Skip to main content

Organic Farming, Food Quality, and Human Health: A Trisection of Sustainability and a Move from Pesticides to Eco-friendly Biofertilizers

Abstract

The organic amendments that were witnessed in the “green phase” during the 1960s boosted food production, but at the expense of environmental sustainability. These methods increased food production but ultimately disturbed the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil over years of use. The beneficial soil organisms were exploited and the power of “biological resistance” in crops was reduced, making them more prone to pests and diseases. As a result, no part of the world is left free of harmful pesticide residues today. Over time, it was realized that these residues are toxic for soil and society. Use of chemical fertilizers has not only led to sensational increases in the quality and quantity of crops, but has also resulted in the alteration of the total soil profile resulting in a reduction of beneficial microbes leading to an imbalance in ecology. This has ultimately devastated the resources of farmers, who are the building the path of our nation. Excessive use of non-renewable energy chemicals often tends to destroy the physiochemical properties of soil, reduce friendly predators, and enhance residual hazards in seeds and to human health and the environment. The use of beneficial microbial inoculants along with organic manures is considered to be an alternative requirement for crops. The technological approaches to the use of organic manures and biofertilizers in farming have proved to be effective means of upgrading soil structure, increasing water-holding capacity, enhancing soil fertility, and increasing crop yields. On the whole it can be deduced from the present studies that by integrating correct combinations of organic production technologies, production levels comparable to conventional practices can be achieved in tomato crops with improved soil-nutrient status and productivity.

Keywords

  • Vermicompost (VC)
  • Dialyzable Iron
  • Neem Cake Extract
  • Conventional Tomato
  • Organic Farming Systems

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-4059-7_26
  • Chapter length: 25 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-10-4059-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 26.1
Fig. 26.2
Fig. 26.3
Fig. 26.4
Fig. 26.5

References

  • Abreu P, Relva A, Matthew S, Gomes Z, Morais Z (2007) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of glycoalkaloids in potatoes from conventional, integrated and organic crop systems. Food Control 18:40–44

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Abu ZTR, Al Ismail K, Shatat F (2007) Effect of organic and conventional systems on fruit quality of strawberry (fragaria x ananassa duch) grown under plastic house conditions in the Jordan Valley. Acta Horticulture (ISHS) 741:159–171

    Google Scholar 

  • Agbenin ON, Marley PS (2006) In-vitro assay of some plant extracts against Fusarium oxysporum sp. Lycopersici causal agent of tomato wilt. J Plant Prot Res 46(3):215–220

    Google Scholar 

  • Anastasiadis F, Van Dam YK (2014) Consumer driven supply chains: the case of Dutch organic tomato. Agric Eng Int CIGR J Special Issue 2014: Agri-food and biomass supply chain. pp 11–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous (1982) Sludge may help nurseries. J For 80:34

    Google Scholar 

  • Artes F, Conesa MA, Hernandez S, Gill MI (1999) Keeping quality of fresh cut tomato. Post Harvest Biol Technol 17:153–162

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baker KF, Snyder WC (1965) Ecology of soil borne plant pathogens, prelude to biological control. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, p 571

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin EA, Scott JW, Einstein MA, Malundo TMM, Carr BT, Shewfelt RL (1988) Relationship between sensory and instrumental analysis for tomato flavor. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:906–915

    Google Scholar 

  • Barbier EB (1987) The concept of sustainable economic development. Environ Conserv 14(2):101–110

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barrett DM, Weakley C, Diaz JV, Watnik M (2007) Qualitative and nutritional differences in processing tomatoes grown under commercial organic and conventional production systems. J Food Sci 72:9

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Benbrook CH, Zhao X, Yanez J, Davies N, Andrews P (2008) New evidence confirms the nutritional superiority of plant based organic foods. State of Science Review. 2008. http://www.organic-center.org/science.nutri.php?action=view&report_id=126

  • Bethlenfalvay GJ, Brown MS, Ames RN, Thomas RS (1988) Effects of drought on host and endophyte development in mycorrhizal soybeans in relation to water use and phosphate uptake. J Plant Physiol 72:565–571

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carbonaro M, Mattera M, Nicoli S, Bergamo P, Cappelloni M (2002) Modulation of antioxidant compounds in organic vs. conventional fruit (peach Prunus persica L., and pear Pyrus communis L.) J Agric Food Chem 50(19):9–11

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Caris-Veynard C, Amiot MJ, Tyssandier V, Grasselly D, Buret M, Mikolajczak M (2004) Influence of organic versus conventional agricultural practice on the antioxidant micro constituent content of tomato and derived purees consequence on antioxidant plasma status in humans. J Agric Food Chem 52:6503–6509

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carroll KA, Bernard JC, Pesek JD (2013) Consumer preferences for tomatoes: the influence of local, organic, and state program promotions by purchasing venue. J Agric Resour Econ 38(3):379–396

    Google Scholar 

  • Champawat RS, Sharma RS (2003) Integrated management of nursery diseases in Brinjal, Chilli and Onion. J Mycol Plant Pathol 33:290–291

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chatterjee R, Bandyopadhyay S, Chandra JJ (2014a) Impact of organic amendments and inorganic fertilizers on production potential, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen balance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) Int J Sci Res Knowl 2(5):233–240

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Choudhary S, Soni AK, Jat NK (2012) Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on growth, yield and quality of sprouting broccoli cv. CBH-1. Indian J Hortic 69(4):550–554

    Google Scholar 

  • Chowdhury MTI, Razzaque MA, Khan MSI (2011) Chlorinated pesticide residue status in tomato, potato and carrot. J Exp Sci 2(1):01–05

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cook RJ, Baker KF (1983) The nature and Practice of Biological control of plant pathogens. Journal of American Phytopathology Society, St. Paul. p 539.

    Google Scholar 

  • Copper AL, Campbell R (1986) The effect of artificially inoculated antagonistic bacteria on the prevalence of take all disease of wheat in field experiments. J Appl Bacteriol 60:155–160

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Davies A, Titterington AJ, Cochrane C (1995) Who buys organic food? Br Food J 97:17–23

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeBruyn J, Garretsen F, Kooistra E (1971) Variation in taste and chemical composition of the tomato. Euphytica 20:214–227

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diallo A (1986) Insecticides and the environment (References to tropical environment). Ecosystem management in developing countries. 1986; UNEP Postgraduate Training Course on Eecosystem Management. Technical University of Dresden GDR

    Google Scholar 

  • Doran J (1995) Building soil quality. In: Proceedings of the 1995 conservation workshop on opportunities and challenges in sustainable agriculture. Alberta Conservation Tillage Society and Alberta Agriculture Conservation, Development Branch, Red Deer. pp 151–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Drinkwater LE, Letourneau DK, Workneh F, Van Bruggen AHC, Shennan C (1995) Fundamental differences between conventional and organic tomato agro ecosystems in California. Appl Ecol 5:1098–1112

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Essoussi LH, Zahaf M (2008) Decision making process of community organic food consumers: an exploratory study. J Consum Mark 25(2):95–104

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • FAO/WHO (1997). Codex alimentarius food hygiene basic texts. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission. Pub. # M-83

    Google Scholar 

  • Galler WS, Davey CB, Meyer WL, Airan DS (1978). Animal waste composting with carbonaceous material. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA-600/2, 78:154–196

    Google Scholar 

  • Glover AM, Tetteh FM (2008) Effect of pesticide application rate on yield of vegetables and soil microbial communities. West Afr J App Ecol 12

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutierrez F, Arnaud T, Albi MA (1999) Influence of ecological cultivation on virgin olive oil quality. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:617–621

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hammitt JK (1990) Risk perceptions and food choice: an exploratory analysis of organic versus conventional produce buyers. Risk Anal 10:367–374

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hamouz K, Lachman J, Vokal B, Pivec V (1999) Influence of environmental conditions and way of cultivation on the polyphenol and ascorbic acid content in potato tubers. Hortic Sci 45:293–298

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Haque MA, Jahiruddin M, Rahman MM, Saleque MA (2013) Usability of bioslurry to improve system productivity and economic return under potato-rice cropping system. Res Agric Livest Fish 2(1):27–33

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hooda KS, Joshi D, Dhar S, Bhatt JC (2011) Management of damping off of tomato with botanicals and bio-products in North Western Himalayas. Indian J Hortic 68(2):219–223

    Google Scholar 

  • Jack A (2010) In: Edward CA, Arancon NQ, Sherman R (eds). Earthworms, organic wastes and Enviornmental management. Vermiculture Technology. CRC Press, Boca Raton. p 623

    Google Scholar 

  • Jangir RP, Rathore MS, Bisnoi HR, Sundria MM (2008) National workshop on spices and aromatic plants. Agricultural Research Station, Mandor, 6–7 Feb 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kabdal P, Hooda KS, Joshi D, Hedau NK, Pandey KN (2010) Biocontrol agents in the health management of capsicum nursery. Indian J Hortic 67(1):70–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Kachari M, Korla BN (2012) Studies on influence of bio-fertilizers on quality and economics of cauliflower cv. PSB K-1 production. Indian J Hortic 69(2):215–220

    Google Scholar 

  • Kader AA (1986) Effect of post harvest handling procedures on tomato quality. Acta Hortic 190:209–221

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kapoulas N, Zoran SI, Mihal Đ, Radmila T, Lidija M (2011) Effect of organic and conventional production practices on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of tomatoes. Afr J Biotechnol 10(71):15938–15945

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kazimierczak R, Hallman E, Rusaczonek A, Rembialkowska E (2008) Antioxidant content in black currants from organic and conventional cultivation. Food Sci Technol Res 2(11):57–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar R, Hooda I, Karwasra SS (2010) Efficacy of Mahapancha Gavya (mpg) in controlling damping-off in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. J Agric Res 35(1):11–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Lairon D (2009) Nutritional quality and safety of organic food. A review. Agronomical Sustainable Dev Biochem 48(26):6157–6165

    Google Scholar 

  • Lucarini M, Carbonaro M, Nicoli S, Aguzzi A, Cappelloni M, Ruggeri S (1999) Endogenous markers for organic versus conventional plant products. In: Agri-food quality II: quality management of fruits and vegetables. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, pp 306–310

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Machado DC, Carla MM, Isabel DC, Natan F, Maria C, Dantas P (2006) Microbiological quality of organic vegetables produced in soil treated with different types of manure and mineral fertilizer. Braz J Microbiol 37:538–544

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Magkos F, Arvaniti F, Zampelas A (2003) Organic food: nutritious food or food for thought: a review of the evidence. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54(5):357–371

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell AE, Hong Y, Koh E, Barrett DM, Bryant DE, Denison RF (2007) Ten-year comparison of the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on the content of flavonoids in tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem 55:6154–6159

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Muthuraju R, Boby VU, Suvarna VC, Jayasheela N (2002) Interactive effects of Glomusmosseae, Pseudomonas fluorescensand Azospirillum brasilense on growth and yield of tomato. J Soil Biol Ecol 22:8–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Neelamegam R, Govindarajalu T (2002) Integrated application of Trichoderma viride and farm yard manure to control damping off of tomato. J Biol Control 16:65–69

    Google Scholar 

  • Oliveira AB, Moura CF, Gomes-Filho E, Marco CA, Urban L (2013) The impact of organic farming on quality of tomatoes is associated to increased oxidative stress during fruit development. PLoS One 8(2):e56354

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ortuno A, Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J, Alcaraz M, Vicente V, Del Rio JA (2007) Beneficial action of citrus flavonoids on multiple cancer related biological pathways. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 7:795–809

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Patel VB, Singh SK, Asrey R, Nain L, Singh AK, Singh L (2009) Microbial and inorganic fertilizers application influenced vegetative growth, yield, leaf nutrient status and soil microbial biomass in sweet orange cv. Mosambi. Indian J Hortic 66(2):163–168

    Google Scholar 

  • Perez Lopez AJ, Lopez Nicolas JM, Nunez Delicado E, Del Amor FM, Carbonell Barrachina AA (2007a) Effects of agricultural practices on color, carotenoids composition and minerals contents of sweet peppers, cv. Almuden. J Agric Food Chem 55:8158–8164

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pozo MJ, Azcon Aguilar C (2007) Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced resistance. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:393–398

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Prativa KC, Bhattari BP (2011) Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on the growth, yield and soil nutrient status in tomato. Nepal J Sci Technol 12:23–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Ragab A, Mergawi E, Redhaiman KA (2010) Effect of organic and conventional production practices on antioxidant activity, antioxidant constituents and nutritional value of tomatoes and carrots in Saudi Arabia markets. Food Agric Environ 8(3, 4):253–258

    Google Scholar 

  • Raguchander T, Rajappan K, Samlappan R (1997) Evaluating methods of application of biocontrol agent in the control of mungbean root rot. Indian Phytopathol 50(2):229–234

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramakrishnan K, Selvakumar G (2012) Effect of biofertilizers on enhancement of growth and yield on Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) Int J Res Bot 2(4):20–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Reddy SA, Davis Joseph B, Radha Dinakar K (2012) Vermicompost as a biocontrol agent in suppression of two soil borne plant pathogens in the field. Acta Biol Indica 1(2):137–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Rembiałkowska E, Hallmann E, Szafirowska A (2005) Nutritive quality of tomato fruits from organic and conventional cultivation. In: Edwards JSA, Kowrygo B, Rejman K, (eds). Culinary arts and sciences V. Global and national perspectives. Worshipful Comapany of Cooks Research Centre: Poole. pp 193–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ren H, Endo H, Hayashi T (2001) Antioxidative and antimutagenic activities and polyphenol content of pesticide free and organically cultivated green vegetables using water soluble chitosan as a soil modifier and leaf surface spray. J Sci Food Agric 81:1426–1432

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sanjuan AI, Sanchez M, Gil JM, Gracia A, Soler F (2003) Brakes to organic market enlargement in Spain: consumers’ and retailers’ attitudes and willingness to pay. Int J Consum Stud 27:134–144

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sanwal SK, Laxminarayana K, Yadav RK, Rai N, Yadav DS, Bhuyan M (2007) Effect of organic manures on soil fertility, growth, physiology, yield and quality of turmeric. Indian J Hortic 64(4):444–449

    Google Scholar 

  • Sepat Naval K, Kumar A, Yadav J, Srivastava RB (2012) Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on growth, yield and quality of tomato in Trans Himalayan. Ann Plant Soil Res 14(2):120–123

    Google Scholar 

  • Shankar S, Ganapathy S, Srivastava RK (2007) Green tea polyphenols: biology and therapeutic implications in cancer. Front Biosci 12:4881

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma P, Sharma M, Raja M, Shanmugam V (2014) Status of Trichoderma research in India: a review. Indian Phytopathol 67(1):1–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh AK, Singh S, Appa Rao VV (2012) Influence of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil properties and quality of aonla in hot semi-arid ecosystem. Indian J Hortic 69(1):50–54

    Google Scholar 

  • Srinivasan K, Mathivanan N (2011) Plant growth promoting microbial consortia mediated classical biocontrol of sunflower necrosis virus disease. J Biopest 4(1):65–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Srivastava AK, Singh RK (2000) Extent of lysis of Rhizoctonia solani cell wall preparation by different hyperparasites. J Mycopathol Res 38:129–131

    Google Scholar 

  • Stamatiadis S, Werner M, Buchanan M (1995) Field assessment of soil quality as affected by compost and fertilizer application in a broccoli field (San Benito County, California). Appl Soil Ecol 12:217–225

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stevens MA, Kader AA, Albright Holton M, Algazi M (1997) Genotypic variation for flavor and composition in fresh tomatoes. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 102:880–689

    Google Scholar 

  • Stockdale EA, Lampkin N, Hovi M, Keatinge R, Lennartsson EKM, Macdonald DW et al (2000) Agronomic and environmental implications of organic farming systems. Adv Agron 70:261–327

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sudharani M, Shivaprakash MK, Prabhavathi MK (2014) Role of consortia of biocontrol agents and PGPR’s in the production of cabbage under nursery condition. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3(6):1055–1064

    Google Scholar 

  • Tadesse T, Seyoum W, Woldetsadik K (2012) Effect of varieties on changes in sugar content and marketability of tomato stored under ambient conditions. Afr J Agric Res 7(14):2124–2130

    Google Scholar 

  • Tarozzi A, Hrelia S, Angeloni C, Morroni F, Biagi P, Guardigli M (2006) Antioxidant effectiveness of organically and non-organically grown red oranges in cell culture systems. Eur J Nutr 45:152–158

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • The Organic Center, AAAS Session 2009 – “Living soil, food quality and the future of food”, February 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thilagavathi R, Saravana Kumar D, Ragupathi N, Samiyappan RA (2007) Combination of biocontrol agents improves the management of dry root. Phytopathol Mediterr 46:157–167

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tonfack LB, Bernadac A, Youmbi E, Mbouapouognigni VP, Ngueguim M, Akoa A (2009) Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on tomato vigor, yield and fruit composition under tropical and soil conditions. Fruits 64:167–177

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Trivedi YV, Patel NL, Ahlawat TR, Gaikwad SS, Bhalerao PP (2012) Impact of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status in guava. Indian J Hortic 69(4):501–506

    Google Scholar 

  • Vidyasekaran P, Rabidran R, Muthamila M, Rajappan K, Subramanian N, Vasumathi K (1997) Development of a powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for control of rice blast. Indian Phytopathol 46:291–297

    Google Scholar 

  • Yan W, Yamamoto K, Yakushido K (2002) Changes in nitrate content in different soil layers after the application of livestock waste compost pellets in a sweet corn field. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 48:165–170

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yanar D, Naif G, Yusuf Y, Mine A, Perihan C (2011) Effect of different organic fertilizers on yield and fruit quality of ındeterminate tomato. Sci Res Essays 6(17):3623–3628

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zanoli R, Naspetti S (2002) Consumer motivations in the purchase of organic food: A means-end approach. Br Food J 104(8):643–653

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nitika Thakur .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Thakur, N. (2017). Organic Farming, Food Quality, and Human Health: A Trisection of Sustainability and a Move from Pesticides to Eco-friendly Biofertilizers. In: Kumar, V., Kumar, M., Sharma, S., Prasad, R. (eds) Probiotics in Agroecosystem. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4059-7_26

Download citation