Groundwater Resources of Myanmar
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is with an area coverage of 676,557 km2, has a coastline of 2000 km, population about 52 million and 135 tribes are living together. The geological units of Myanmar range from Precambrian to Recent and morphologic and tectonic features of the stratigraphic units follow a general north–south trend, more or less related to the neighboring countries of India, China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Myanmar receives ninety percent of its annual rain from southwest monsoon from mid of May to mid of October. The rainfall intensity, pattern, and rainfall duration vary depending on the locality and elevation of the region like 2030–3050 mm in the deltaic area, 2030–3810 mm in the north, about 1500–2000 mm in eastern hilly region, rising to 5080 mm in the coastal regions of Rakhine and Tanintharyi and only 760 mm in the central dry zone. Water loss by evaporation is high and ranging from 1500 to 2000 mm. The four major river systems apart from those in Rakhine State and Tanintharyi Region are the Ayeyarwaddy, the Thanlwin, the Chindwin, and the Sittaung. The total surface and groundwater potential of Myanmar are approximately 1080 and 495 km3 per year, respectively. On the basis of stratigraphy, there are eleven different types of aquifers with varying groundwater quality and quantity. The water use in Myanmar is appreciably increased, especially in agriculture (89%) compared to domestic (8%) and industrial sectors (3%).
- Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (D.G.S.E), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation, MyanmarGoogle Scholar
- Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation, Myanmar, (January, 2016)Google Scholar
- Mukherjee A (2018) Groundwater of South Asia. Springer Nature, Singapore. ISBN 978-981-10-3888-4Google Scholar