The Epidemiology of Chronic Pancreatitis

  • Qian-Qian Zhu
  • Quan-Cai Cai
  • Luo-Wei Wang
  • Zhuan Liao
  • Zhao-Shen Li


Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a disorder of chronic inflammation characterized by chronic abdominal pain, frequent disease exacerbations, and exocrine and/or endocrine insufficiency. It significantly affects patients’ quality of life and may lead to life-threatening complications including diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer. Currently, the epidemiology of CP is not well described. The difficulty in the formal diagnosis and high variability in the severity and evolution of the illness may impact the quality of epidemiological studies. Although there are few large population-based epidemiological studies concerning CP, the available data shows the growing incidence and prevalence of CP in the world. In addition, it varies tremendously in different countries, which may be related with differences in study methodology, diagnostic criteria and techniques, and risk factors.


  1. Ammann RW, Hammer B, Fumagalli I. Chronic pancreatitis in Zurich, 1963–1972. Clinical findings and follow-up studies of 102 cases. Digestion. 1973;9:404–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen BN, Pedersen NT, Scheel J, et al. Incidence of alcoholic chronic-pancreatitis in copenhagen. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1982;17:247–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andriulli A, Botteri E, Almasio PL, et al. Smoking as a cofactor for causation of chronic pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Pancreas. 2010;39:1205–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Balaji LN, Tandon RK, Tandon BN, et al. Prevalence and clinical-features of chronic-pancreatitis in southern India. Int J Pancreatol. 1994;15:29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Balakrishnan V, Unnikrishnan AG, Thomas V, et al. Chronic pancreatitis. A prospective nationwide study of 1,086 subjects from India. JOP. 2008;9:593–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Capitaine Y. Epidemiology of chronic pancreatitis in Switzerland. In: Sarles H, Johnson C, Sauniere JF, editors. Pancreatitis; Oxford, Blackwell, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. Cavallini G, Frulloni L, Pederzoli P, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with chronic pancreatitis in Italy. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1998;33:880–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Coté GA, Yadav D, Slivka A, et al. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in an epidemiology study of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:266–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dani R, Mott CB, Guarita DR, et al. Epidemiology and etiology of chronic pancreatitis in Brazil: a tale of two cities. Pancreas. 1990;5:474–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dite P, Stary K, Novotny I, et al. Incidence of chronic pancreatitis in the Czech Republic. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;13:749–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dzieniszewski J, Jarosz M, Ciok J. Chronic pancreatitis in Warsaw. Mater Med Pol. 1990a;3:202–4.Google Scholar
  12. Dzieniszewski J, Jarosz M, Ciok J. Chronic pancreatitis in Warsaw. Mater Med Pol. 1990b;22:202–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Falk DE, Yi HY, Hiller-Sturmhofel S. An epidemiologic analysis of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use and disorders: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Alcohol Res Health. 2006;29:162–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Frulloni L, Gabbrielli A, Pezzilli R, et al. Chronic pancreatitis: report from a multicenter Italian survey (PanCroInfAISP) on 893 patients. Dig Liver Dis. 2009;41:311–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Garg PK, Tandon RK. Survey on chronic pancreatitis in the Asia-Pacific region. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19:998–1004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gastard J, Joubaud F, Farbos T, et al. Etiology and course of primary chronic pancreatitis in Western France. Digestion. 1973;9:416–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartwig W, Werner J, Ryschich E, et al. Cigarette smoke enhances ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Pancreas. 2000;21:272–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hirota M, Shimosegawa T, Masamune A, et al. The sixth nationwide epidemiological survey of chronic pancreatitis in Japan. Pancreatology. 2012;12:79–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirota M, Shimosegawa T, Masamune A, et al. The seventh nationwide epidemiological survey for chronic pancreatitis in Japan: clinical significance of smoking habit in Japanese patients. Pancreatology. 2014;14(6):490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Imoto M, DiMagno EP. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of pancreatic calcification in late-onset but not early-onset idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2000;21:115–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Irving HM, Samokhvalov AV, Rehm J. Alcohol as a risk factor for pancreatitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JOP. 2009;10:387–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Ishii K, Nakamura K, Takeuchi T, et al. Chronic calcifying pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma in Japan. Digestion. 1973;9:429–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Jaakkola M, Nordback I. Pancreatitis in finland between 1970 and 1989. Gut. 1993;34:1255–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. James O, Agnew JE, Bouchier IA. Chronic pancreatitis in England: a changing picture? Br Med J. 1974;2:34–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson CD, Hosking S. National statistics for diet, alcohol-consumption, and chronic-pancreatitis in england and wales, 1960–88. Gut. 1991;32:1401–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Jupp J, Fine D, Johnson CD. The epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of chronic pancreatitis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;24:219–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kristiansen L, Grønbæk M, Becker U, et al. Risk of pancreatitis according to alcohol drinking habits: a population-based cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:932–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lankisch PG, Assmus C, Maisonneuve P, et al. Epidemiology of pancreatic diseases in Luneburg County. A study in a defined german population. Pancreatology. 2002a;5:469–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lankisch PG, Assmus C, Maisonneuve P, et al. Epidemiology of pancreatic diseases in Luneburg County. A study in a defined german population. Pancreatology. 2002b;2:469–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lankisch PG, Breuer N, Bruns A, et al. Natural history of acute pancreatitis: a long-term population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:2797–805; quiz 2806CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Levy P, Barthet M, Mollard BR, et al. Estimation of the prevalence and incidence of chronic pancreatitis and its complications—a prospective survey in adults attending gastroenterologists in France. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2006;30:838–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Levy P, Dominguez-Munoz E, Imrie C, et al. Epidemiology of chronic pancreatitis: burden of the disease and consequences. United European Gastroenterol J. 2014;2:345–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Grover H, et al. Racial factors and the risk of chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94(3):790–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Luaces-Regueira M, Iglesias-Garcia J, Lindkvist B, et al. Smoking as a risk factor for complications in chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2014;43:275–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB, Mullhaupt B, et al. Cigarette smoking accelerates progression of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Gut. 2005;54(4):510.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Maisonneuve P, Frulloni L, Mullhaupt B, et al. Impact of smoking on patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2006;33:163–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Malka D, Hammel P, Sauvanet A, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:1324–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Marks IN, Bank S, Louw JH. Chronic pancreatitis in the Western Cape. Digestion. 1973;9:447–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Maruyama K, Otsuki M. Incidence of alcoholic pancreatitis in Japanese alcoholics—survey of male sobriety association members in Japan. Pancreas. 2007;34:63–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Melia WM, Sims MM, Whitehouse DP, et al. Chronic pancreatitis in the British Army 1978–1989. J R Army Med Corps. 1992;138:126–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Moshal MG. A study of chronic pancreatitis in Natal. Digestion. 1973;9:438–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Muniraj T, Aslanian HR, Farrell J, et al. Chronic pancreatitis, a comprehensive review and update. Part I: epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, genetics, pathophysiology, and clinical features. Dis Mon. 2014;60:530–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Osullivan JN, Nobrega FT, Brown AL, et al. Acute and chronic pancreatitis in rochester, minnesota, 1940–1969. Gastroenterology. 1972;62:373–9.Google Scholar
  44. Otsuki M, Tashiro M. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, lifestyle-related diseases. Intern Med. 2007;46:109–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Pandol SJ, Gorelick FS, Gerloff A, et al. Alcohol abuse, endoplasmic reticulum stress and pancreatitis. Dig Dis. 2010;28:776–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Pedrazzoli S, Pasquali C, Guzzinati S, et al. Survival rates and cause of death in 174 patients with chronic pancreatitis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:1930.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Pezzilli R, Morselli-Labate AM, Fantini L, et al. Assessment of the quality of life in chronic pancreatitis using Sf-12 and EORTC Qlq-C30 questionnaires. Dig Liver Dis. 2007;39:1077–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Rebours V, Boutron-Ruault MC, Jooste V, et al. Mortality rate and risk factors in patients with hereditary pancreatitis: uni- and multidimensional analyses. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:2312–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Robles-Diaz G, Vargas F, Uscanga L, et al. Chronic pancreatitis in Mexico City. Pancreas. 1990;5:479–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ryu JK, Lee JK, Kim YT, et al. Clinical features of chronic pancreatitis in Korea: a multicenter nationwide study. Digestion. 2005;72:207–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sadr-Azodi O, Sanders DS, Murray JA, et al. Patients with celiac disease have an increased risk for pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10:1136–1142.e3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Talamini G, Bassi C, Butturini G, et al. Outcome and quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. JOP. 2001;2:117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Talamini G, Bassi C, Falconi M, et al. Smoking cessation at the clinical onset of chronic pancreatitis and risk of pancreatic calcifications. Pancreas. 2007;35:320–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tao N, Sussman S, Nieto J, et al. Demographic characteristics of hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis in los angeles county. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27:1798–804.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. The Copenhagen Pancreatitis Study Group. An interim report from a prospective epidemiological multicentre study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1981;2:305–12.Google Scholar
  56. Thuluvath PJ, Imperio D, Nair S, et al. Chronic pancreatitis. Long-term pain relief with or without surgery, cancer risk, and mortality. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003;36:159–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Tinto A, Lloyd D, Kang JY, et al. Acute and chronic pancreatitis—diseases on the rise: a study of hospital admissions in England 1989/90-1999/2000. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:2097–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Uys CJ, Bank S, Marks IN. The pathology of chronic pancreatitis in Cape Town. Digestion. 1973;9:454–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang LW, Li ZS, Li SD, et al. Prevalence and clinical features of chronic pancreatitis in china a retrospective multicenter analysis over 10 years. Pancreas. 2009;38:248–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wehler M, Nichterlein R, Fischer B, et al. Factors associated with health-related quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:138–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Whitcomb DC, Yadav D, Adam S, et al. Multicenter approach to recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis in the United States: the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2). Pancreatology. 2008;8:520–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Whitcomb DC, LaRusch J, Krasinskas AM, et al. Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1349–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Yadav D, Lowenfels AB. The epidemiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:1252–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Yadav D, Hawes RH, Brand RE, et al. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and the risk of recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1035–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Yadav D, Slivka A, Sherman S, et al. Smoking is underrecognized as a risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2010;10:713–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Yadav D, Timmons L, Benson JT, et al. Incidence, prevalence, and survival of chronic pancreatitis: a population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:2192–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Yang AL, Vadhavkar S, Singh G, et al. Epidemiology of alcohol-related liver and pancreatic disease in the united states. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:649–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Assisted ReproductionShanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based MedicineChanghai Hospital, the Second Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of GastroenterologyChanghai Hospital, the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai Institute of Pancreatic DiseasesShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations