? Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  54. Sen, Amartya. 2002. Justice Across Borders. In Global Justice and Transnational Politics: Essays on the Moral and Political Challenges of Globalization, ed. Pablo DeGrieff and Ciaran P. Cronin, 37–51. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sri Aurobindo. 1951. Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.Google Scholar
  56. ———. 1962. Human Cycles. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 1970. Life Divine. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.Google Scholar
  58. ———. 1971. Ideals of Human Unity. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.Google Scholar
  59. ———. 1992. Synthesis of Yoga. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram.Google Scholar
  60. Toynbee, Arnold J. 1956. An Historian’s Approach to Religion. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Tutu, Desmond. 2005. God Has a Dream. London: Rider.Google Scholar
  62. Vattimo, Gianni. 1999. Belief. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2002. After Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Venn, Couze. 2006. The Postcolonial Challenge: Towards Alternative Visions. London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ananta Kumar Giri
    • 1
  1. 1.Madras Institute of Development StudiesChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations