Biodegradable Polymers as Lubricant Additives

  • Dhorali Gnanasekaran
  • Venkata Prasad Chavidi
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


The physical, chemical, and antiwear performance of lubricant which contains a biodegradable polymer as additive is literature reviewed. Readily available and with its broad range of applications, vegetable oils are reviewed as a very important class of renewable resources for lubricants as well as its additives. The readily available and modified biodegradable polymers are used as renewable novel additives in the lubricant and is reviewed and discussed here.


Biodegradable polymers Antiwear additive Extreme pressure additive Biobased polyesters Copolymers Homopolymer 


  1. 1.
    Maleque MA, Masjuki HH, Sapuan SM (2003) Vegetable-based biodegradable lubricating oil additives. Ind Lubr Tribol 55(3):137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ghosh P, Pantar AV, Sarma AS (1998) Shear stability of polymers used as viscosity modifier in lubricating oil. Ind J Chem Tech 5:371Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abdel-Azim AAA, Nassar AM, Ahmed NS, Kafrawy AFEI, Kamal RS (2009) Pet Sci and Technol 27:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amal MN, Nahal SA (2003) J Polym Mater 52:821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abdel-Azim AAA, Nassar AM, Ahmed NS, Kamal RS (2006) Preparation and evaluation of acrylate polymers as pour point depressants for lube oil. Pet Sci Technol 24(8):887–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nassar AM (2008) Synthesis and evaluation of viscosity index improvers and pour point depressant for lube oil. Pet Sci Technol 26:523–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oliveira CMF, Andrade CT, Delpech MC (1991) Properties of poly(methyl methacrylate-g-propylene oxide) in solution. Polym Bull 26:657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delpech MC, Coutinho FMB, Habibe MES (2002) Bisphenol A-based polycarbonates: characterization of commercial samples. Polym Test 21:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Delpech MC, Coutinho FMB, Habibe MES (2002) Viscometry study of ethylene–cyclic olefin copolymers. Polym Test 21:411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asadauskas S, Erhan SZ (1999) Depression of pour points of vegetable oils by blending with diluents used for biodegradable lubricants. JAOCS 76(3):313–316Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ghosh P, Karmakar G (2014) Evaluation of sunflower oil as a multifunctional lubricating oil additive. Int J Ind Chem 5(7):1–10Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghosh P, Das T, Karmakar G, Das M (2011) Evaluation of acrylate-sunflower oil copolymer as viscosity index improvers for lube oils. J Chem Pharm Res 3(3):547–556Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Quinchia LA, Delgado MA, Franco JM, Spikes HA, Gallegos C (2012) Low-temperature flow behavior of vegetable oil-based lubricants. Ind Crop Prod 37:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Quinchia LA, Delgado MA, Valencia C, Franco JM, Gallegos C (2009) Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations. Environ Sci Technol 43:2060–2065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Quinchia LA, Delgado MA, Valencia C, Franco JM, Gallegos C (2010) Viscosity modification of different vegetable oils with EVA copolymer for lubricant applications. Ind Crop Prod 32:607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Machado ALC, Lucas EF, González G (2001) Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) as wax inhibitor of a Brazilian crude oil: oil viscosity, pour point and phase behavior of organic solutions. J Pet Sci Eng 32:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Quinchia LA, Delgado MA, Reddyhoff T, Gallegos C, Spikes HA (2014) Tribological studies of potential vegetable oil-based lubricants containing environmentally friendly viscosity modifiers. Tribol Int 69:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lea CW (2002) European development of lubricants derived from renewable resources. Ind Lubric Tribol 54:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith S, King R, Min D (2007) Oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil. Food Chem 102:1208–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Qian J, Qi G, Han D, Yang S (1996) Influence of incipient chain dimension of EVA flow improver on the rheological behavior of crude oil. Fuel 75:161–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Biresaw G, Asadauskas SJ, McClure TG (2012) Polysulfide and Biobased extreme pressure additive performance in vegetable vs. Paraffinic Base oils. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:262–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ghosh P, Das T, Nandi D, Karmakar G, Mandal A (2010) Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable polymer used as a pour point depressant for lubricating oil. Int J Polym Mater 59:1008–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aluyor EO, Obahiagbon KO, Orijesu M (2009) Biodegradation of vegetable oils: a review. Afri J Biotech 8:915–920Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anand ON, Chhibber VK (2006) Vegetable oil derivatives: environment-friendly lubricants and fuels. J Synthetic Lubr 23:91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bartz WJ (1998) Lubricants and the environment. Tribol Int 31:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goyan RL, Melley RE, Wissner PA, Ong WC (1998) Biodegradable Lubricants. Lubr Eng 54:10–17Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kitamura N (1993) Biodegradable lubricants. Japanese J Tribol 38:639Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liew Yun Hsien W (2015) Towards green lubrication in machining, springer briefs in green chemistry for sustainability. Springer, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29. (2006) Wise Solutions–Renewable Lubricants–Biodegradability Primer
  30. 30.
    Boyde S (2002) Green lubricants. Environmental benefits and impacts of lubrication. Green Chem 4:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Erhan SM, Kleiman R (1997) Biodegradation of estolides from monounsaturated fatty acids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 74:605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bartz WJ (2006) Ecotribology: environmentally acceptable Tribological practices. Tribol Int 39:728–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nagendramma P, Kaul S (2012) Development of ecofriendly/biodegradable lubricants: an overview. Rene Sust Energ Rev 16:764–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rudnick LR (2006) Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants: chemistry and technology. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhorali Gnanasekaran
    • 1
  • Venkata Prasad Chavidi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dielectric Materials DivisionCentral Power Research InstituteBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations