Absil P, Foidart A, Hemmings HC Jr, Steinbusch HW, Ball GF, Balthazart J. Distribution of DARPP-32 immunoreactive structures in the quail brain: anatomical relationship with dopamine and aromatase. J Chem Neuroanat. 2001;21:23–39.
Akishinonomiya F, Miyake T, Sumi S, Takada M, Ohno S, Kondo N. One subspecies of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus) suffices as the matriarchic ancestor of all domestic breeds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:12505–9.
Akishinonomiya F, Miyake T, Takada M, Shingu R, Endo T, Gojobori T, Kondo N, Ohno S. Monophyletic origin and unique dispersal patterns of domestic fowls. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6792–5.
Al-Zailaie K, El Halawani M. Neuroanatomical relationship between immunoreactive dopamine and vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons in the turkey hypothalamus. Poult Sci. 2000;79(Suppl 1):50.
Angelier F, Wingfield JC, Tartu S, Chastel O. Does prolactin mediate parental and life-history decisions in response to environmental conditions in birds? A review. Horm Behav. 2016;77:18–29.
Arámburo C, Montiel JL, Proudman JA, Berghman LR, Scanes CG. Phosphorylation of prolactin and growth hormone. J Mol Endocrinol. 1992;8:183–91.
Barth SW, Bathgate RA, Mess A, Parry LJ, Ivell R, Grossmann R. Mesotocin gene expression in the diencephalon of domestic fowl: cloning and sequencing of the MT cDNA and distribution of MT gene expressing neurons in the chicken hypothalamus. J Neuroendocrinol. 1997;9:777–87.
Basheer A, Haley CS, Law A, Windsor D, Morrice D, Talbot R, Wilson PW, Sharp PJ, Dunn IC. Genetic loci inherited from hens lacking maternal behaviour both inhibit and paradoxically promote this behaviour. Genet Sel Evol. 2015;47:100. doi:10.1186/s12711-015-0180-y.
Bazan JF. A novel family of growth factor receptors: a common binding domain in the growth hormone, prolactin, erythropoietin and IL-6 receptors, and the p75 IL-2 receptor beta-chain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;164:788–95.
Bazan JF. Structural design and molecular evolution of a cytokine receptor superfamily. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6934–8.
Bédécarrats G, Guémené D, Morvan C, Kühnlein U, Zadworny D. Quantification of prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid, pituitary content and plasma levels of prolactin, and detection of immunoreactive isoforms of prolactin in pituitaries from turkey embryos during ontogeny. Biol Reprod. 1999a;61:757–63.
Bédécarrats G, Guémené D, Morvan C, Crisóstomo-Pinto S, Kühnlein U, Zadworny D. In vitro release of isoforms of prolactin from pituitary glands of turkey hens at different physiological stages. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1999b;113:105–11.
Ben-Jonathan N, Hnasko R. Dopamine as a prolactin (PRL) inhibitor. Endocr Rev. 2001;22:724–63.
Bollengier F, Geerts A, Matton A, Mahler A, Velkeniers B, Hooghe-Peters E, Vanhaeist L. Identification and localization of 23,000 and glycosylated rat prolactin in subcellular fractions of rat anterior pituitary and purified secretory granules. J Neuroendocrinol. 1993;5:669–76.
Bons N. The topography of mesotocin and vasotocin systems in the brain of the domestic mallard and Japanese quail: immunocytochemical identification. Cell Tissue Res. 1980;213:37–51.
Bu G, Ying Wang C, Cai G, Leung FC, Xu M, Wang H, Huang G, Li J, Wang Y. Molecular characterization of prolactin receptor (cPRLR) gene in chickens: gene structure, tissue expression, promoter analysis, and its interaction with chicken prolactin (cPRL) and prolactin-like protein (cPRL-L). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;370:149–62.
Buntin JD. Neural and hormonal control of parental behavior in birds. Adv Stud Behav. 1996;25:161–213.
Buntin JD, Buntin L. Increased STAT5 signaling in the ring dove brain in response to prolactin administration and spontaneous elevations in prolactin during the breeding cycle. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014;200:1–9.
Buntin JD, Ruzycki E. Characteristics of prolactin binding sites in the brain of the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1987;65:243–2553.
Buntin JD, Lea RW, Figge GR. Reductions in plasma LH concentration and testicular weight in ring doves following intracranial injection of prolactin and growth hormone. J Endocrinol. 1988;118:33–40.
Buntin JD, Becker GM, Ruzycki E. Facilitation of parental behavior in ring doves by systemic or intracranial injections of prolactin. Horm Behav. 1991;25:424–44.
Buntin JD, Ruzycki E, Witebsky J. Prolactin receptors in dove brain: autoradiographic analysis of binding characteristic in discrete brain regions and accessibility to blood-borne prolactin. Neuroendocrinology. 1993;57:738–50.
Buntin L, Berghman LR, Buntin JD. Patterns of fos-like immunoreactivity in the brains of parent ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) given tactile and nontactile exposure to their young. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:651–64.
Chaiseha Y, Youngren O, Al-Zailaie K, El Halawani M. Expression of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary during the turkey reproductive cycle: colocalization with vasoactive intestinal peptide. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;77:105–18.
Chaiyachet OA, Chokchaloemwong D, Prakobsaeng N, Sartsoongnoen N, Kosonsiriluk S, Rozenboim I, El Halawani ME, Porter TE, Chaiseha Y. Neuroendocrine regulation of rearing behavior in the native Thai hen. Acta Histochem. 2013b;115:209–18.
Chen XJ, Horseman ND. Cloning, expression and mutational analysis of the pigeon prolactin receptor. Endocrinology. 1994;135:269–76.
Chrivia JC, Kwok RP, Lamb N, Hagiwara M, Montminy MR, Goodmam RH. Phosphorylated CREB binds specifically to the nuclear protein CBP. Nature. 1993;365:855–9.
Cloues R, Ramos C, Silver R. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity during reproduction in doves: influence of experience and number of offspring. Horm Behav. 1990;24:215–31.
Collias NE. The vocal repertoire of the red junglefowl—a spectrographic classification and the code of communication. Condor. 1987;89:510–24.
Collias N, Joos M. The spectrographic analysis of sound signals of the domestic fowl. Behaviour. 1953;5:175–88.
Corcoran DH, Proudman JA. Isoforms of turkey prolactin: evidence for differences in glycosylation and in trypic peptide mapping. Comp Biochem Physiol. 1991;99B:563–70.
den Boer-Visser AM, Dubbeldam JL. The distribution of dopamine, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in the brain of the collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto. J Chem Neuroanat. 2002;23:1–27.
Duckworth RA, Badyaev AV, Parlow AF. Elaborately ornamented males avoid costly parental care in the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus): a proximate perspective. Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 2003;55:176–83.
Dufty AM Jr, Goldssmith AR, Wingfield JC. Prolactin secretion in a brood parasite, the brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater. J Zool. 1987;212:669–75.
Dunn IC, Sharp PJ. Photo-induction of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-I mRNA in the domestic chicken: a role for oestrogen? J Neuroendocrinol. 1999;11:371–5.
Dunn IC, Beattie KK, Maney D, Sang HM, Talbot RT, Wilson PW, Sharp PJ. Regulation of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I mRNA in incubating, nest-deprived and laying bantam hens. Neuroendocrinology. 1996;63:504–13.
Dunn IC, McEwan G, Okhubo T, Sharp PJ, Paton IR, Burt DW. Genetic mapping of the chicken prolactin receptor gene: a candidate gene for the control of broodiness. Br Poult Sci. 1998;39(Suppl):S23–4.
Durstewitz D, Kröner S, Hemmings HC Jr, Güntürkün O. The dopaminergic innervation of the pigeon telencephalon: distribution of DARPP-32 and co-occurrence with glutamate decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase. Neuroscience. 1998;83:763–79.
El Halawani ME, Burke WH, Dennison PT. Effect of nest-deprivation on serum prolactin level in nesting female turkeys. Biol Reprod. 1980;23:118–23.
El Halawani ME, Burke WH, Millam JR, Fehrer SC, Hargis BM. Regulation of prolactin and its role in gallinaceous bird reproduction. J Exp Zool. 1984;232:521–9.
El Halawani ME, Silsby JL, Behnke EJ, Fehrer SC. Hormonal induction of incubation in ovariectomized female turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Biol Reprod. 1986;35:59–67.
El Halawani ME, Silsby JL, Mauro LJ. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a hypothalamic prolactin-releasing neuropeptide in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1990;78:66–73.
el Halawani ME, Youngren OM, Rozenboim I, Pitts GR, Silsby JL, Phillips RE. Serotonergic stimulation of prolactin secretion is inhibited by vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoneutralization in the turkey. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1995;99:69–74.
el Halawani ME, Pitts GR, Sun S, Silsby JL, Sivanandan V. Active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide prevents photo-induced prolactin secretion in turkeys. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1996;104:76–83.
el Halawani ME, Youngren OM, Pitts GR. Vasoactive intestinal peptide as the avian prolactin releasing factor. In: Harvey S, Etches R, editors. Prospectives in Avian Endocrinology, Bristol: The Society of Endocrinology. 1997. pp 403–416.
Fan WL, Ng CS, Chen CF, Lu MY, Chen YH, Liu CJ, Wu SM, Chen CK, Chen JJ, Mao CT, Lai YT, Lo WS, Chang WH, Li WH. Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in two domestic chickens. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:1376–92.
Field SE, Rickard NS, Toukhsati SR, Gibbs ME. Maternal hen calls modulate memory formation in the day-old chick: the role of noradrenaline. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007;88:321–30.
Gaiddon C, Mercken L, Bancroft C, Loeffler JP. Transcriptional effects in GH3 cells of Gs alpha mutants associated with human pituitary tumors: stimulation of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate response element-binding protein-mediated transcription and of prolactin and growth hormone promoter activity via protein kinase A. Endocrinology. 1995;136:4331–8.
Georgiou GG, Sharp PJ, Rea RW. [14C]-2 deoxyglucose uptake in the brain of ring dove (Streptopelia risoria). II. Differential uptake at the onset of incubation. Brain Res. 1995;700:137–41.
Goldsmith AR. Prolactin in avian reproductive cycles. In: Balthazart J, Prove JE, Gilles R, editors. Hormones and behaviour in higher vertebrates. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1983. p. 375–87.
Goodale HD, Sanborn R, White D. Broodiness in domestic fowl: data concerning its inheritance in the Rhode Island Red breed. Massachusetts Agr Exp Sta Bull. 1920;199:94–116.
Goossens N, Blähser S, Oksche A, Vandesande F, Dierickx K. Immunocytochemical investigation of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system in birds. Cell Tissue Res. 1977;184:1–13.
Gouilleux F, Wakao H, Mundt M, Groner B. Prolactin induces phosphorylation of Tyr694 of Stat5 (MGF), a prerequisite for DNA binding and induction of transcription. EMBO J. 1994;13:4361–9.
Guémené D, Williams JB. Comparison of the basal and luteinising hormone-releasing hormone induced luteinising hormone release by perifused hypophyses from turkey hens (Meleagris gallopavo) at different physiological stages. Br Poult Sci. 1992;33:153–63.
Haller RW, Cherms FL Jr. A comparison of several treatments on terminating broodiness in broad breasted bronze turkeys. Poult Sci. 1961;40:155–63.
Hanks MC, Alonzi JA, Sharp PJ, Sang HM. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of putative chicken prolactin cDNA. J Mol Endocrinol. 1989a;2:21–30.
Hanks MC, Talbot RT, Sang HM. Expression of biologically active recombinant-derived chicken prolactin in Escherichia coli. J Mol Endocrinol. 1989b;3(1):15–21.
Hansen GN, Hansen BL. Light and electron microscopic identification of pituitary cells containing growth hormone and prolactin in the pigeon (Columba livia), using the immunoglobulin-enzyme bridge technique. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1977;32:99–107.
Harvey S, Hall TR, Chadwick A. Growth hormone and prolactin secretion in water-deprived chickens. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1984;54:46–50.
Hays FA. Inheritance of broodiness in Rhode Island Reds. Massachusetts Agr Exp Sta Bull. 1940;377:1–11.
Hnasko RM, Buntin JD. Functional mapping of neural sites mediating prolactin-induced hyperphage in doves. Brain Res. 1993;623:257–66.
Howard PW, Maurer RA. A composite Ets/Pit-1 binding site in the prolactin gene can mediate transcriptional responses to multiple signal transduction pathway. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:20930–6.
Hutchison RE. Effect of ovarian steroids and prolactin on the sequential development of nesting behavior in female budgerigars. J Endocrinol. 1975;67:29.
Hutchison RE, Hinde RA, Steel E. The effect of oestrogen, progesterone and prolactin on brood patch formation in ovariectomized canaries. J Endocrinol. 1967;39:379–85.
Hutt FB. Genetics of the fowl. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc.; 1949.
Itoh N, Yonehara S, Schreurs J, Gorman DM, Maruyama K, Ishii A, Yahara I, Arai K, Miyajima A. Cloning of an interleukin-3 receptor gene: a member of a distinct receptor gene family. Science. 1990;247:324–7.
Jones RE. The incubation patch of birds. Biol Rev. 1971;46:315–39.
Józsa R, Scanes CG, Vigh S, Mess B. Functional differentiation of the embryonic chicken pituitary gland studied by immunohistological approach. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1979; 39(2):158–163.
Juhn M, Harris PC. Molt of capon feathering with prolactin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1958;98:669–72.
Kansaku N, Shimada K, Terada O, Saito N. Prolactin, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone-beta subunit gene expression in the cephalic and caudal lobes of the anterior pituitary gland during embryogenesis and different reproductive stages in the chicken. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1994;96:197–205.
Kansaku N, Shimada K, Saito N. Regionalized gene expression of prolactin and growth hormone in the chicken anterior pituitary gland. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1995;99:60–8.
Kansaku N, Shimada K, Saito N, Hidaka H. Effects of protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89) on VIP- and GRF-induced release and mRNA expression of prolactin and growth hormone in the chicken pituitary gland. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1998;119:89–95.
Kansaku N, Ohkubo T, Okabayashi H, Guémené D, Kuhnlein U, Zadworny D, Shimada K. Cloning of duck PRL cDNA and genomic DNA. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;141:39–47.
Karatzas CN, Zadworny D, Kuhnlein U. Nucleotides sequence of turkey prolactin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:3071.
Karatzas CN, Guémené D, Zadworny D, Kühnlein U. Production and characterization of recombinant turkey prolactin. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 1993;106(2):273–280.
Kato K, Ikemoto T, Park MK. Identification of the reptilian prolactin and its receptor cDNAs in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Gene. 2005;346:267–76.
Kelly PA, Djiane J, Postel-Vinay MC, Edery M. The prolactin/growth hormone receptor family. Endocr Rev. 1991;12:235–51.
Ketterson ED, Nolan V Jr, Wolf L, Goldsmith AR. Effect of sex, stage of reproduction, season, and mate removal on prolactin in dark-eyed juncos. Condor. 1990;92:922–30.
Khan MZ, McNabb FM, Walters JR, Sharp PJ. Patterns of testosterone and prolactin concentrations and reproductive behavior of helpers and breeders in the cooperatively breeding red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Horm Behav. 2001;40:1–13.
Kiss JZ, Péczely P. Distribution of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons in the diencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica). J Comp Neurol. 1987;257:333–46.
Knigge KM, Piekut DT. Distribution of CRF- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Peptides. 1985;6:97–101.
Kurima K, Proudman JA, El Halawani ME, Wong EA. The turkey prolactin-encoding gene and its regulatory region. Gene. 1995;156:309–10.
Kuwayama T, Shimada K, Saito N, Ohkubo T, Sato K, Wada M, Ichinoe K. Effects of removal of chicks from hens on concentrations of prolactin, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol in plasma of brooding Gifujidori hens. J Reprod Fertil. 1992;95:617–22.
Laverrière JN, Tixier-Vidal A, Buisson N, Morin A, Martial JA, Gourdji D. Preferential role of calcium in the regulation of prolactin gene transcription by thyrotropin-releasing hormone in GH3 pituitary cells. Endocrinology. 1988;122:333–40.
Lea RW, Sharp PJ. Plasma prolactin concentrations in broody turkeys: lack of agreement between homologous chicken and turkey prolactin radioimmunoassay. Br Poult Sci. 1982;23:451–9.
Lea RW, Sharp PJ. Effects of presence of squabs upon plasma concentrations of prolactin and LH and length of time of incubation in ringdoves on “extended” incubatory patterns. Horm Behav. 1991;25:275–82.
Lea RW, Dods AS, Sharp PJ, Chadwick A. The possible role of prolactin in the regulation of nesting behaviour and the secretion of luteinizing hormone in broody bantams. J Endocrinol. 1981;91:89–97.
Lea RW, Richard-Yris MA, Sharp PJ. The effect of ovariectomy on concentrations of plasma prolactin and LH and parental behavior in the domestic fowl. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1996;101:115–21.
Lea RW, Clark JA, Tsutsui K. Changes in central steroid receptor expression, steroid synthesis, and dopaminergic activity related to the reproductive cycle of the ring dove. Microsc Res Tech. 2001;55:12–26.
Lebrun JJ, Ali S, Goffin V, Ullrich A, Kelly PA. A single phosphotyrosine residue of the prolactin receptor is responsible for activation of gene transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:4031–5.
Lewis UJ, Singh RN, Lewis LJ. Two forms of glycosylated human prolactin have different pigeon crop sac-stimulating activities. Endocrinology. 1989;124:1558–63.
Liang J, Kim KE, Schoderbek WE, Maurer RA. Characterization of a nontissue-specific, 3′, 5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element in the proximal region of the rat prolactin gene. Mol Endocrinol. 1992;6:885–92.
Lormée H, Jouventin P, Chastel O, Mauget R. Endocrine correlates of parental care in an Antarctic winter breeding seabird, the emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri. Horm Behav. 1999;35:9–17.
Macnamee MC, Sharp PJ. The functional activity of hypothalamic dopamine in broody bantam hens. J Endocrinol. 1989;121:67–74.
Macnamee MC, Sharp PJ, Lea RW, Sterling RJ, Harvey S. Evidence that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is a physiological prolactin-releasing factor in the bantam hen. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1986;62:470–8.
Mangalam HJ, Albert VR, Ingraham HA, Kapiloff M, Wilson L, Nelson C, Elsholtz H, Rosenfeld MG. A pituitary POU domain protein, Pit-1, activates both growth hormone and prolactin promoters transcriptionally. Genes Dev. 1989;3:946–58.
Mao JN, Burnside J, Li L, Tang J, Davolos C, Cogburn LA. Characterization of unique truncated prolactin receptor transcripts, corresponding to the intracellular domain, in the testis of the sexually mature chicken. Endocrinology. 1999;140:1165–74.
March JB, Sharp PJ, Wilson PW, Sang HM. Effect of active immunization against recombinant-derived chicken prolactin fusion protein on the onset of broodiness and photoinduced egg laying in bantam hens. J Reprod Fertil. 1994;101:227–33.
Markoff E, Sigel MB, Lacour N, Seavey BK, Friesen HG, Lewis UJ. Glycosylation selectively alters the biological activity of prolactin. Endocrinology. 1988;123:1303–6.
Massaro M, Setiawan AN, Davis LS. Effects of artificial eggs on prolactin secretion, steroid levels, brood patch development, incubation onset and clutch size in the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;151:220–9.
Mauro LJ, Youngren OM, Proudman JA, Phillips RE, el Halawani ME. Effects of reproductive status, ovariectomy, and photoperiod on vasoactive intestinal peptide in the female turkey hypothalamus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1992;87:481–93.
Mead R, Curnow RN. Statistical methods in agriculture and experimental biology. London, UK: Chapman and Hall; 1983.
Miao Y-W, Burt DW, Paton IR, Sharp PJ, Dunn IC. Mapping of the chicken prolactin gene to chromosome 2. Anim Genet. 1999;30:462–78.
Mills AD, Crawford LL, Domjan M, Faure JM. The behavior of the Japanese or domestic quail Coturnix japonica. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1997;21:261–81.
Miyoshi K, Shillingford JM, Smith GH, Grimm SL, Wagner KU, Oka T, Rosen JM, Robinson GW, Hennighausen L. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 controls the proliferation and differentiation of mammary alveolar epithelium. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:531–42.
Moons L, D’Hondt E, Pijcke K, Vandesande F. Noradrenergic system in the chicken brain: immunocytochemical study with antibodies to noradrenaline and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. J Comp Neurol. 1995;360:331–48.
Murdoch GH, Waterman M, Evans RM, Rosenfeld MG. Molecular mechanisms of phorbol ester, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and growth factor stimulation of prolactin gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:11852–8.
Murphy MJ, Brown PS, Brown SC. Osmoregulatory effects of prolactin and growth hormone in embryonic chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1986;62:485–92.
Nakao N, Ono H, Yamamura T, Anraku T, Takagi T, Higashi K, Yasuo S, Katou Y, Kageyama S, Uno Y, Kasukawa T, Iigo M, Sharp PJ, Iwasawa A, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Niimi T, Mizutani M, Namikawa T, Ebihara S, Ueda HR, Yoshimura T. Thyrotrophin in the pars tuberalis triggers photoperiodic response. Nature. 2008;452:317–22.
Nelson RJ. An introduction to behavioral endocrinology. Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer Associates; 1995.
Nilsson Ann. Structure of the vasoactive intestinal octacosapeptide from chicken intestine. The amino acid sequence. FEBS Letters. 1975;60(2):322–326.
Noso T, Swanson P, Lance VA, Kawauchi H. Isolation and characterization of glycosylated and non-glycosylated prolactins from alligator and crocodile. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1992;39:250–7.
Numan M, Woodside B. Maternity: neural mechanisms, motivational processes, and physiological adaptations. Behav Neurosci. 2010;124:715–41.
Ohkubo T, Tanaka M, Nakashima K, Shimada K, Saito N, Sato K. High-level expression of biologically active chicken prolactin in E. coli. Comp Biochem Physiol Comp Physiol. 1993;105:123–8.
Ohkubo T, Tanaka M, Nakashima K, Talbot RT, Sharp PJ. Prolactin receptor gene expression in the brain and peripheral tissues in broody and nonbroody breeds of domestic hen. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1998a;109:60–8.
Ohkubo T, Tanaka M, Nakashima K, Sharp PJ. Relationship between prolactin receptor mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus and reproductive state in male and female bantams (Gallus domesticus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1998b;111:167–76.
Ohkubo T, Tanaka M, Nakashima K. Molecular cloning of the chicken prolactin gene and activation by Pit-1 and cAMP-induced factor in GH3 cells. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2000;119:208–16.
Opel H. Induction of incubation behavior in the hen by brain implants of prolactin. Poult Sci. 1971;50:1613.
Opel H, Proudman JA. Failure of mammalian prolactin to induce incubation behavior in chickens and turkeys. Poult Sci. 1980;59:2550–8.
Opel H, Proudman JA. Stimulation of prolactin release in turkeys by vasoactive intestinal peptide. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1988;187:455–60.
Opel H, Proudman JA. Plasma prolactin levels in incubating turkey hens during pipping of the eggs and after introduction of poults into the nest. Biol Reprod. 1989;40:981–7.
Peers B, Monget P, Nalda MA, Voz ML, Berwaer M, Belayew A, Martial JA. Transcriptional induction of the human prolactin gene by cAMP requires two cis-acting elements and at least the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:18127–34.
Pitts GR, You S, Foster DN, El-Halawani ME. Evidence for multiple prolactin receptor transcripts in the turkey. Poult Sci. 2000;79:355–62.
Porter TE, Hill JB, Wiles CD, Frawley LS. Is the mammosomatotrope a transitional cell for the functional interconversion of growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting cells? Suggestive evidence from virgin, gestating, and lactating rats. Endocrinology. 1990;127:2789–94.
Proudman JA, Corcoran DH. Turkey prolactin: purification by isotachophoresis and partial characterization. Biol Reprod. 1981;25:375–84.
Punnett RC, Bailey PG. Genetic studies in poultry: II. Inheritance of egg-colour and broodiness. J Genet. 1920;10:277–92.
Ramesh R, Proudman JA, Kuenzel WJ. Changes in pituitary somatotroph and lactotroph distribution in laying and incubating turkey hens. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1996;104:67–75.
Ramesh R, Solow R, Proudman JA, Kuenzel WJ. Identification of mammosomatotrophs in the turkey hen pituitary: increased abundance during hyperprolactinemia. Endocrinology. 1998;139:781–6.
Ramesh R, Kuenzel WJ, Proudman JA. Increased proliferative activity and programmed cellular death in the turkey hen pituitary gland following interruption of incubation behavior. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:611–8.
Richard-Yris MA, Leboucher G. Responses to successive test of induction of maternal behaviour in hens. Behav Processes. 1987;15:17–26.
Richard-Yris MA, Sharp PJ, Wauters AM, Guémené D, Richard JP, Forasté M. Influence of stimuli from chicks on behavior and concentrations of plasma prolactin and luteinizing hormone in incubating hens. Horm Behav. 1998;33:139–48.
Riddle O, Bates RW, Dykshorn SW. The preparation, identification and assay of prolactin—a hormone of the anterior pituitary. Am J Physiol. 1933;105:191–216.
Riddle O, Bates RW, Lahr EL. Prolactin induces broodiness in fowl. Am J Physiol. 1935;111:352–60.
Roberts E, Card LE. Inheritance of broodiness in the domestic fowl. Proceedings of the 5th World’s Poultry Congress; Vol 2; 1933. p. 353–8.
Romanov MN, Talbot RT, Wilson PW, Sharp PJ. Inheritance of broodiness in the domestic fowl. Br Poult Sci. 1999;40(Suppl):S20–1.
Romanov MN, Talbot RT, Wilson PW, Sharp PJ. Genetic control of incubation behavior in the domestic chicken. Poult Sci. 2002;81:928–31.
Rosenblatt JS, Mayer AD, Siegel HI. Maternal behavior among nonprimate mammals. In: Adler NT, Pfaff D, Goy RW, editors. Handbook of behavioral neurobiology. New York: Plenum; 1985. p. 229–98.
Rozenboim I, Silsby JL, Tabibzadeh C, Pitts GR, Youngren OM, el Halawani ME. Hypothalamic and posterior pituitary content of vasoactive intestinal peptide and gonadotropin-releasing hormones I and II in the turkey hen. Biol Reprod. 1993;49:622–6.
Rubin CJ, Zody MC, Eriksson J, Meadows JR, Sherwood E, Webster MT, Jiang L, Ingman M, Sharpe T, Ka S, Hallböök F, Besnier F, Carlborg O, Bed’hom B, Tixier-Boichard M, Jensen P, Siegel P, Lindblad-Toh K, Andersson L. Whole-genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication. Nature. 2010;464:587–91.
Saeki Y. Inheritance of broodiness in Japanese Nagoya fowl, with special reference to sex-linkage and notice in breeding practice. Poult Sci. 1957;36:378–83.
Saeki Y, Inoue Y. Body growth, egg production, broodiness, age at first age and egg size in red jungle fowls, and attempt at their genetic analyses by reciprocal crossing with White Leghorns. Jpn Poult Sci. 1979;16:121–5.
Saeki Y, Tanabe Y. Changes in prolactin content of fowl pituitary during broody periods and some experiments on the induction of broodiness. Poult Sci. 1955;34:909–19.
Saldanha CJ, Silver R. Intraventricular prolactin inhibits hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide expression in doves. J Neuroendocrinol. 1995;11:881–7.
Sharp PJ. Female reproduction. In: Epple A, Stetson MH, editors. Avian endocrinology. London and New York: Academic Press; 1980. p. 435–54.
Sharp PJ, Scanes CG, Williams JB, Harvey S, Chadwick A. Variations in concentrations of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone and progesterone in the plasma of broody bantams (Gallus domesticus). J Endocrinol. 1979;80:51–7.
Sharp PJ, Dunn IC, Talbot RT. Sex differences in the LH responses to chicken LHRH-I and -II in the domestic fowl. J Endocrinol. 1987;115:323–31.
Sharp PJ, Macnamee MC, Sterling RJ, Lea RW, Pedersen HC. Relationships between prolactin, LH and broody behaviour in bantam hens. J Endocrinol. 1988;118:279–86.
Sharp PJ, Sterling RJ, Talbot RT, Huskisson NS. The role of hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the maintenance of prolactin secretion in incubating bantam hens: observations using passive immunization, radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. J Endocrinol. 1989;122:5–13.
Sharp PJ, Talbot RT, Main GM, Dunn IC, Fraser HM, Huskisson NS. Physiological roles of chicken LHRH-I and -II in the control of gonadotrophin release in the domestic chicken. J Endocrinol. 1990;124:291–9.
Sharp PJ, Li Q, Georgiou G, Lea RW. Expression of fos-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) at the onset of incubation. J Neuroendocrinol. 1996;8:291–8.
Sherry DF, Mrosovsky N, Hogan J. Weight loss and anorexia during incubation in birds. J Comp Physiol Psycobiol. 1980;94:89–98.
Shimada K, Ishida H, Sato K, Seo H, Matsui N. Expression of prolactin gene in incubating hens. J Reprod Fertil. 1991;91:147–54.
Silver R, Witkovsky P, Horvath P, Alones V, Barnstable CJ, Lehman MN. Coexpression of opsin- and VIP-like-immunoreactivity in CSF-contacting neurons of the avian brain. Cell Tissue Res. 1988;253:189–98.
Silverin B, Goldsmith A. The effects of modifying incubation on prolactin secretion in free-living pied flycatchers. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1984;55:239–44.
Sinha YN, DePaolo LV, Haro LS, Singh RN, Jacobsen BP, Scott KE, Lewis UJ. Isolation and biochemical properties of four forms of glycosylated porcine prolactin. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991;80:203–13.
Slawski BA, Buntin JD. Preoptic area lesions disrupt prolactin-induced parental feeding behavior in ring doves. Horm Behav. 1995;29:248–66.
Smiley KO, Adkins-Regan E. Prolactin is related to individual differences in parental behavior and reproductive success in a biparental passerine, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Gen Comp Endocrinol doi. 2016; doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.03.006. [Epub ahead of print].
Sockman KW, Sharp PJ, Schwabl H. Orchestration of avian reproductive effort: an integration of the ultimate and proximate bases for flexibility in clutch size, incubation behaviour, and yolk androgen deposition. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2006;81:629–66.
Steinfelder HJ, Radovick S, Mroczynski MA, Hauser P, McClaskey JH, Weintraub BD, Wondisford FE. Role of a pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit-1/GHF-1) or a closely related protein in cAMP regulation of human thyrotropin-beta subunit gene expression. J Clin Invest. 1992;89:409–19.
Talbot RT, Hanks MC, Sterling RJ, Sang HM, Sharp PJ. Pituitary prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid levels in incubating and laying hens: effects of manipulating plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Endocrinology. 1991;129:496–502.
Talbot RT, Dunn IC, Wilson PW, Sang HM, Sharp PJ. Evidence for alternative splicing of the chicken vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene transcript. J Endocrinol. 1995;15:81–91.
Tanaka M, Maeda K, Okubo T, Nakashima K. Double antenna structure of chicken prolactin receptor deduced from the cDNA sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;188:490–6.
Tanaka M, Yamamoto I, Hayashida Y, Nakao N, Ohkubo T, Wakita M, Nakashima K. Two novel first exons in the prolactin receptor gene are transcribed in a tissue-specific and sexual maturation-dependent manner to encode multiple 5′-truncated transcripts in the testis of the chicken. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1491:279–84.
Thayananuphat A, Youngren OM, Kang SW, Bakken T, Kosonsiriluk S, Chaiseha Y, El Halawani ME. Dopamine and mesotocin neurotransmission during the transition from incubation to brooding in the turkey. Horm Behav. 2011;60:327–35.
Tolón RM, Castillo AI, Aranda A. Activation of the prolactin gene by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha appears to be DNA binding-independent. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26652–61.
Torchia J, Rose DW, Inostroza J, Kamel Y, Westin S, Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG. The transcriptional co-activator p/CIP binds CBP and mediates nuclear-receptor function. Nature. 1997;387:677–84.
Vleck CM, Mays NA, Dawson JW, Goldsmith AR. Hormonal correlates of parental and helping behavior in cooperatively breeding Harris’ hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus). Auk. 1991;108:638–48.
Wang Q, Buntin JD. The roles of stimuli from young, previous breeding experience, and prolactin in regulating parental behavior in ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). Horm Behav. 1999;35:241–53.
Warren DC. Cross bred poultry, Kansas Agr Exp Sta Bull. 1930;252:5–54.
Watahiki M, Tanaka M, Masuda N, Sugisaki K, Yamamoto M, Yamakawa M, Nagai J, Nakashima K. Primary structure of chicken pituitary prolactin deduced from the cDNA sequence. Conserved and specific amino acid residues in the domains of the prolactins. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:5535–9.
Wauters AM, Richard-Yris MA. Mutual influence of the maternal hen’s food calling and feeding behavior on the behavior of her chicks. Dev Psychobiol. 2002;41:25–36.
Wong EA, Ferrin NH, Silsby JL, el Halawani ME. Cloning of a turkey prolactin cDNA: expression of prolactin mRNA throughout the reproductive cycle of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1991;83:18–26.
Wong GK, Liu B, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yang X, Zhang Z, Meng Q, Zhou J, Li D, Zhang J, Ni P, Li S, Ran L, Li H, Zhang J, Li R, Li S, Zheng H, Lin W, Li G, Wang X, Zhao W, Li J, Ye C, Dai M, Ruan J, Zhou Y, Li Y, He X, Zhang Y, Wang J, Huang X, Tong W, Chen J, Ye J, Chen C, Wei N, Li G, Dong L, Lan F, Sun Y, Zhang Z, Yang Z, Yu Y, Huang Y, He D, Xi Y, Wei D, Qi Q, Li W, Shi J, Wang M, Xie F, Wang J, Zhang X, Wang P, Zhao Y, Li N, Yang N, Dong W, Hu S, Zeng C, Zheng W, Hao B, Hillier LW, Yang SP, Warren WC, Wilson RK, Brandström M, Ellegren H, Crooijmans RP, van der Poel JJ, Bovenhuis H, Groenen MA, Ovcharenko I, Gordon L, Stubbs L, Lucas S, Glavina T, Aerts A, Kaiser P, Rothwell L, Young JR, Rogers S, Walker BA, van Hateren A, Kaufman J, Bumstead N, Lamont SJ, Zhou H, Hocking PM, Morrice D, de Koning DJ, Law A, Bartley N, Burt DW, Hunt H, Cheng HH, Gunnarsson U, Wahlberg P, Andersson L, Kindlund E, Tammi MT, Andersson B, Webber C, Ponting CP, Overton IM, Boardman PE, Tang H, Hubbard SJ, Wilson SA, Yu J, Wang J, Yang H, International Chicken Polymorphism Map Consortium. A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Nature. 2004;432:717–22.
Xu L, Lavinsky RM, Dasen JS, Flynn SE, Mclnerney EM, Mullen T-M, Heinzel T, Szeto D, Korzus E, Kurokawa R, Aggarwal AK, Rose DW, Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG. Signal-specific co-activator domain requirements for Pit-1 activation. Nature. 1998;395:301–6.
Yamashina Y. Notes on experimental brooding induced by prolactin injections in the domestic cock. Annot Zool Japon. 1952;25:135–42.
Yang X-Y, Ogryzko VV, Nishikawa J, Howard BH, Nakatani Y. p300/CBP-associated factor that competes with the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. Nature. 1996;382:319–24.
Yasuda A, Yamaguchi K, Kobayashi T, Yamamoto K, Kikuyama S, Kawauchi H. The complete amino acid sequence of prolactin from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1991;83:218–26.
You S, Silsby JL, Farris J, Foster DN, el Halawani ME. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of turkey preprovasoactive intestinal peptide messenger ribonucleic acid, its regulation, and correlation with prolactin secretion. Endocrinology. 1995a;136:2602–10.
You S, Foster LK, Silsby JL, el Halawani ME, Foster DN. Sequence analysis of the turkey LH beta subunit and its regulation by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and prolactin in cultured pituitary cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 1995b;14:117–29.
Young KH, Buhi WC, Horseman N, Davis J, Kraeling R, Linzer D, Bazer FW. Biological activities of glycosylated and nonglycosylated porcine prolactin. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1990;71:155–62.
Youngren OM, El Halawani ME, Phillips RE, Silsby JL. Effects of preoptic and hypothalamic lesions in female turkeys during a photoinduced reproductive cycle. Biol Reprod. 1989;41:610–7.
Youngren OM, El Halawani ME, Silsby JL, Phillips RE. Intracranial prolactin perfusion induces incubation behavior in turkey hens. Biol Reprod. 1991;44:425–43.
Youngren OM, Silsby JL, Rozenboim I, Phillips RE, el Halawani ME. Active immunization with vasoactive intestinal peptide prevents the secretion of prolactin induced by electrical stimulation of the turkey hypothalamus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1994;95:330–6.
Youngren OM, Pitts GR, Phillips RE, el Halawani ME. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on prolactin secretion in the turkey. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1995;98:111–7.
Youngren OM, Pitts GR, Phillips RE, el Halawani ME. Dopaminergic control of prolactin secretion in the turkey. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1996;104:225–30.
Zadworny D, Walton JS, Etches RJ. The relationship between plasma concentrations of prolactin and consumption of feed and water during the reproductive cycle of the domestic turkey. Poult Sci. 1985;64:401–10.
Zadworny D, Shimada K, Ishida H, Sumi C, Sato K. Changes in plasma levels of prolactin and estradiol, nutrient intake, and time spent nesting during the incubation phase of broodiness in the Chabo hen (Japanese bantam). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1988;71:406–12.
Zadworny D, Shimada K, Ishida H, Sato K. Gonadotropin-stimulated estradiol production in small ovarian follicles of the hen is suppressed by physiological concentrations of prolactin in vitro. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1989;74:468–73.
Zhou JF, Zadoworny D, Guémené D, Kuhnlein U. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of the prolactin receptor during various reproductive states in Meleagris gallopavo. Biol Reprod. 1996;55:1081–90.