Introductory Concepts of Systems Analysis and Design
This chapter introduces basic concepts of systems analysis and design. System is a ubiquitous phenomenon. The chapter introduces the concept of systems with its general diagram and discusses its prime components along with various categories of systems. The discussed categories are Transaction Processing Systems (TPS), Management Information System (MIS), Decision Support System (DSS), and Expert System (ES) besides open and closed systems. Further, data pyramid (DIKW hierarchy) is also discussed with various levels of users and systems including total information system. After having a brief discussion of systems components and various categories of systems with real-life examples, systems analysis and design is defined along with duties and roles of Systems Analyst. To develop an information system, many approaches are used; prime of them are Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) approach, structured approach, and prototype approach which are briefly discussed. To manage the systems development process, the role of Systems Analyst and various committees is introduced in this chapter. The chapter also discusses need and reasons of systems development considering broad as well as detailed reasons in terms of five Cs, namely, cost, capacity, control, communication, and competitive advantages. To efficiently manage the development-related activities, concept of portfolio is discussed. The chapter also enlists tools for systems development at end. Exercise/practice questions with answers and objective questions (multiple choice) with solutions are also provided.