Advertisement

MARTE for CPS and CPSoS

Present and Future, Methodology and Tools
  • Frédéric Mallet
  • Eugenio Villar
  • Fernando Herrera
Chapter

Abstract

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) combine discrete computing elements together with physical devices in uncertain environment conditions. There have been many models to capture different aspects of CPS. However, to deal with the increasing complexity of these ubiquitous systems, which invade all the part of our lives, we need an integrated framework able to capture all the different views of such complex systems in a consistent way. We also need to combine tools to analyze their expected properties and guarantee safety issues. Far from handing out a full-fledge solution, we merely explore a possible path that could bring part of the solution. We advocate for relying on uml models as a unifying framework to build a single-source modeling environment with design, exploration and analysis tools. We comment on some useful extensions of uml, including marte and sysml, and show how they can together capture different views of CPS. We also report on some recent results obtained and discuss possible evolutions in a near future.

Keywords

MARTE Cyber-Physical Systems Systems of systems Model-driven methodology System engineering 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This chapter has been partially funded by the European FP7 611146 (CONTREX) project and by the Spanish TEC 2014-58036-C4-3-R (REBECCA) project. UC thanks the OFFIS team in CONTREX their support, documentation and material on their quadcopter implementation, which includes the quadcopter picture integrated in Fig. 4.4.

References

  1. 1.
    C. André, F. Mallet, R. de Simone, Modeling time(s), in MODELS’07: 10th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Nashville, TN, USA, September 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4735 (Springer, ACM-IEEE), pp. 559–573Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. André, J. DeAntoni, F. Mallet, R. de Simone, The Time Model of Logical Clocks Availablein the OMG MARTE Profile, Chap. 7. (Springer Science+Business Media LLC, 2010), pp. 201–227, http://hal.inria.fr/inria-00495664
  3. 3.
    B. Bailey, G. Martin, A. Piziali, ESL Design and Verification: A Prescription for Electronic System Level Methodology (Morgan Kaufmann/Elsevier, San Francisco, 2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Berry, The Informatics of Time and Events. Collège de France, inaugural Lecture, March 2013Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Bourdellès, S. Li, I. Quadri, E. Brosse, A. Sadovykh, E. Gaudin, F. Mallet, A. Goknil, D. George, J. Kreku, Fostering Analysis from Industrial Embedded Systemis Modeling, Chap. 11 (IGI-Global, Hershey, 2014), pp. 283–300Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Boutekkouk, M. Benmohammed, S. Bilavarn, M. Auguin, UML2.0 profiles for embedded systems and systems on a chip (SOCS). J. Object Technol. 8(1), 135–157 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.5381/jot.2009.8.1.a1
  7. 7.
    A. Burns, R. Davis, Mixed-criticality systems: a review, Technical report of Computer Science, University of York, 6th edn., August 2015Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Castro, G. Palermo, C. Silvano, V. Zaccaria, MOST: multi-objective system tuner design space exploration for system architects, in Proceedings of the Designing for Embedded Parallel Computing Platforms: Architectures, Design Tools, and Applications Workshop, March 2011Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    CPSoS Working Group Members: Cyber-physical systems of systems: Research and innovation priorities book (2016), http://www.cpsos.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/CPSoS-Provisional-Roadmap-Paper-for-public-consultation_web.pdf
  10. 10.
    J. Deantoni, F. Mallet, Timesquare: treat your models with logical time, in TOOLS (50), vol. 7304, ed. by C.A. Furia, S. Nanz, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer 2012), pp. 34–41Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Espinoza, H. Dubois, S. Gérard, J.L.M. Pasaje, D.C. Petriu, C.M. Woodside, Annotating UML models with non-functional properties for quantitative analysis, in Workshops of MoDELS 2005 Conference. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3844 (Springer, 2005), pp. 79–90, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11663430_9
  12. 12.
    M. Faugère, T. Bourbeau, R. de Simone, S. Gérard, MARTE: also an UML profile for modeling AADL applications, in ICECCS (2007), pp. 359–364Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Friedenthal, A. Moore, R. Steiner, A Practical Guide to SysML: The Systems Modeling Language (MK/OMG, Burlington, 2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Garcia, J. Medina, MARTE2MAST, http://mast.unican.es/umlmast/marte2mast/
  15. 15.
    M. Gonzalez, J.J. Gutierrez, J.C. Palencia, J.M. Drake, Mast: modeling and analysis suite for real time applications, in 13th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (2001), pp. 125–134Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Herrera, J. Medina, E. Villar, Modelling hardware/software embedded systems with uml/marte: a single-source design approach, in Handbook of Hardware/Software Codesign, Chap. 5, ed. by S. Ha, J. Teich (Springer), pp. 125–159. The address of the publisher, 1 edn. (2 2017), printed version scheduled for Feb. 2017Google Scholar
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    International roadmap for semiconductors. Technical report (2015), http://www.itrs2.net/
  19. 19.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology: ForSyDe website (2016), https://forsyde.ict.kth.se/trac
  20. 20.
    E.A. Lee, D. Messerschmitt, Synchronous data flow (1987)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    E.A. Lee, A.L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A framework for comparing models of computation. IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Des. Integr. Circ. Syst. 17(12), 1217–1229 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E.A. Lee, Cyber physical systems: design challenges, in 11th IEEE International Symposium on Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC 2008) (IEEE Computer Society, May 2008), pp. 363–369, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISORC.2008.25
  23. 23.
    E.A. Lee, S.A. Seshia, Introduction to Embedded Systems - A Cyber-Physical Systems Approach (LeeSeshia.org, 2014), ISBN 978-0-557-70857-4Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Lemke, Mixed criticality systems, report from the workshop on mixed criticality systems, Technical report Information Society and Media Directorate-General, February 2012Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Mallet, C. André, R. de Simone, CCSL: specifying clock constraints with UML/Marte. Innov. Syst. Softw. Eng. 4(3), 309–314 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. Mallet, Logical Time @ Work for the Modeling and Analysis of Embedded Systems (LAMBERT Academic Publishing, January 2011), ISBN: 978-3-8433-9388-1Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Mallet, R. de Simone, Correctness issues on MARTE/CCSL constraints. Sci. Comput. Program. (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.scico.2015.03.001
  28. 28.
    S.H.A. Niaki, I. Sander, An automated parallel simulation flow for heterogeneous embedded systems, in Proceedings of the Conference on Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE’2013), EDA Consortium, San Jose, CA, USA (2013), http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2485288.2485297, pp. 27–30
  29. 29.
    OFFIS: CONTREX FP7 project website (2015), https://contrex.offis.de/home/
  30. 30.
    OMG: UML Profile for Schedulability, Performance, and Time Specification, v1.1. Object Management Group, January 2005. Accessed 02 Jan 2005Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    OMG: Systems Modeling Language (SysML) Specification, v1.1. Object Management Group, November 2008. Accessed 02 Nov 2008Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    OMG: UML Profile for MARTE, v1.1. Object Management Group, June 2011. Accessed 02 June 2011Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    OMG: UML Superstructure, v2.4.1. Object Management Group, May 2012. Accessed 07 May 2012Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Selic, S. Gerard, Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time and Embedded Systems with UML and MARTE (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2013)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. Silvano, W. Fornaciari, G. Palermo, V. Zaccaria, F. Castro, M. Martinez, S. Bocchio, R. Zafalon, P. Avasare, G. Vanmeerbeeck et al., Multicube: multi-objective design space exploration of multi-core architectures. in VLSI 2010 Annual Symposium (Springer 2011), pp. 47–63Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    B.N, Taylor, A. Thompson, International System of Units, v1.1. National Institute of Standards and Technology, March 2008Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    University of Cantabria. TEISA Department GESE group: essyn website (2016), http://www.eSSYN.com
  38. 38.
    University of Cantabria. TEISA Department GESE group: UC single-source modelling and design website (2016), https://umlmarte.teisa.unican.es
  39. 39.
    University of Cantabria. TEISA Department. GESE group: Vippe website (2016), https://vippe.teisa.unican.es
  40. 40.
    V. Zaccaria, G. Palermo, F. Castro, C. Silvano, G. Mariani, Multicube explorer: an open source framework for design space exploration of chip multi-processors. in Proceedings of the Interenational Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), Febraury 2010, pp. 1–7Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frédéric Mallet
    • 1
  • Eugenio Villar
    • 2
  • Fernando Herrera
    • 2
  1. 1.Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Inria, I3SSophia AntipolisFrance
  2. 2.TEISA, GESEUniversidad de CantabriaSantanderSpain

Personalised recommendations