Advertisement

Properties of Vegetable Fluids: A Green Insulator for Power Sector

  • Dhorali Gnanasekaran
  • Venkata Prasad Chavidi
Chapter
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)

Abstract

This chapter deals with the properties (physical, thermal, chemical, and electrical) of natural esters to be used as insulating fluids. This chapter also describes the effect of various additives (antioxidant additive, pour point depressant, etc.) on the properties of vegetable oil-based natural esters. It also gives detailed discussion on current research scenario of vegetable oil-based ester fluids for power sector. It also includes challenges and technical difficulties of vegetable ester fluids as a liquid insulator; it also covers comparison between vegetable oil fluids and mineral oils as liquid insulators for transformer application.

Keywords

Natural ester Biodegradable Electrical properties Renewable source Gassing tendency 

References

  1. 1.
    Darwin A, Perrier C, Foliot P (2007) The use of natural ester fluids in transformers. In Proceedings of MATPOST conference, Lyon (France), Paper 0036 (November 15–16, 2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Experiences in service with new insulating liquids, working group Cigre A2–35Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thomas A. Prevost Dielectric Properties of Natural Esters and their Influence on Transformer Insulation System Design and Performance.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    2nd International Conference on Innovations in Electrical and Civil Engineering ICIECE’2013) Dec. 17–18, 2013 Pattaya (Thailand)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Darwin A, Perrier C, Folliot P, The Use of natural ester fluids in transformers, MAT Post’07Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vukovic D, Tenbohlen S, Report on Comparative evaluation of breakdown strength of natural esters and mineral oilGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Martin D, Wang ZD, Dyer P, Darwin AW, James IRA (2007) Comparative Study of the Dielectric Strength of Ester Impregnated Cellulose for Use in Large Power Transformers, International Conference on Solid Dielectrics, Winchester, July 8–13Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Accessed in November 2013.http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/resources/knowledge/electrical -machines/dielectric-dissipation-factor
  9. 9.
    Cygan S, Laghari JR (1987) Dependence of the electric strength on thickness, area and the volume of polypropylene. IEEE Trans on Elec Insul EI-22(6):835–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lelekakis N, Martin D, Wijaya J (2012) Ageing rate of paper insulation used in power transformers part 2: oil/paper system with medium and high oxygen concentration. IEEE Trans on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 19:2009–2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Lewand L, (2004) Laboratory Testing of Natural Ester Dielectric Liquids. Neta World, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pahlavanpour B, Elkund M, (2004) Gassing properties of insulating liquids. Electra, No. 214Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arakelian VG, Fofana I (2009) Physicochemical aspects of gassing of insulating liquids under electrical stress. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 25(3):43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lewand L and Griffin P (2005) Gassing Characteristics of Transformer Oil under Thermal Stress. Neta World, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Davydov, VG, (June/July’2014) Consultant, Australia, Natural Ester Dielectric Liquids for Transformers and Other HV ApparatusGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    IEEE guide for acceptance and maintenance of insulating oil in equipment, C57.106-(2002) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewand L. (2001) Laboratory evaluation of several synthetic and agricultural-based dielectric liquids. Doble International Client Conference, 5E, BostonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ashraful AM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Rahman SMA, Habibullah M, Syazwan M (2014) Study of the effect of storage time on the oxidation and thermal stability of various biodiesels and their blends. Energy Fuel 28(2):1081–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Obadiah A, Kannan R, Ramasubbu A, Kumar SV (2012) Studies on the effect of antioxidants on the long-term storage and oxidation stability of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre biodiesel. Fuel Process Technol 99:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Base oil handbook. NynasGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Martin D, Wang ZD, Darwin AW, James I (2006) A comparative study of the chemical stability of esters for use in large power transformers. Electrical Insulation, and Dielectric Phenomena, 2006 IEEE Conference on, 15–18 Oct. 2006
  23. 23.
    Mc Shane CP, Gauger GA, Luksich J (1999) Fire resistant natural ester dielectric fluid and novel insulation system for its use. IEEE/PES Transmission & Distribution Conference, New Orleans, April 12–16Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Choi SH, Huh CS (2013) Analysis of the chemical and electrical characteristic of vegetable insulating oils exposed to accelerated aging. 2nd International Conference on Innovations in Electrical and Civil Engineering (ICIECE’2013) Dec. 17–18, PattayaGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cigré working group A2.35: Technical brochure 436- Experiences in service with new insulating liquidsGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lance R. Lewand, Report on the role of corrosive sulfur in transformers and transformer oilGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rapp KJ, Lemm AW, Orozco LA, McShane CP, Senior Member, IEEE, Corrosive Sulfur Phenomena Mitigation by Using Natural Ester Dielectric Fluids-Field Experience in Latin AmericaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Forma MWE, Jungemann FA, Norris, Sonntag NO (1979) In: Swern D (ed) Bailey's industrial oil and fat Pmducts, vol l, 4th edn. Wiley, New York, pp 186–189Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Noureddini H, Teoh BC and Davis L, Clement, (1992) Densities of vegetable oils and fatty acids, JAOCS, 69(12), 1184–1188.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mike Rycroft (2014) features editor, EE Publishers, Energize-April 2014- p 37Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bertrand Y, Lauzevis P (2013) 22nd International Conference on Electricity Distribution Stockholm, 10–13 June 2013 [paper 0382]Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    OECD: Principles and strategies related to the testing of degradation of organic chemicals, http://www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/testing/5598432.pdf.
  33. 33.
    Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 10.03 (1996) Electrical insulating liquids and gases; electrical protective equipment. American Society for Testing and Materials 1996Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lawate S, Unger R, Huang C (1999) Commercial Additives for Vegetable Lubricants. Lubricants World, May 1999, pp 43–45Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dunn RO, Shockley MW, Bagby MO (1996) Improving the low-temperature properties of alternative diesel fuels: vegetable oil-derived methyl esters. JAOCS 73(12):1719–1728Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    H2b, Ronny Fritsche, Uwe Rimmele, Frank Trautmann, and Dr. Michael SchäferGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Transformer fire protection, facilities instructions, standards, and techniques, Vol 3–32, Hydroelectric Research and Technical Services Group, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Dept. of Interior, Jan. 2005, DenverGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    5–4 Transformers, Section 2.3.1.1.1 Separation Distance, Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets, Factory Mutual Global, May 2003, NorwoodGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Less-Flammable Liquid-Insulated Transformers, Article 450.23, National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, National Fire Protection Association, QuincyGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Location and arrangement of power transformers and regulators, Section 152, National Electrical Safety Code, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Classification of insulating liquids according to fire point and net calorific value, CEI/IEC 61100: 1992–05, International Electro technical Commission, p. 11, 2005, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Perret J, Paris M (1987) Silicone oils for transformers, E.D.F. Bulletin des études et recherches – Série B, Réseaux électriques, matériels électriques, No. 2 pp 5–13Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Perrier C, Beroual A, Bessede JL (2006) Improvement of power transformers by using mixtures of mineral oil with synthetic esters. IEEE TDEI 13(3):556–564Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mc Shane CP, Rapp KJ, Corkran JL, Gauger GA, Luksich J (2001) Aging of Paper Insulation in Natural Ester Dielectric Fluid, EEE/PES Transmission & Distribution Conference, Oct. 28- Nov. 2, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mc Shane CP, Rapp KJ, Corkran JL, Luksich J (2003) Aging of Cotton/Kraft Blend Insulation Paper in Natural Ester Dielectric Fluid. Tech Con 2003 Asia Pacific, May 7–9, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mc Shane CP, Corkran JL, Rapp KJ, Luksich J (2003) Aging of paper insulation retro filled with natural ester dielectric fluid. In: IEEE/DEIS Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Oct. 19–22, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Broekhuizen P, Theodor D, Le Blanch K (2003) Ullmer S (2003) Lubrication in inland and coastal water activities. A. A. Balkema Publishers, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Honary LAT (2004) Biodegradable/Biobased Lubricants and Greases, Machinery Lubrication Magazine Issue No. 200109, Noria CorporationGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Diaz E (2008) Microbial biodegradation: genomics and molecular biology, 1st edn. Caister Academic Press, Wymondham. www.horizonpress.com/biodGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    US Army Corps of Engineers (1999). US army Manual EM1110–2-1424 (chapter 8) Viewed from www.usace.army.mil/usace-docs/engmanuals/em1110-2-1424/c-8.pdf (Sept, 2008).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    www.wiserenewables.com (2006). Wise Solutions–Renewable Lubricants–Biodegradability Primer.
  52. 52.
    Aluyor O, Ori-Jesu M (2008) The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils -a review. Afr J Biotechnol 7:4836–4842Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bioblend (2008). Biodegradable: What does that really mean? http://www.ignitemediahosting.com/.
  54. 54.
    Ferrari RA, Oliveira V, Scabio A (2004) Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters. Sci Agric (Piracicaba, Braz) 62(3):291–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wolf WJ (1978) Soybeans and other oilseeds.In: Martin Grayson (executive editor) 1978 Kirk–Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, volume 21, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gunther RC (1971) Lubrication. Bailey Brothers and Swinfen Ltd, FolkestoneGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Toshiyuki C (1999) Prediction of oxidative stability based in various chemical properties for refined vegetable oils. J Japan Oil Chem Soc 48(8):781–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gertz C, Klostermann S, Kochhar SP (2000) Testing and comparing oxidative stability of vegetable oils and fats at frying temperature. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 102(8–9):543–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Applewhite TH (1978) Fats and fatty oils.In: Martin Grayson (executive editor) 1978 Kirk–Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, volume 9, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Isbell TA, Abbot TP, Carlson KD (1999) Oxidative stability index of vegetable oils in binary mixtures with meadow foam oil. Ind Crop Prod 9(2):115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jerzykiewicz M, Ćwieląg-Piasecka I, Jezierski A (2013) J Am Oil Chem Soc 90:803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Oyedeji FO, Oderinde RA (2006) Characterization of isopropanol extracted vegetable oils. J Appl Sci 6(11):2510–2513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ullah J, Hamayoun M, Ahmad T, Ayub M, Zarafullah M (2003) Effect of light, natural and synthetic antioxidants on stability of edible oil and fats. Asian J Plant Sci 2(17–24):1192–1194Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Emanuel NM, Lyaskovskaya YN (1967) The inhibition of fat oxidation processes. Pergamon Press Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dunn RO (2005) Effect of antioxidants on the oxidative stability of methyl Soyate (biodiesel). Fuel Proc Technol 86:1071–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jung MY, Min DB (1990) Effects of α-γ- and β-Tocopherols on oxidative stability of soybean oil. J Food Sci 55(5):1464–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ruger CW, Klinker EJ, Hammond EG (2002) Abilities of some antioxidants to stabilize soybean oil in industrial use conditions. J Am Oil Chem Soc 79(7):733–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Senthil. Kumar S, (2016) Effect of antioxidants on critical properties of natural esters for liquid insulations, IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul, 23(4): 2068–2078.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Khanahmadi M, Janfeshan K (2006) Study on Antioxidation property of Ferulago angulata plant. Asian J Plant Sci 5(3):521–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Morteza-Semnani K, Saeedi M, Shahani S (2006) Antioxidant activity of the Methanolic extracts of some species of Phlomis and Stachys on sunflower oil. Afr J Biotechnol 5(24):2428–2432Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Maduka HCC, Uhwache HM, Okoye ZSC (2003) Comparative study of the antioxidant effect of Sacoglottis gabonensis stem bark extract, a Nigerian alcoholic beverage additive and vitamins C and E on the Peroxidative deterioration of some common stored vegetable oils in Maiduguri. Pak J Biol Sci 6(3):202–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Eastman Chemical Company (2001). Tenox Food-grade Antioxidants for Refined Vegetable Oils. www.eastman.com Eastman Chemical Company Kingsport Tennessee USA
  73. 73.
    Fennema OR (1985) Food chemistry, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Scott G (1965) Atmospheric oxidation and antioxidants. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Eastman Chemical Company, 2007Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ohio State University (2008) Antioxidants. http://class.fst.ohio-state.edu
  77. 77.
    Bennion M (1995) Introductory foods, 10th edn. Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Martin D (2008) Evaluation of the dielectric capability of ester based oils for power transformers. Doctoral thesis, University of ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Martin D, Wang ZD (2006) A comparative study of the impact of moisture on the dielectric capability of esters for large power transformers, Conf. on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, pp. 409412Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cargill Reference Data R2070- EnvirotempTM FR3TM Fluid–Dissolved Gas Guide, 2006Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Frotscher R, Vukovic D, Jovalekic M., Tenbohlen S, Harthun J., Perrier C and M. Schafer (2012) Behaviour of Ester Liquids under Dielectric and Thermal Stress–From Laboratory Testi1ng to Practical use, CIGRE D1–105Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Martin D, Lelekakis N, Davydov V (2010) Preliminary results for dissolved gas levels in a vegetable oil–filled power transformer. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 26(5):41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wang Z, Wang X, Yi X, Li S, Hinshaw JV (2014) Gas generation in natural Ester and Mineral oil under partial discharge and sparking faults. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 29(5):62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tenbohlen S, Vukovic D, Jovalekic M., Schäfer M, Harthun J (2009), Dielectric Performance and Dissolved Gas Analysis of Natural Esters for Application in Power Transformers, Performance of conventional and new materials for high voltage apparatus Cigre Sc D1 – Colloquium In Hungary BudapestGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zhongdong W, Xiao Y, Jinping H, Hinshaw JV, Noakhes J (2012) Fault gas generation in natural-ester fluid under localized thermal faults. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 28:45–56Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jovalekic M., Vukovic D, and Tenbohlen S (2011) Dissolved gas analysis of alternative dielectric fluids under thermal and electrical stress. IEEE International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL), pp 1–4, 26–30Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zafeiris K, Bertrand Y, Hipszki G, Kuffel M, Rehorek G, Seidel S (2011) Atanasova-Hoehlein I (2011) investigation on natural ester fluids concerning gassing and compatibility with transformer materials. International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Imad UK, Zhongdong W, Cotton I, Northcote S (2007) Dissolved gas analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 23:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wilhelm HM, Santos CC, Stocco GB (2013) Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) of natural ester insulating fluids with different chemical compositions. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 21:1071–1078Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Muhamad NA, Phung BT, Blackburn TR (2011) Dissolved gas analysis for common transformer faults in soy seed-based oil. IET Electr Power Appl 5:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Perrier C, Marugan M, Beroual A (2012) DGA comparison between ester and mineral oils. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 19:1609–1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dai J, Wang ZD (2008) A comparison of the impregnation of cellulose insulation by Ester and Mineral oil. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 15(2)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Moser HP, Dahinden V (1987) Transformer board II, pp 23–25Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mc Shane CP, Luksich JRKJCJL, Gauger GA (2001) Aging of paper insulation in natural ester dielectric fluid. IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition 2:675–679Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mc Shane CP (2002) Vegetable-oil-based dielectric coolants. Industry Applications Magazine 8(3):8Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Luksich J (2013) Loading guide A and B factors for envirotemp FR3 fluid and thermally upgraded kraft insulation. Report TP03-DR-009. Cooper Power System, p 3Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stockton D. P, Bland JR, Mc Clanahan T, Wilson J, Harris DL and McShane CP (2007) Natural Ester Transformer Fluids: Safety, reliability & environmental performance. Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Conference, p 7Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marulanda AR, Artigas MA, Gavidia A, Labarca F and Paz N (2008) Study of the vegetable oil as a substitute for mineral oils in distribution transformer. Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: Latin America, 2008, IEEE/PES, p. 6Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mak J, Maciel L, Franchini LR, Vagner V (2006) Transformador de distribuição de maior vida útil e menor agressividade ambiental. IV Work Spot, CIGRE Brasil, p 8Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mc Shane CP, Martins MN, and Luksich J. (2006) Field experience with natural ester (vegetable oil) dielectric fluid-the first decade. IV Workspot-International Workshop on Power Transformers. CIGRE. Vol 18, pp 1–10Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhorali Gnanasekaran
    • 1
  • Venkata Prasad Chavidi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dielectric Materials DivisionCentral Power Research InstituteBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations