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Enzyme Engineering

  • Soorej M. Basheer
  • Sreeja Chellappan
Chapter

Abstract

Enzymes, also called biocatalysts, are widely used in various industrial applications, especially in the manufacturing of bulk chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Enzyme engineering is the process of improving the efficiency of an already available enzyme or the formulation of an advanced enzyme activity by altering its amino acid sequence. This technology has developed as a potential tool to overcome the disadvantages of native enzymes as biocatalysts. Rational design and directed (molecular) evolution are the two general approaches in enzyme engineering. Genetic engineering techniques are widely used to improve enzyme efficiency. For exploring enzyme sequences and for creating new and efficient biocatalysts, the combination of directed evolution and rational protein design using computational tools is becoming increasingly relevant. Various other strategies such as enzyme immobilization, de novo enzyme design, peptidomimetics, flow cytometry, and designed divergent evolution help in creating a tailor-made enzyme for a given process. A better awareness of how the structure of an enzyme influences its properties and a more crucial interpretation of the many engineering aspects are necessary to make rapid advance in the field of enzyme engineering.

Keywords

Enzymes Engineering Rational design Directed evolution 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyKannur UniversityKasargodIndia
  2. 2.Molecular Biophysics UnitIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

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