Green Fluids from Vegetable Oil: Power Plant

  • Dhorali Gnanasekaran
  • Venkata Prasad Chavidi
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


Biodegradability has become one of the most important design parameters both in the selection of base oil and in the overall formulation of the finished fluids for insulating liquid and lubricants at electrical power generation in the power plants. There is a continuing trend toward the use of “environmentally friendly” or more readily biodegradable fluids. Readily biodegradable fluids are one that breaks down in the environment at a specified time when evaluated by standard biodegradability tests; the fluids convert to lower molecular weight components that have essentially no environmental impact. Due to the depleting of petroleum resources and environmental concern, the demand for vegetable oil-based natural esters has increased as well. In this regard, the statistical development, degradation capability of vegetable oil (triglycerides) as lubricants and liquid insulators, and the properties of natural ester-based vegetable oil in the power plant have been investigated in this chapter.


Vegetable oil Power plants Lubricants Insulating fluids Natural esters Triglycerides Green fluids 


  1. 1.
    Rizvi SQ (2009) Lubricant additives. In: A comprehensive review of lubricant chemistry, technology, selection, and design. ASTM International, West ConshohockenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Betton CI (2010) Lubricants & their environmental impact. In: Mortier RM, Fox MF, Orszulik ST (eds) Chemistry and technology of lubricants. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 435–457Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pettersson A (2007) High-performance base fluids for environmentally adapted lubricants. Tribol Int 40(4):638–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abdel-Azim AAA, Nassar AM, Ahmed NS, Kamal RS (2006) Preparation and evaluation of acrylate polymers as pour point depressants for lube oil. Pet Sci Technol 24(8):887–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ghosh P, Das M, Upadhyay M, Das T, Mandal A (2011) Synthesis and evaluation of acrylate polymers in lubricating oil. J Chem Eng Data 56:3752–3758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu X, Zhang X, Yang S, Chen H, Wang D (2000) The study of epoxidized rapeseed oil used as a potential biodegradable lubricant. J Am Oil Chem Soc 77:561–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    (a). Sharma BK, Adhvaryu A, Erhan SZ (2006) Synthesis of hydroxyl thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil. J Agric Food Chem 54(26):9866–9872. (b). Mohammed Aji, Shettima Abba Kyari, Gideon Zoaka (2015) Comparative Studies between bio lubricants from Jatropha, neem oil and mineral lubricant (Engen Super 20w/50). Appli Rese J 1(4):252–257Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maleque MA, Masjuki HH, Sapuan SM (2003) Vegetable-based biodegradable lubricating oil additives. Ind Lubr Tribol 55(3):137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ertugrul D, Filiz K (2004) Using cotton seed oil as environmentally accepted lubricant additive. Energy Sources 26:611–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kammann KP Jr, Phillips AI (1985) Sulfurized vegetable oil products as lubricant additives. J Am Oil Chem Soc 62:917–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fuks IG, Evdokimov AY, Dzhamalov AA, Luksa A (1992) Vegetable oils and animal fats as raw materials for the manufacture of commercial lubricants. Chem Technol Fuels Oils 28(4):230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharma BK, Adhvaryu A, Erhan SZ (2006) Synthesis of hydroxyl thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil. J Agric Food Chem 54(26):9866–9872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghosh P, Karmakar G (2013) Green additives for lubricating oils. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1(11):1364–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biresaw G, Asadauskas SJ, McClure TG (2012) Polysulfide and biobased extreme pressure additive performance in vegetable vs paraffinic oils. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:262–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Papay AG (1998) Antiwear and extreme pressure additives in lubricants. Lubr Sci 10(3):209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chin-Chung W, Lee-Yan S, Haw-Wen C (2001) Differential effects of garlic oil and its three major organosulfur components on the hepatic detoxification system in rats. J Agric Food Chem 50(2):378–383Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weinberg DS, Manier ML, Richardson MD, Haibach FG (1993) Identification and quantification of organosulfur compliance markers in a garlic extract. J Agric Food Chem 41(1):37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Braun E, Buyanovskii I, Pravotorova E (2007) Reduction of amount of tribotests of lubricants with four-ball machine. J Frict Wear 28(3):300–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    a. Thomas R, Achim F (2009) Sulfur carriers. In: Rudnick LR (ed) Lubricant additives: chemistry and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton. b. Imran A, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Varman M, Hasmelidin M, Al Mahmud KAH, Shahir SA, Habibullah M (2013) Study of friction and wear characteristic of Jatropha oil blended lube oil. Procedia Eng 68:178–185Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li W, Jiang C, Chao M, Wang X (2014) Natural garlic oil as a high performance, environmentally friendly, extreme pressure additive in lubricating oils. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:798–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Studt P (1989) Boundary lubrication: adsorption of oil additives on steel and ceramic surfaces and its influence on friction and wear. Tribol Int 22:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Daniel SG (1951) The adsorption on metal surfaces of long-chain polar compounds from hydrocarbon solutions. Trans Faraday Soc 47:1345–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    (a). Kipling JJ (1965) Adsorption from solutions of non-electrolytes. Academic Press, London, p 55. (b). Bowman WF, Stachowiak GW (1999) Application of sealed capsule differential scanning calorimetry - part II: assessing the performance of antioxidants and base oils. Lubr Eng 55(5):22–9Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hironaka S, Yahagi Y, Sakurai T (1975) Heats of adsorption and anti-wear properties of some surface active substance. Bull Jpn Petrol Inst 17(2):201–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jahanmir S, Beltzer M (1986) An adsorption model for friction in boundary lubrication. ASLE Trans 29(3):423–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nakayama K, Studt P (1991) Additive interaction and lubrication performance in polar additive binary system. Tribol Int 25:2Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arnsek A, Vizintin J (1999) Scuffing and load capacity of rapeseed-based oils. Lubr Eng 55:11–18Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gunsel S, Lockwood FE (1995) The influence of copper-containing additives on oil oxidation and corrosion. Tribol Trans 38:485–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bob F, Dwight S (2010) The benefits of bio-based lubricants. Available in pdf from Gear Solutions:
  30. 30.
    Bakunin VN, Yu Suslov A, Kuzmina GN, Parenago OP, Topchiev AV (2004) Synthesis and application of inorganic nanoparticles as lubricant components – a review, Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis RAS, Moscow, Russia. J Nanopart Res 6:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Choi SUS (1995) Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. In: Siginer DA, Wang HP (eds) Developments and applications of non-Newtonian flows. ASME, New York, pp 99–105Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    (a). Ji X, Chen Y, Zhao G, Wang X, Liu W (2011) Tribological properties of CaCO nanoparticles as an additive in lithium grease. Tribol. Lett 41:113–119. (b). Friedman H, Eidelman O, Feldman Y, Moshkovich A, Perfiliev V, Rapoport L, Cohen H, Yoffe A, Tenne R (2007) Fabrication of self-lubricating cobalt coatings on metal surfaces. Nanotechnol 18 doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/18/11/115703
  33. 33.
    Chaudhury MK (2003) Complex fluids: spread word about nanofluids. Nature 423:131–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kleinstreuer C, Li J, Koo J (2008) Microfluidics of nano-drug delivery. Int J Heat Mass Transf 51:5590–5597CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    (a). Rapoport L, Fleischer N, Tenne R (2003) Fullerene-like WS nanoparticles: superior lubricants for harsh conditions. Adv Mater 15:651–655. (b). Cumings J, Zettl A (2000) Low-friction nanoscale linear bearing realized from multiwall carbon nanotubes. Sci 289:602–604. (c). Falvo MR, Taylor RM, Helser A, Chi V, Brooks FP Jr, Washburn S, Superfine R (1999) Nanometre-scale rolling and sliding of carbon nanotubes. Nature 397:236–238. (d) Akbulut M, Belman N, Golan Y, Israelachvili J (2006) Frictional properties of confined nanorods. Adv Mater 18:2589–2592Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Salimon J, Salih N, Yousif E (2010) Biolubricants: raw materials, chemical modifications, and environmental benefits. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 112(5):519–530Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hahn S, Dott W, Eisentraeger A (2006) Characterization of aging behavior of environmentally acceptable lubricants based on trimethylolpropane esters. J Synth Lubr 23(4):223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pettersson A (2003) Tribological characterization of environmentally adapted ester based fluids. Tribol Int 36(11):815–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hashem AI, Abou Elmagd WSI, Salem AE, El-Kasaby M, El-Nahas AM (2013) Conversion of some vegetable oils into synthetic lubricants. Energy Sources, Part A 35(5):397–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    (a). Fox NJ, Stachowiak GW (2007) Vegetable oil-based lubricants, a review of oxidation. Tribol Int 40(7):1035–1046. (b). Steve B (2002) Green lubricants. Environ Benefits Impacts Lubr Green Chem 4:293–307Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Erhan SZ, Sharma BK, Liu Z, Adhvaryu A (2008) Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils. J Agric Food Chem 56(19):8919–8925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    (a). Erhan SZ, Asadauskas S (2000) Lubricant base stocks from vegetable oils. Ind Crops Prod 11(2–3):277–282. (b). Syaima MTS, Zamratul MIM, Noor IM, Rifdi WMWT (2014) Development of bio-lubricant from Jatropha curcas oils. IJRCMCE 1:10–12Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shashidhara YM, Jayaram SR (2010) Vegetable oils as a potential cutting fluid-an evolution. Tribol Int 43(5–6):1073–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sharma BK, Liu Z, Adhvaryu A, Erhan SZ (2008) One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils. J Agric Food Chem 56(9):3049–3056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Campanella A, Rustoy E, Baldessari A, Baltanás MA (2010) Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils. Bioresour Technol 101(1):245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ozcelik B, Kuram E, Cetin MH, Demirbas E (2011) Experimental investigations of vegetable based cutting fluids with extreme pressure during turning of AISI 304L. Tribol Int 44(12):1864–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li W, Wu Y, Wang X, Liu W (2012) Tribological study of boron containing soybean lecithin as an environmentally friendly lubricant additive in synthetic base fluids. Tribol Lett 47(3):381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    (a). Mohanti S (2001) Envirotech New Delhi (b). Amit Suhane, Sarviya RM, Rehman A, Khaira HK (2014) Prospects of vegetable oils for lubricant formulations in Indian perspectives. IJETR 2(12):2321–0869
  49. 49.
    Gawrilow I (2004) Vegetable oil usage in lubricants. Oleochem Inform 15:702–705Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sharma BK, Adhvaryua A, Liu Z, Erhan SZ (2006) Chemical modification of vegetable oils for lubricant applications. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Soni S, Agarwal M (2014) Lubricants from renewable energy sources – a review. Green Chem Lett Rev 7:359–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nagendramma P, Kaul S (2012) Development of ecofriendly/biodegradable lubricants: an overview. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:764–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Padmaja KV, Rao BVSK, Reddy RK, Bhaskar PS, Singh AK, Prasad RBN (2012) Undecenoic acid-based polyol esters as potential lubricant base stocks. Ind Crop Prod 35:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Arumugam S, Sriram G, Subhadra L (2012) Synthesis, chemical modification and tribological evaluation of plant oil as bio-degradable low temperature lubricant. Procedia Eng 38:1508–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Quinchia LA, Reddyhoff T, Delgado MA, Gallegos C, Spikes HA (2014) Tribological studies of potential vegetable oil-based lubricants containing environmentally friendly viscosity modifiers. Tribol Int 69:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Singh AK (2011) Castor oil-based lubricant reduces smoke emission in two-stroke engines. Ind Crop Prod 33:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Quinchia LA, Delgado MA, Valencia C, Franco JM, Gallegos C (2010) Viscosity modification of different vegetable oils with EVA copolymer for lubricant applications. Ind Crop Prod 32:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    (a). Campanella A, Rustoy E, Baldessari A, Baltanas MA (2010) Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils. Ind Crops Prod 101:245–254. (b). Bilal S, Mohammed-Dabo IA, Nuhu M, Kasim SA, Almustapha IH, Yamusa YA (2013) Production of biolubricant from Jatropha curcas seed oil. J Chem Eng Mater Sci 4:72–79Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gunderson RC, Hart AW (eds) (1962) Synthetic lubricants. Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Randles SJ (1999) Esters. In: Rudnick LR, Shubkin RL (eds) Synthetic lubricants and high-performance functional fluids. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 63–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lathi P, Mattiasson M (2007) Green approach for the preparation of biodegradable lubricant base stock from epoxidized vegetable oil. Appl Catal B 9:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jayadas N, Nair K (2006) Coconut oil as a base oil for industrial lubricants-evaluation and modification of thermal, oxidative and low-temperature properties. Tribol Int 39:873–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lawal SA (2013) A review of application of vegetable oil-based cutting fluids in machining non-ferrous metals. Indian J Sci Technol 6:3951–3956Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rudnick LR (2006) Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants: chemistry and technology. CRC/Taylor & Francis Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lazzeri L, Mazzoncini M, Rossi A, Balducci E, Bartolini G, Giovannelli L, Pedriali R, Petroselli R, Patalano G, Agnoletti G, Borgioli A, Croce B, Avino LD (2006) Biolubricants for the textile and tannery industries as an alternative to conventional mineral oils: an application experience in the Tuscany province. Ind Crop Prod 24:280–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dietrich H (2002) Recent trends in environmentally friendly lubricants. J Synth Lubr 18:328–347Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Liew Yun Hsien W (2015) Towards green lubrication in machining, springer briefs in green chemistry for sustainability. Springer, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Samarth NB, Mahanwar PA (2015) Modified vegetable oil-based additives as a future polymeric material-review. Open J Organic Polym Mater 5:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bartz WJ (1998) Lubricants and the environment. Tribol Int 31:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bartz WJ (2006) Ecotribology: environmentally acceptable tribological practices. Tribol Int 39:728–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fox NJ, Stachowiak GW (2007) Vegetable oil-based lubricants - a review of oxidation. Tribol Int 40:1035–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Joseph PV, Deepak S, Sharma DK (2007) Study of some non-edible vegetable oils of Indian origin for lubricant application. J Synth Lubr 24:181–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Goyan RL, Melley RE, Wissner PA, Ong WC (1998) Biodegradable lubricants. Lubr Eng 54(7):10–17Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chauhan PS, Chhibber VK (2013) Non-edible oil as a source of bio-lubricant for industrial applications: a review. Inter J Eng Sci Innov Technol 2(1):299–306Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lea CW (2002) European development of lubricants from renewable sources. Ind Lubr Tribol 54(6):268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Asadauskas S, Perez JH, Duda JL (1997) Lubrication properties of castor oil–potential base stock for biodegradable. Lubr Eng 53(12):35–40Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Masjuki HH, Maleque MA, Kubo A, Nonaka T (1990) Palm oil and mineral oil based lubricants-their tribological and emission performance. Tribol Int 32:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Maleque MA, Masjuki HH, Sapuan SM (2003) Vegetable based biodegradable lubricating oil additives. Ind Lubr technol 55(3):137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Erhan SZ, Asadauskas S (2000) Lubricant base stocks from vegetable oils. Ind Crop Prod 11:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bhatia VK, Chaudhry A, Sivasankaran GK, Bisht RPS, Kashyap M (1990) Modification of jojoba oil for lubricant formulations. JAOCS 67(1):1–7Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Belgacem MN, Gandini A (2008) In: Belgacem MN, Gandini A (eds) Monomers, polymers, and composites from renewable resources. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 39–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bertrand Y, Hoang LC (2003) Vegetal oils as a substitute for mineral oils. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on properties applications of dielectric materials, NagoyaGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Oommen TV, Claiborne CC, Walsh EJ, Baker JP (2000) A new vegetable oil based transformer fluid: development and verification, Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Annual Report Conference on, vol. 1. Victoria, pp 308–312Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Oommen TV, Claiborne CC, Walsh EJ, Baker JP (1999) Biodegradable transformer fluid from high oleic vegetable oils, International Conference of Doble Clients, 1999Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    McShane P, Corkran J, Rapp K, Luksich J (2006) Natural ester dielectric fluid development, IEEEGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bertrand Y, Hoang LC (2004) Vegetable oils as a substitute for mineral insulating oils in medium voltage equipment, CIGRE, paper D1–202Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Susilo A, Muslim J, Arief YZ, Muhamad NA, Hikita M, Kozako M, Tsuchie M, Suzuki T, Hatada S, Kanetani A, Kano T, Suwarno, Khayam U (2014) Comparative study of partial discharge characteristics and dissolved gas analysis on palm-based oil as insulating material. Power Engineering and Renewable Energy (ICPERE), International Conference on, Bali, pp 232–236Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gómez NA, Wilhelm HM, Santos CC, Stocco GB (2014) Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) of natural ester insulating fluids with different chemical compositions. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 21(3):1071–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Arief YZ, Ahmad MH, Lau KY, Muhamad NA, Bashir N, Mohd NK, Huey LW, Kiat YS, Azli SA (2014) A comparative study on the effect of electrical aging on electrical properties of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and FR3 as dielectric materials. In Conference Proceeding - IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy, PECon 2014. [7062427] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, pp 128–133Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Villarroel R, García D, García B, Burgos J (2015) Moisture diffusion coefficients of transformer pressboard insulation impregnated with natural esters. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 22(1):581–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yao S, Li J, Li L, Liao R, Zhou J (2014) Comparison analysis to thermal aging properties of vegetable and mineral insulating oils, High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE), International Conference on, Poznan, 2014, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wang Z, Li J, Yang L, Liao R (2014) Characteristics of acid value in vegetable insulating oil during thermal aging, High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE), International Conference on, Poznan, 2014, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    IEC 60422 Mineral insulating oils in electrical equipment supervision and maintenance guidanceGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    IEC 61203 synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes- Guide for maintenance of transformer esters in equipmentGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    D6871–03 (2008) Standard Specification for Natural (Vegetable Oil) Ester fluids Used in electrical apparatusGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    IEC 60944 (Ed. 1) -1988 Guide for Acceptance of Silicone Transformer Fluid and Its Maintenance in TransformersGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhorali Gnanasekaran
    • 1
  • Venkata Prasad Chavidi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dielectric Materials DivisionCentral Power Research InstituteBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations