• T. S. SwapnaEmail author
  • A. S. Ninawe
  • Sabu Abdulhameed


Naturally occurring microorganisms in the human body have a very fragile balance in the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics are living beneficial microbes that can change the microbial ecology of the intestine by inducing antimicrobial metabolites and thereby enhancing the immune response of the body. Probiotic bacteria are normally chosen for their potential health benefits in the human body without causing negative impact. Dairy products can be considered as a vehicle for the effective delivery of probiotics, but they also need to survive and resist enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. Nearly 60 species of Lactobacillus (lactobacilli) and Bifidobacterium (bifidobacteria) are found in fermented foods, including yoghurt, kefir, meso, aged cheese, kimchi, and tosa. Probiotic microflora are also associated with various therapeutic or prophylactic properties such as improved lactose digestion, better mucosal and immune function, decreased diarrhea, and fewer adenomas, colon cancers, and polyps. Probiotics could be a magic bullet in the era of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. At the same time, ascertaining the safety or content of these supplements, especially for people with immune system disorders, pregnant women, children, and elderly people, is critical. Even though probiotics have long been used to maintain the homeostasis of enteric microbiota and for prevention of related diseases, the efficiency of this type of treatment is still in dispute, and interindividual variation is a major challenge. Probiotics constitute a major challenging and promising area for providing better health as well as for revenue generation.


Probiotics Beneficial microbes Gut microflora Intestinal microflora Fermented products 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. S. Swapna
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. S. Ninawe
    • 2
  • Sabu Abdulhameed
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of KeralaThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyGovernment of IndiaNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Inter University Centre for Bioscience, Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, School of Life SciencesKannur UniversityKannurIndia

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