Advertisement

Status of Soil Pollution in India

  • Jayanta K. Saha
  • Rajendiran Selladurai
  • M. Vassanda Coumar
  • M. L. Dotaniya
  • Samaresh Kundu
  • Ashok K. Patra
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 10)

Abstract

Industrial sector in India is witnessing rapid growth since the last decade of twentieth century with reforms in economic laws and with establishment of special economic zones (SEZ). Such rapid industrial growth has also increased threat to the environment. In spite of great difficulty in its remediation in comparison with polluted air and water, soil pollution as a threat to human life is by and large ignored at national level in India due to lack of comprehensive information on the subject. Though coordinated effort on assessment of soil pollution is absent at national level, sporadic information has been generated by several researchers on various aspects of pollution affecting soil quality. This chapter analyses these information and attempts to assess the quantum of threat being faced by agroecosystem in the country. It indicates that soil resources are facing threats from deliberate use of contaminated organics, amendment materials and irrigation water or from atmospheric depositions, spillage of effluents etc. Nature pollutants varies from salts, toxic metals, metalloids, persistent organics with varying degree of toxicity and may be of both industrial and geogenic origins.

Keywords

Soil Pollution India Heavy metals Groundwater Organic pollutants Salinity 

References

  1. Adhikari S, Gupta SK, Banerjee SK (1993) Heavy metals content of city sewage and sludge. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 41:170–172Google Scholar
  2. Adhikari T, Wanjari RH, Biswas AK et al (2012) Final Report of the project entitled “Impact assessment of continuous fertilization on heavy metals and microbial diversity in soils under long-term fertilizer experiment” (Submitted to Ministry of Forest and Environment, New Delhi), p 175Google Scholar
  3. Alam MG, Snow ET, Tanaka A (2003) Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Samta village, Bangladesh. Sci Total Environ 308:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ansari AA, Singh IB, Tobschall HJ (1999) Status of anthropogenically induced metal pollution in the Kanpur-Unnao industrial region of the ganga plain, India. Environ Geol 38:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ATSDR (2001) Toxicological profile for selenium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health And Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  6. ATSDR (2005) Toxicological profile for nickel. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health And Human Services, Public Health Service, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Balagangatharathilagar M, Swarup D, Patra RC, Dwivedi SK (2006) Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables. Sci Total Environ 359:130–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balakrishnan M, Antony SA et al (2008) Impact of dyeing industrial effluents on the groundwater quality in Kancheepuram (India). Indian J Sci Technol 1:1–8Google Scholar
  9. Beijer K, Gao K, Jonsson ME et al (2013) Effluent from drug manufacturing affects cytochrome P4501 regulation and function in fish. Chemosphere 90:1149–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhagure GR, Mirgane SR (2011) Heavy metal concentrations in groundwaters and soils of thane region of Maharashtra, India. Environ Monit Assess 173:643–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhattacharya P, Samal AC, Majumdar J, Santra SC (2009) Transfer of arsenic from groundwater and Paddy soil to Rice plant (Oryza sativa L.): a micro level study in West Bengal, India. World J Agric Sci 5:425–431Google Scholar
  12. Bhattacharya P, Samal AC, Majumdar J, Santra SC (2010) Arsenic contamination in rice, wheat, pulses, and vegetables: a study inan arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India. Water Air Soil Pollut 213:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhupal Raj G, Singh MV, Patnaik MC, Khadke KM (2009) Four decades of research on micro- and secondary- nutrients and pollutant elements in Andhra Pradesh. Research Bulletin. AICRP Micro- and Secondary-Nutrients and Pollutant Elements in Soils and Plants, IISS, Bhopal, pp 1–132Google Scholar
  14. BIS (2012) Indian standard: drinking water-specification, 2nd revision, ICS 13.060.20. Bureau of Indian Standards, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. Business Standard (2015) NGT flays UP, MP government for pollution in Singrauli. http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/ngt-flays-up-mp-government-for-pollution-in-singrauli-115100600689_1.html#. Accessed 6 Oct 2015
  16. CGWB (1999) High incidence of arsenic in groundwater in West Bengal. Central Ground Water Board, India, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Chakraborti D, Biswas BK, Chowdhury TR et al (1999) Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in Rajnandgaon, Madhya Pradesh, India. Curr Sci India 77:502–504Google Scholar
  18. Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Pati S et al (2003) Arsenic groundwater contamination in middle ganga plain, Bihar, India: a future danger? Environ Health Perspect 111:1194–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chakraborti D, Das B, Rahman MM et al (2009) Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in the state of West Bengal, India: a 20-year study report. Mol Nutr Food Res 53:542–551. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700517 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Murrill M et al (2013) Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of northeastern Karnataka, India. J Hazard Mater 262:1048–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chetia M, Chatterjee S, Banerjee S et al (2011) Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahamputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India. Environ Monit Assess 173:371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Choudhury UK, Rahaman MM, Mondal BKGK et al (2001) Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Environ Sci 8:393–415Google Scholar
  23. CPCB (2009) Comprehensive Environmental Assessment of Industrial Clusters. Ecological Impact Assessment Series: EIAS/5/2009–2010. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  24. CPCB (2011) Report on SPM characterization for heavy metals concentration: Study areas-Raipur & Raigarh in Chhatisgarh state 2010–2011. Central Pollution Control Board, Bhopal. http://cpcb.nic.in/SPMCharacterization.pdf Accessed 19 Aug 2016
  25. CWGB (2013) Central Ground Water Board, Govt. of India. http://gis2.nic.in/cgwb/Gemsdata.aspx. Accessed 16 Jan 2013
  26. Dahal BM, Fuerhacker M, Mentler A (2008) Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal. Environ Pollut 155:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Das HK, Mitra AK, Sengupta PK et al (2004) Arsenic concentrations in rice, vegetables, and fish in Bangladesh: a preliminary study. Environ Int 30:383–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Devanathan G, Subramanian A, Sudaryanto A et al (2012) Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site. Environ Int 39:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dhal B, Das NN, Pandey BD, Thatoi HN (2010) Environmental quality of the boula-nuasahi chromite mine area in India. Mine Water Environ 30:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dhillon KS, Dhillon SK (2003) Distribution and management of seleniferous soils. Adv Agron 79:120–184Google Scholar
  31. Elangovan D, Chalakh ML (2006) Arsenic Pollution in West Bengal. Technical Digest, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, Issue 9, pp 31–35. https://www.nabard.org/pdf/issue9td-8.pdf Accessed 12 Aug 2016
  32. Farid ATM, Roy KC, Hossain KM, Sen R (2003) A study of arsenic contaminated irrigation water and it’s carried over effect on vegetable. Fate of arsenic in the environment. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, pp 113–121Google Scholar
  33. Feng J, Wang Y, Zhao J et al (2011) Source attributions of heavy metals in rice plant along highway in eastern China. J Environ Sci 23:1158–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garari TK, Das DK, Sarkar S (2000) Effect of iron and zinc application on the availability of native and applied arsenic simulating low land rice condition. Paper presented at the International Conference on managing natural resources for sustainable agricultural production in the 21st Century, held at the New Delhi 14–18 February 2000Google Scholar
  35. Ghose MK (2004) Effect of opencast mining on soil fertility. J Environ Indus Res 63:1006–1009Google Scholar
  36. Goswami S, Das M, Guru BC (2008) Environmental impact of Siljora opencast manganese mining, Keonjhar: an overview. Vistas Geol Res 7:121–131Google Scholar
  37. Goswami S, Mishra JS, Das M (2010a) Environmental impact of manganese mining: a case study of Dubna opencast mine, Keonjhar district, Orissa, India. J Ecophysiol Occup Health 9:189–197Google Scholar
  38. Goswami S, Das M, Guru BC (2010b) Environmental degradation due to exploitation of mineral resources: a scenario in Orissa. The Bioscan 2:295–304Google Scholar
  39. Govil PK, Reddy GL, Krishna AK (2001) Contamination of soil due to heavy metals in the Patancheru industrial development area, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Geol 41:461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Govil PK, Sorlie JE, Murthy NN et al (2008) Soil contamination of heavy metals in the Katedan industrial development area, Hyderabad, India. Environ Monit Assess 140:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gowd SS, Reddy MR, Govil PK (2010) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils at Jajmau (Kanpur) and Unnao industrial areas of the ganga plain, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Hazard Mater 174:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grossi G, Lichtig J, Krauβ P (1998) PCDD/F, PCB and PAH content of Brazilian compost. Chemosphere 37:2153–2160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta DK, Chatterjee S, Datta S et al (2014) Role of phosphate fertilizers in heavy metal uptake and detoxification of toxic metals. Chemosphere 108:134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Halder D, Bhowmick S, Biswas A et al (2013) Risk of arsenic exposure from drinking water and dietary components: implications for risk Management in Rural Bengal. Environ Sci Technol 47:1120–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Halder D, Biswas A, Šlejkovec Z, Chatterjee D et al (2014) Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: implications for human health in rural Bengal. Sci Total Environ 497-498:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang RQ, Gao SF, Wang WL (2006) Soil arsenic availability and the transfer of soil arsenic to crops in suburban areas in Fujian Province, Southeast China. Sci Total Environ 368:531–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jain N, Bhatia A et al (2005) Impact of post-Methanation distillery effluent irrigation on groundwater quality. Environ Monit Assess 110:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jena D, Nayak MK, Acharya N, Singh MV (2003). Fluoride Distribution in Soil, Water and Plant in the Vicinity of NALCO Smelter Plnat at Angul in Orissa. In: Environmental Pollution-Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment (WE-2003) 15–18 December 2003, Bhopal, India, pp 188–194Google Scholar
  49. Jones KC, Johnston AE (1989) Cadmium in cereal grain and herbage from long-term experimental plots at Rothamsted, UK. Environ Pollut 57:199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Juwarkar A, Singh SK, Dubay K, Nimje M (2003) Reclamation of Iron Mine Spoil Waste Dumps Using Integrated Biotechnological Approach. In: Proceedings of national seminar on status of environmental management in mining industry, Varanasi, January 17–18, pp 197–212Google Scholar
  51. Kabata-Pendias A (2000) Trace element in soils and plants, Third edn. CRC Press, Baton Raton, p 432Google Scholar
  52. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias K (1984) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC press, Boca Raton, p 315Google Scholar
  53. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (1992) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Baton Raton, p 365Google Scholar
  54. Kanmani S, Gandhimathi R (2013) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil due to leachate migration from an open dumping site. Appl Water Sci 3:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaul PP, Srivastava R, Srivastava SP et al (2002) Relationships of maternal blood lead and disorders of pregnancy to neonatal birth weight. Vet Human toxicol J 44:321–323Google Scholar
  56. Krishna AK, Govil PK (2008) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils around Manali industrial area, Chennai, southern India. Environ Geol 54:1465–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kulshrestha S (2013) Report of the expert committee to frame a policy for monitoring of pesticide residues in Fruits & Vegetables. Ministry of Health & family Welfare, Nirman BhawanGoogle Scholar
  58. Kumar A, Maiti SK (2015) Assessment of potentially toxic heavy metal contamination in agricultural fields, sediment, and water from an abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste of Roro hill, Chaibasa. India Environ Earth Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12665-015-4282-1 Google Scholar
  59. Larsson DJG, de-Pedro C, Paxeus N (2007) Effluent from drug manufactures contains extremely high levels of pharmaceuticals. J Hazard Mater 148:751–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lenka M, Panda KK, Panda BB (1992) Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in-situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 22:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maharia RS, Dutta RK, Acharya R, Reddy AVR (2010) Heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected medicinal plants collected from Khetri copper mines and comparison with those collected from fertile soil in Haridwar, India. J Environ Sci Health, Part B: Pesticides Food Contam Agr Wastes 45:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mahimairaja S, Sakthivel S, Divakaran J et al (2000) Extent and severity of contamination around tanning industries in Vellore district. In: Naidu R, Willett IR, Mahimairajah S, Kookana R, Ramasamy K (eds) Towards better management of soils contaminated with tannery wastes, ACIAR publication no 88. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp 75–82Google Scholar
  63. Masto RE, Lal CR, Joshy G, Vetrivel AS et al (2011) Impacts of opencast coal mine and mine fire on the trace elements’ content of the surrounding soil Vis-à-Vis human health risk. Toxicol Environ Chem 93:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McArthur JM, Banjeree DM, Hudson-Edwards KA et al (2004) Natural organic matter in sedimentary basins and its relation to arsenic in anoxic ground water: the example of West Bengal and its worldwide implications. Appl Geochem 19:1255–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McBride MB (1994) Environmental chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Ministry of Mines (2008) National mineral policy of India. Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  67. Ministry of Mines (2010) National mineral policy of India. Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  68. Mishra AK, Maiti SK, Pal AK (2013) Status of PM10 in bound heavy metals in ambient air in certain parts of Jharia coal field, Jharkhand, India. Int J Environ Sci 4:141–150Google Scholar
  69. Mohanty M, Pattnaik MM, Mishra AK, Patra HK (2011) Chromium bioaccumulation in rice grown in contaminated soil and irrigated mine wastewater-a case study at south Kaliapani chromite mine area, Orissa, India. Int J Phytoremed 13:397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mondal NC, Saxena VK et al (2005) Assessment of groundwater pollution due to tannery industries in and around Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India. Environ Geol 48:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mortvedt JJ (1987) Cadmium levels in soils and plants from some long-term soil fertility experiments in the United States of America. J Environ Qual 16:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mortvedt JJ (1996) Heavy metal contaminants in inorganic and organic fertilizers. Fert Res 43:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mukherjee A, Bhattacharya P (2001) Arsenic in groundwater in the Bengal Delta plain: slow poisoning in Bangladesh. Environ Rev 9:189–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mukherjee S, Nelliyat P (2007) Groundwater pollution and emerging environmental challenges of industrial effluent irrigation in Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamil Nadu. In: Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture Discussion Paper 4, International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, p 51Google Scholar
  75. Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA et al (2006) Arsenic contamination in groundwater: a global perspective with emphasis on the Asian scenario. J Health Popul Nutr 24:142–163Google Scholar
  76. Norra S, Berner ZA, Agarwala P et al (2005) Impact of irrigation with arsenic rich groundwater on soil and crops: a geochemical case study in West Bengal delta plain, India. Appl Geochem 20:1890–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pal R, Mahima A, Tripathi A (2014) Assessment of heavy metals in suspended particulate matter in Moradabad, India. J Environ Biol 35:357–361Google Scholar
  78. Pandey B, Agrawal M, Singh S (2016) Ecological risk assessment of soil contamination by trace elements around coal mining area. J Soils Sediments 16:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Panwar NR, Saha JK, Adhikari T et al (2010) Soil and water pollution in India: some case studies, IISS Technical Bulletin. Indian Institute of Soil Science, BhopalGoogle Scholar
  80. Parr JF, Papendick RI, Hornick SB, Meyer RE (2009) Soil quality: attributes and relationship to alternative and sustainable agriculture. Am J Altern Agric 7:5–11. doi: 10.1017/S0889189300004367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Parth V, Murthy NN, Saxena PR (2011) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil around hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): natural and anthropogenic implications. J Environ Res Manage 2:27–34Google Scholar
  82. Patel KS, Ambade B, Sharma S et al (2010a) Lead Environmental Pollution in Central India. In: Ramov B (ed) New Trends in Technologies, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-trends-in-technologies/lead-environmental-pollution-in-central-India
  83. Patel KP, Singh MV, George V, Ramani VP (2010b) Four decades of research on management of micro- and secondary- nutrients and pollutant elements in crops and soils of Gujarat. Indian Institute of Soil Science, BhopalGoogle Scholar
  84. Prakash O, Suar M, Raina V et al (2004) Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in soil and water samples from Delhi and adjoining areas. Curr Sci India 87:73–77Google Scholar
  85. Rahman MA, Hasegawa H, Rahman MM (2007) Accumulation of arsenic in tissues of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and its distribution in fractions of rice grain. Chemosphere 69:942–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rangasamy S, Purushothaman G, Alagirisamy B, Mahimairaja S (2015) Chromium contamination in soil and groundwater due to tannery wastes disposals at Vellore district of Tamil Nadu. Int J Environ Sci 6:114–124Google Scholar
  87. Rao VVSG, Dhar RL, Subrahmanyam K (2001) Assessment of contaminant migration in groundwater from an industrial development area, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Water Air Soil Pollut 128:369–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ravenscroft P, McArthur JM, Hoque BA (2001) Geochemical and palaeohydrological controls on pollution of groundwater by arsenic. In: Chappel WR, Abernathy CO, Calderon R (eds) Arsenic exposure and health effects IV. Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, pp 53–78Google Scholar
  89. Rawat M, Ramanathan AL, Subramanian V (2009) Quantification and distribution of heavy metals from small scale industrial areas of Kanpur city, India. J Hazard Mater 172:1145–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rothbaum HP, Goguel RL, Johnston AE, Mattingly GEG (1986) Cadmium accumulation in soils from long-continued applications of superphosphate. J Soil Sci 37:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roychowdhury T, Uchino T, Tokunaga H, Ando M (2002) Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India. Food Chem Toxicol 40:1611–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Saha JK (2005) Changes in salinity and sodicity of soils with continuous application of contaminated water near industrial area. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 53:612–617Google Scholar
  93. Saha JK, Sharma AK (2006) Impact of the use of polluted irrigation water on soil quality and crop productivity near Ratlam and Nagda industrial area. Agricultural Bulletin IISS-1. Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  94. Saha JK, Panwar N et al (2010a) An assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality produced in different cities of India in the perspective of developing quality control indices. Waste Manag 30:192–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Saha JK, Panwar N, Singh MV (2010b) Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination. Environ Monit Assess 168:397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Saha JK, Panwar N et al (2013a) Risk assessment of heavy metals in soil of a susceptible agro-ecological system amended with municipal solid waste compost. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 61:15–22Google Scholar
  97. Saha JK, Rao AS, Mandal B (2013b) Integrated management of polluted soils for enhancing productivity and quality of crops. In: Gaur RK, Sharma P (eds) Approaches to plant stress and their management. Springer, New Delhi, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  98. Samal AC, Kar S, Bhattacharya P, Santra SC (2011) Human exposure to arsenic through foodstuffs cultivated using arsenic contaminated groundwater in areas of West Bengal, India. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 46(11):1259–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Santra SC, Samal AC, Bhattacharya P et al (2013) Arsenic in food chain and community health risk: a study in Gangetic West Bengal. Proc Environ Sci 18:2–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sellamuthu KM, Mayilswami C et al (2011) Effect of textile and dye industrial pollution on irrigation water quality of Noyyal River basin of Tamil Nadu. Madras Agric J 98:129–135Google Scholar
  101. Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2008) Atmospheric deposition of heavy metal (copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) in Varanasi city, India. Environ Monit Assess 142:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sharma S, Goyal R, Sadana US (2014) Selenium accumulation and antioxidant status of rice plants grown on seleniferous soil from northwestern India. Rice Sci 21:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sharma S, Kaur J, Nagpal AK, Kaur I (2016) Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs. Environ Monit Assess. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5507-9 Google Scholar
  104. Shyamsundar PC, Das M, Maiti SK (2014) Phytostabilization of Mosaboni copper mine tailings: a green step towards waste management. Appl Ecol Environ Res 12:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Singh SK, Ghosh AK (2011) Entry of arsenic into food material – a case study. World Appl Sci J 13:385–390Google Scholar
  106. Singh V, Brar MS, Sharma P, Brar BS (2011) Distribution of arsenic in groundwater and surface soils in south western districts of Punjab. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 59:376–380Google Scholar
  107. Sinha S, Gupta AK, Bhatt K et al (2006) Distribution of metal in the edible plant grown at Jajmau, Kanpur (India) receiving treated tannery wastewater: relation with physico-chemical properties of the soil. Environ Monit Assess 115:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Smedley PL, Zhang M, Zhang G, Luo Z (2003) Mobilisation of arsenic and other trace elements in fluviolacustrine aquifers of the Huhhot Basin, Inner Mongolia. Appl Geochem 18:1453–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Smilde KW, Van Luit B (1983) The effect of phosphate fertilizer on cadmium in soils and crops. Rapport 6–8, Inst. voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid, Oosterweg, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  110. Smolders E (2001) Cadmium uptake by plants. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 14:177–183Google Scholar
  111. Somasundaram MV, Ravindran G et al (1993) Ground-water pollution of the madras urban aquifer, India. Ground Water 31:4–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Someya M, Ohtake M, Kunisue T et al (2010) Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of mothers residing around an open dumping site in Kolkata, India: specific dioxin-like PCB levels and fish as a potential source. Environ Int 36:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stalin P, Singh MV, Muthumanickam D et al (2010) Four decades of research on micro and secondary nutrients and pollutant elements in crops and soils of Tamil Nadu. Research Publication No. 8. AICRP Micro- and Secondary- Nutrients and Pollutant Elements in Soils and Plants, IISS, BhopalGoogle Scholar
  114. Stracher GB, Taylor TP (2004) Coal fires burning out of control around the world: thermodynamic recipe for environmental catastrophe. Int J Coal Geol 59:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Subramanian A, Tanabe S (2007) Persistent Toxic Substances in India. In: Li A, Tanabe S, Jiang G et al (eds) Developments in environmental science, vol 7. Elsevier Ltd. doi: 10.1016/S1474–8177(07)07009-X
  116. Subramanian A, Kunisue T, Tanabe S (2015) Recent status of organohalogens, heavy metals and PAHs pollution in specific locations in India. Chemosphere 137:122–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Swain BK, Goswami S, Das M (2011) Impact of mining on soil quality: a case study from Hingula open coal mine, Angul district, Orissa. Vistas Geol Res 10:77–81Google Scholar
  118. Tiwari K, Pandey A, Pandey J (2008) Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in a seasonally dry tropical urban environment (India). J Environ Res Develop 2:605–611Google Scholar
  119. Tiwary RK, Dhakate R, Rao VA, Singh VS (2005) Assessment and prediction of contaminant migration in ground water from chromite waste dump. Environ Geol 48:420–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tripathi A, Misra DR (2012) A study of physico-chemical properties and heavy metals in contaminated soils of municipal waste dumpsites at Allahabad, India. Int J Environ Sci 2:2024–2033Google Scholar
  121. Tripathi RM, Ashawa SC, Khandekar RN (1993) Atmospheric depositions of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in Bombay, India. Atmos Environ 27:269–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. UNEP (2002) Environmental data report. United Nations Environmental Programme, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  123. USEPA (1999) Background report on fertilizer use, contamination and regulations, EPA-747-R-98-003. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  124. WHO (1988) Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: Arsenic. The 33rd meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 26, 155–162, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  125. Yellishetty M, Ranjith PG, Kumar DL (2009) Metal concentrations and metal mobility in unsaturated mine wastes in mining areas of Goa, India. Resour Conserv Recycl 53:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jayanta K. Saha
    • 1
  • Rajendiran Selladurai
    • 1
  • M. Vassanda Coumar
    • 1
  • M. L. Dotaniya
    • 1
  • Samaresh Kundu
    • 1
  • Ashok K. Patra
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Environmental Soil ScienceIndian Institute of Soil ScienceBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Soil ScienceBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations