Oncofertility: Fertility Preservation in Cancer

Chapter

Abstract

The number of cancer patients in young age has increased in the recent years, which is coupled with late marriages and family planning. This makes an important place for a new and emerging field of cryo-preservation of gametes for cancer patients. A significant proportion of oncological treatments utilize chemotherapy or radiation exposure, both of which are detrimental to spermatogenesis. In post-cancer treatment period, fertility may resume in some but not all patients. Therefore, these patients need to be counselled about the methods of fertility preservation before commencing anti-cancer therapy. The present chapter brings a comprehensive overview of the fertility preservation options for cancer patients and the techniques used in this process.

Keywords

Oncofertility Cancer and infertility Cancer and fertility preservation Sperm cryopreservation 

References

  1. Achille MA, Rosberger Z, Robitaille R, Lebel S, Gouin JP, Bultz BD, Chan PT (2006) Facilitators and obstacles to sperm banking in young men receiving gonadotoxic chemotherapy for cancer: the perspective of survivors and health care professionals. Hum Reprod 21(12):3206–3216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman DR (1967) Damage to human spermatozoa during storage at warming temperatures. Int J Fertil 13(3):220–225Google Scholar
  3. Behrman SJ, Ackerman DR (1969) Freeze preservation of human sperm. Am J Obstet Gynecol 103(5):654–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergeron A, Manjunath P (2006) New insights towards understanding the mechanisms of sperm protection by egg yolk and milk. Mol Reprod Dev 73(10):1338–1344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonetti T, Pasqualotto FF, Queiroz P, Iaconelli A Jr, Borges E Jr (2009) Sperm banking for male cancer patients: social and semen profiles. Int Braz J Urol 35(2):190–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brinster RL, Avarbock MR (1994) Germline transmission of donor haplotype following spermatogonial transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(24):11303–11307CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Dikshit R, Gupta PC, Ramasundarahettige C, Gajalakshmi V, Aleksandrowicz L, Badwe R, Kumar R, Roy S, Suraweera W, Bray F, Mallath M (2012) Cancer mortality in India: a nationally representative survey. Lancet 379(9828):1807–1816CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Edelstein A, Yavetz H, Kleiman SE, Hauser R, Botchan A, Paz G, Yogev L (2008) Effect of long-term storage on deoxyribonucleic acid damage and motility of sperm bank donor specimens. Fertil Steril 90(4):1327–1330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Esteves SC, Sharma RK, Thomas AJ Jr, Agarwal A (1997) Effect of in vitro incubation on spontaneous acrosome reaction in fresh and cryopreserved human spermatozoa. Int J Fertil Womens Med 43(5):235–242Google Scholar
  10. Esteves SC, Sharma RK, Thomas AJ, Agarwal A (2000) Improvement in motion characteristics and acrosome status in cryopreserved human spermatozoa by swim-up processing before freezing. Hum Reprod 15(10):2173–2179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fujita K, Ohta H, Tsujimura A, Takao T, Miyagawa Y, Takada S, Matsumiya K, Wakayama T, Okuyama A (2005) Transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells isolated from leukemic mice restores fertility without inducing leukemia. J Clin Invest 115(7):1855–1861CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao DY, Liu J, Liu C, McGann LE, Watson PF, Kleinhans FW, Mazur P, Critser ES, Critser JK (1995) Andrology: prevention of osmotic injury to human spermatozoa during addition and removal of glycerol. Hum Reprod 10(5):1109–1122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Grunewald S, Paasch U, Glander HJ (2001) Enrichment of non–apoptotic human spermatozoa after cryopreservation by immunomagnetic cell sorting. Cell Tissue Bank 2(3):127–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Grunewald S, Paasch U, Said TM, Rasch M, Agarwal A, Glander HJ (2006) Magnetic-activated cell sorting before cryopreservation preserves mitochondrial integrity in human spermatozoa. Cell Tissue Bank 7(2):99–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hallak J, Hendin BN, Thomas AJ, Agarwal A (1998) Investigation of fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved spermatozoa from patients with cancer. J Urol 159(4):1217–1220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hallak J, Kolettis PN, Sekhon VS, Thomas AJ, Agarwal A (1999) Cryopreservation of sperm from patients with leukemia. Cancer 85(9):1973–1978CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hallak J, Sharma RK, Wellstead C, Agarwal A (2000) Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa: comparison of TEST-yolk buffer and glycerol. Int J Fertil Womens Med 45(1):38–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Henry MA, Noiles EE, Gao D, Mazur P, Critser JK (1993) Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. IV. The effects of cooling rate and warming rate on the maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, and mitochondrial function. Fertil Steril 60(5):911–918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hourvitz A, Goldschlag DE, Davis OK, Gosden LV, Palermo GD, Rosenwaks Z (2008) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using cryopreserved sperm from men with malignant neoplasm yields high pregnancy rates. Fertil Steril 90(3):557–563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jahnukainen K, Hou M, Petersen C, Setchell B, Söder O (2001) Intratesticular transplantation of testicular cells from leukemic rats causes transmission of leukemia. Cancer Res 61(2):706–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Joint Council for Clinical Oncology (1998) Management of gonadal toxicity resulting from the treatment of adult cancer. Royal College of Physicians, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Khalifa E, Oehninger S, Acosta AA, Morshedi M, Veeck L, Bryzyski RG, Muasher SJ (1992) Successful fertilization and pregnancy outcome in in-vitro fertilization using cryopreserved/thawed spermatozoa from patients with malignant diseases. Hum Reprod 7(1):105–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kliesch S, Bergmann M, Hertle L, Nieschlag E, Behre HM (1997) Semen parameters and testicular pathology in men with testicular cancer and contralateral carcinoma in situ or bilateral testicular malignancies. Hum Reprod 12(12):2830–2835CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kliesch S, Kamischke A, Cooper TG, Nieschlag E (2010) Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. In: Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Nieschlag S (eds) Andrology. Springer, Berlin, pp 505–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kobayashi H, Ranganathan P, Mahran AM, Sharma RK, Thomas AJ, Agarwal A (2001) Comparison of two cryopreservation protocols for freezing human spermatozoa. Fertil Steril 76(3):S229–S230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee SJ, Schover LR, Partridge AH, Patrizio P, Wallace WH, Hagerty K, Beck LN, Brennan LV, Oktay K (2006) American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 24(18):2917–2931CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mack SR, Zaneveld LJ (1987) Acrosomal enzymes and ultrastructure of unfrozen and cryotreated human spermatozoa. Gamete Res 18(4):375–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. McLaughlin EA, Ford WCL, Hull MGR (1990) A comparison of the freezing of human semen in the uncirculated vapour above liquid nitrogen and in a commercial semi-programmable freezer. Hum Reprod 5(6):724–728CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Medeiros CMO, Forell F, Oliveira ATD, Rodrigues JL (2002) Current status of sperm cryopreservation: why isn’t it better? Theriogenology 57(1):327–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Mortimer D (2004) Current and future concepts and practices in human sperm cryobanking. Reprod Biomed Online 9(2):134–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Nallella KP, Sharma RK, Allamaneni SS, Aziz N, Agarwal A (2004) Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa: comparison of two cryopreservation methods and three cryoprotectants. Fertil Steril 82(4):913–918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Nandakumar A (1990) National cancer registry programme. Indian Council of Medical Research, Consolidated report of the population based cancer registries, New Delhi, India, 96Google Scholar
  33. Nandakumar A (2001) National Cancer Registry Programme (2001) Consolidated report of the population based cancer registries1990–1996. Indian Council of Medical Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  34. Nawroth F, Isachenko V, Dessole S, Rahimi G, Farina M, Vargiu N, Mallmann P, Dattena M, Capobianco G, Peters D, Orth I (2002) Vitrification of human spermatozoa without cryoprotectants. CryoLetters 23(2):93–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Naysmith TE, Blake DA, Harvey VJ, Johnson NP (1998) Do men undergoing sterilizing cancer treatments have a fertile future? Hum Reprod 13(11):3250–3255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ohta H, Wakayama T (2005) Generation of normal progeny by intracytoplasmic sperm injection following grafting of testicular tissue from cloned mice that died postnatally. Biol Reprod 73(3):390–395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Opsahl MS, Fugger EF, Sherins RJ, Schulman JD (1996) Preservation of reproductive function before therapy for cancer: new options involving sperm and ovary cryopreservation. Cancer J Sci Am 3(4):189–191Google Scholar
  38. Paras L, Freisinger J, Esterbauer B, Schmeller N, Szlauer R, Jungwirth A (2008) Cryopreservation technique: comparison of test yolk buffer versus SpermCryo and vapour versus computerised freezing. Andrologia 40(1):18–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pegg DE (2007) Principles of cryopreservation. In: Clifton NJ (ed) Methods in molecular biology 368:39–57Google Scholar
  40. Petersen PM, Giwercman A, Skakkebaek NE, Rørth M (1998) Gonadal function in men with testicular cancer. Semin Oncol 25(2):224–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Polge C, Smith AU, Parkes AS (1949) Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures. Nature 164(4172):666CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ragni G, Caccamo AM, Dalla Serra A, Guercilena S (1990) Computerized slow-staged freezing of semen from men with testicular tumors or Hodgkin’s disease preserves sperm better than standard vapor freezing. Fertil Steril 53(6):1072–1075CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Royere D, Barthelemy C, Hamamah S, Lansac J (1996) Cryopreservation of spermatozoa: a 1996 review. Hum Reprod Update 2(6):553–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Russell LD, Rogers B (1987) Improvement in the quality and fertilization potential of a human sperm population using the rise technique. J Androl 8(1):25–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Said TM, Grunewald S, Paasch U, Rasch M, Agarwal A, Glander HJ (2005) Effects of magnetic-activated cell sorting on sperm motility and cryosurvival rates. Fertil Steril 83(5):1442–1446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Said TM, Agarwal A, Zborowski M, Grunewald S, Glander HJ, Paasch U (2008) ANDROLOGY LAB CORNER*: utility of magnetic cell separation as a molecular sperm preparation technique. J Androl 29(2):134–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Saranath D, Khanna A (2014) Current status of cancer burden: global and Indian scenario. Biomed Res J 1(1):1–5Google Scholar
  48. Schmidt KLT, Larsen E, Bangsbøll S, Meinertz H, Carlsen E, Andersen AN (2004) Assisted reproduction in male cancer survivors: fertility treatment and outcome in 67 couples. Hum Reprod 19(12):2806–2810CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Schover LR, Brey K, Lichtin A, Lipshultz LI, Jeha S (2002) Knowledge and experience regarding cancer, infertility, and sperm banking in younger male survivors. J Clin Oncol 20(7):1880–1889CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Spallanzani L, Bonnet C (1780) Dissertazioni di fisica animale, e vegetabaile (vol. 2). Societa tipografica, ModenaGoogle Scholar
  51. Tomlinson M (2005) Managing risk associated with cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 20(7):1751–1756CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Wallace WHB, Anderson RA, Irvine DS (2005) Fertility preservation for young patients with cancer: who is at risk and what can be offered? Lancet Oncol 6(4):209–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Watson PF (1979) The preservation of semen in mammals. Oxf Rev Reprod Biol 1:283–350Google Scholar
  54. Williams DH, Karpman E, Sander JC, Spiess PE, Pisters LL, Lipshultz LI (2009) Pretreatment semen parameters in men with cancer. J Urol 181(2):736–740CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Woodruff DTK (2007) The emergence of a new interdiscipline: oncofertility. In: Woodruff TK (ed) Oncofertility fertility preservation for cancer survivors. Springer, New York, pp 3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology and Division of Andrology, Institute of Medical SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations