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Oxidative Stress: Diagnostic Methods and Application in Medical Science

  • Vikram Dalal
  • Narendra Kumar Sharma
  • Sagarika BiswasEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Oxidative stress is the disturbance in the balance between production of free radicals (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, organic hyperoxide, etc.) and antioxidant (catalase, superoxide, dismutase, scavengers, etc.) defense system, which can cause several diseases like Asperger syndrome, myocardial infarctions, Alzheimer’s disease, depressions, Parkinson’s disease, autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.), and even cancer. Several techniques like HPLC, GC-MS, GC, HPLC-ECD, electron spin resonance, etc. have been used to detect the specific biomarkers of the oxidative stress. Several compounds like dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA), dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR), luminol, etc. can be used to measure the reactive species in cells. Various methods like fluorescence microplate reader, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, etc. have been used to measure the oxidative species from the output of the probes. Several biomarkers like alpha 2 HS glycoprotein (AHSG), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), α-1-β-glycoprotein (A1BG), etc. are highly expressed in the rheumatoid arthritis patients than healthy controls. Several techniques like lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase activity (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) activity, NADPH oxidase activity, etc. can be used to measure the reactive species in the rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords

Oxidative stress RNS RS Oxidation Probes Biosensors Autoimmune diseases Biomarkers Rheumatoid arthritis 

Abbreviations

4-HNE

4-Hydroxynonenal

8-oxodG

8-Oxo-7-hydroxydeoxyguanosine

A1BG

α-1-β-glycoprotein

AGE

Advanced glycation end

AGP

Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein

AHSG

Alpha 2 HS glycoprotein

AOPP

Advanced oxidation of protein products

AR

Amplex Red

BMPO

5-Tert butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide

CAT

Catalase activity

CT

3-Chlorotyrosine

DAF-2DA

Diaminofluorescein diacetate

DCF

Dichlorofluorescein

DCFDA

Dichlorofluorescein diacetate

DCFH

Dicholofluorescin

DECPO

5,5-Diethylcarbonyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide

DEPMPO

5 Diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide

DHR

Dihydrorhodamine 123

DMPO

5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EPPN

N-2-(2-Ethoxycarbonyl-propyl)-a-phenylnitrone

ESR

Electron spin resonance

GC-MS

Gas chromatography

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GSH

Glutathionine

GSSG

Oxidized glutathione

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

Hp

Haptoglobin

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IEM

Immune electron microscopy

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

INT

2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride

MAA

Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde

MALDI

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

MBL

Mannose-binding lectin

MDA

Malondialdehyde

NBT

Nitroblue tetrazolium

NQO1

Quinine oxidoreductase 1

NQO2

Quinine oxidoreductase 2

PBN

N-tert-butyl-a-phenylnitrone

PC

Protein carbonyls

PCOOH

Phosphatidylcholine

PEOOH

Phosphatidylethanolamine

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

RS

Reactive species

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TAC

Total antioxidant capacity

TBARS

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TTR

Transthyretin

YFP

Yellow fluorescent protein

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vikram Dalal
    • 1
  • Narendra Kumar Sharma
    • 2
  • Sagarika Biswas
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de MedicinaUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Genomics & Molecular MedicineCSIR-Institute of Genomics & Integrative BiologyNew DelhiIndia

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