Limb Dysdifferentiation

  • Wei Wang
  • Bin WangEmail author
  • Jinghong Xu
  • Zhenyu Bian
  • Jianmin Yao
  • Xu Gong
  • Yunfei Zhang
  • Hongxing Zhang
  • Shengbo Zhou
  • Yongkang Jiang
  • Biwei Zeng
  • Jialiang Chen
  • Wangxiang Yao
  • Longchun Zhang
  • Liulong Zhu
  • Yizhen Chen
  • Feng Ni
  • Sheng Ding
  • Laijin Lu
Part of the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery book series (PRS)


Syndactylia is the fusion between the adjacent interdigital soft tissues and skeletons to varying extents, which is induced by the failure in a certain stage during the normal finger (toe) separation and formation of fingerweb. During normal development [1], fingers are formed during the mesoderm differentiation inside the terminal hand plates of the upper limbs during the embryonic phase. The formation of finger interdigital space is an apoptosis-regulating process; the direction is from far to near until the normal fingerweb is reached [2]. This process depends on the molecular signal of apical ectodermal ridge and multiple cytokines, including bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factor β, fibroblast growth factor, and tretinoin [3–7]. The normal second, third, and fourth fingerwebs have an inclination of 45° from the dorsal side to the volar side, a sand clocklike structure from the head of metacarpal bone to the middle point level of proximal phalanx, added to the proximal digital transverse striation (Fig. 6.1). The second and the fourth fingerwebs are wider than the third fingerweb, which makes the index finger and the little finger have a larger degree of abduction. The first fingerweb is a piece of broad rhombic skin, consisting of volar hairless skin and the skin with a large range of motion at the dorsal side which is relatively thin.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Wang
    • 1
  • Bin Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jinghong Xu
    • 2
  • Zhenyu Bian
    • 3
  • Jianmin Yao
    • 4
  • Xu Gong
    • 5
  • Yunfei Zhang
    • 6
  • Hongxing Zhang
    • 7
  • Shengbo Zhou
    • 8
  • Yongkang Jiang
    • 8
  • Biwei Zeng
    • 4
  • Jialiang Chen
    • 2
  • Wangxiang Yao
    • 3
  • Longchun Zhang
    • 4
  • Liulong Zhu
    • 3
  • Yizhen Chen
    • 2
  • Feng Ni
    • 8
  • Sheng Ding
    • 4
  • Laijin Lu
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryShanghai Ninth People Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  2. 2.The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Hangzhou City First People’s HospitalHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Hangzhou Plastic Surgery HospitalHangzhouChina
  5. 5.Jilin University First HospitalChangchunChina
  6. 6.Qingdao city Municipal HospitalQingdaoChina
  7. 7.Xi’an Honghui HospitalXi’anChina
  8. 8.Shanghai Ninth People Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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