Skip to main content

Insects as Food

Abstract

As the world population increases, and the already stressed land gets additionally burdened, the axe will eventually fall on the quality as well as quantity of food being produced. With increased numbers of mouths to feed, there is need to search for viable options. Insects can form one such excellent source of nutrition, which is superior to many existing sources. Not only insects are historically and culturally a major part of human diets, they are also nutritionally richer, easier to rear, and better for the environment. They are the easiest source of food for us in the future, a realization that is increasingly becoming imminent. This chapter is a step in the direction of creating awareness of how entomophagy is essential and needs to be encouraged.

Keywords

  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Feed Conversion Ratio
  • Prickly Pear
  • Edible Insect
  • Alternative Protein Source

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-3304-9_15
  • Chapter length: 22 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-10-3304-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 15.1
Fig. 15.2
Fig. 15.3
Fig. 15.4
Fig. 15.5

References

  • Adalla CB, Cervancia CR (2010) Philippine edible insects: a new opportunity to bridge the protein gap of resource-poor families and to manage pests. In: Durst PB, Johnson DV, Leslie RN, Shono K (eds) Edible forest insects: humans bite back. Food Agriculture Organisation Regional Office. Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, pp 151–160

    Google Scholar 

  • Adamolekun B (1993) Anaphe venata entomophagy and seasonal ataxic syndrome in southwest Nigeria. Lancet 341:629

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Agbidye FS, Ofuya TI, Akindele SO (2009) Some edible insect species consumed by the people of Benue State Nigeria. Pak J Nutr 8:946–950

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Agea JG, Biryomumaisho D, Buyinza M, Nabanoga GN (2008) Commercialization of Ruspolia nitidula (Nsenene grasshoppers) in Central Uganda. Afr J Food Agric Dev 8:319–332

    Google Scholar 

  • Akinnawo OO, Abatan MO, Ketiku AO (2002) Toxicological study on the edible larva of Cirina forda (Westwood). Afr J Biomed Res 5(1, 2):43–46

    Google Scholar 

  • Akpalu W, Muchapondwa E, Zikhali P (2009) Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in Southern Africa? A bio-economic modelling approach. Environ Dev Econ 14:587–600

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Aldama-Aguilera C, Lianderal-Cazares C, Soto-Hernandez M, Castillo-Marquez LE (2005) Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) production in prickly pear plants in the open and in microtunnel greenhouses. Agrociencia 39:161–171

    Google Scholar 

  • Allotey J, Mpuchane S (2003) Utilization of useful insects as food source. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev 3:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Alston JM, Beddow JM, Pardey PG (2009) Agricultural research, productivity, and food prices in the long run. Science 325:1209–1210

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anand H, Ganguly A, Haldar P (2008) Potential value of acridids as high protein supplement for poultry feed. Int J Poult Sci 7:722–725

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ashiru MO (1988) The frequency distribution of eggs and larvae of Anaphe venata Butler (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) on Triplochiton scleroxylon K Schum. Int J Trop Insect Sci 9(05):587–592

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Awoniyi TAM, Adetuyi FC, Akinyosoye FA (2004) Microbiological investigation of maggot meal, stored for use as livestock feed component. J Food Agric Environ 2:104–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayieko MA, Oriamo V, Nyambuga IA (2010) Processed products of termites and lake flies: improving entomophagy for food security within the Lake Victoria region. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev 10:2085–2098

    Google Scholar 

  • Bequaert J (1921) Insects as food. How they have augmented the food supply of mankind in early and recent times. J Am Mus Nat Hist 21:191–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Bodenheimer FS (1951) Insects as human food: a chapter of the ecology of man. Junk, The Hague, 352 pp

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bolckmans KJF (2010) New, novel, innovative and emerging applications of insect rearing. Symposium No. 5. 12th workshop of the arthropod mass rearing and quality control working group of the IOBC, Vienna, Austria, 19–22 October

    Google Scholar 

  • Brinchmann BC, Bayat M, Brøgger T, Muttuvelu DV, Tjønneland A, Sigsgaard T (2011) A possible role of chitin in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. Ann Agric Environ Med 18:7–12

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bukkens SGF (1997) The nutritional value of edible insects. Ecol Food Nutr 36:287–319

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cerritos R, Cano-Santana Z (2008) Harvesting grasshoppers Sphenarium purpurascens in Mexico for human consumption: a comparison with insecticidal control for managing pest outbreaks. Crop Prot 27:473–480

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cesard N (2004) Harvesting and commercialisation of kroto (Oecophylla smaragdina) in the Malingping area, West Java, Indonesia. In: Kusters K, Belcher B (eds) Forest products, livelihoods and conservation: case studies of non-timber forest product systems, vol 1. Central International Forest Research, Jakarta

    Google Scholar 

  • Cesard N (2010) Vie et mort de la manne blanche des riverains de la Saône. Etudes Rurales 185:83–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Chapagain AK, Hoekstra AY (2003) Virtual water flows between nations in relation to trade in livestock and livestock products. Value Water Research Report Series No. 13, U.N. Education, Science, Cultural Organ, Institute. Water Education, Delft, the Netherland. 60 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Chavunduka DM (1975) Insects as a source of protein to the African. Rhodesia Sci News 9:217–220

    Google Scholar 

  • Cherry R (1991) Use of insects by Australian aborigines. Am Entomol 32:8–13

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chowdhury SN (1982) Eri silk industry (ed) Gov. of Assam

    Google Scholar 

  • Christensen DL, Orech FO, Mungai MN, Larsen T, Friis H, Aagaard-Hansen J (2006) Entomophagy among the Luos of Kenya: a potential mineral source? Int J Food Sci Nutr 57:198–203

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collavo A, Glew RH, Huang Y-S, Chuang L-T, Bosse R, Paoletti MG (2005) House cricket small-scale farming. See Ref 115:519–544

    Google Scholar 

  • Damodaran S (1997) Food proteins: an overview. In: Damodaran S, Paraf A (eds) Food proteins and their applications. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–21

    Google Scholar 

  • DeFoliart GR (1991) Insect fatty acids: similar to those of poultry and fish in their degree of unsaturation, but higher in the polyunsaturates. Food Insects Newsl 4:1–4

    Google Scholar 

  • DeFoliart G (1992) Insect as human food Gene DeFoliart discusses some nutritional and economic aspects. Crop Prot 11:395–399

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeFoliart GR (1993) Hypothesizing about palm weevil and palm rhinoceros beetle larvae as traditional cuisine, tropical waste recycling, and pest and disease control on coconut and other palms-can they be integrated? Principes 37(1):42–47

    Google Scholar 

  • DeFoliart G (1997) An overview of the role of edible insects in preserving biodiversity. Ecol Food Nutr 36:109–132

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeFoliart GR (1999) Insects as food: why the Western attitude is important. Annu Rev Entomol 44:21–50

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeFoliart G (2012) The human use of insects as a food resource: a bibliographic account in progress. http://www.food-insects.com

  • DeFoliart G, Dunkel FV, Gracer D (2009) The food insects newsletter: chronicle of a changing culture. Aardvark, Salt Lake City, 414 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Deutsch L, Gräslund S, Folke C, Troell M, Huitric M, et al (2007) Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Glob Environ Chang 17:238–249

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond J (1991) The rise and fall of the third chimpanzee. Random House, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Dufour DL (1987) Insects as food: a case study from the northwest Amazon. Am Anthropol 89(2):383–397

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Edijala JK, Egbogbo O, Anigboro AA (2009) Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. Afr J Biotechnol 8:2346–2348

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ekpo KE (2011) Effect of processing on the protein quality of four popular insects consumed in Southern Nigeria. Arch Appl Sci Res 3:307–326

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • El Boushy AR (1991) House-fly pupae as poultry manure converters for animal feed: a review. Bioresour Technol 38:45–49

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Elwood RW (2011) Pain and suffering in invertebrates? Inst Lab Anim Res J 52:175–184

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Expat World (1992) The newsletter of international living (vol 4, No. 1, January 1992, P.O. Box 1341, Raffles City, Singapore 9117

    Google Scholar 

  • Fasoranti JO, Ajiboye DO (1993) Some edible insects of Kwara state, Nigeria. Am Entomol 39(2):113–116

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2010) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2010. FAO, Fish Aquaculture Department, Rome http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1820e/i1820e00.htm

    Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2012) Assessing the potential of insects as food and feed in ssuring food security. Presented at Technical Consultation Meet, FAO, Rome, Italy, January 23–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (2008) Guideline for the validation of food safety control measures. FAO/WHO, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • Fayaz Bhat Z, Fayaz H (2011) Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives. J Food Sci Technol 48:125–140

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fiala N (2008) Meeting the demand: an estimation of potential future greenhouse gas emissions from meat production. Ecol Econ 67:412–419

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Finke MD (2002) Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores. Zoo Biol 21:269–285

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fischer ARH, Frewer LJ (2009) Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits. Food Qual Prefer 20:576–585

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Flachowsky G (2002) Efficiency of energy and nutrient use in the production of edible protein of animal origin. J Appl Anim Res 22:1–24

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fleurence J (1999) Seaweed proteins: biochemical, nutritional aspects and potential uses. Trends Food Sci Technol 10:25–28

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frewer LJ, Bergmann K, Brennan M, Lion R, Meertens R et al (2011) Consumer response to novel agri-food technologies: implications for predicting consumer acceptance of emerging food technologies. Trends Food Sci Technol 22:442–456

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gomez P, Halut R, Collin A (1961) Production of animal proteins in the Congo. Bull Agric Congo Belge 52:689–815

    Google Scholar 

  • Gope B, Prasad B (1983) Preliminary observation on the nutritional value of some edible insects of Manipur. J Adv Zool 4(1):55–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Hackstein JH, Stumm CK (1994) Methane production in terrestrial arthropods. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:5441–5445

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hodgson EF (1955) An ecological study of the leaf-cutting ant, Atta cephalotes. Ecology 36:298–304

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Holden S (1991) Edible caterpillars – a potential agroforestry resource? Food Insects Newsl 4(2):3–4

    Google Scholar 

  • Holt VM (1885) Why not eat insects?. Field & Tuer

    Google Scholar 

  • Houghton JR, van Kleef E, Rowe G, Frewer LJ (2006) Consumer perceptions of the effectiveness of food risk management practices: a cross-cultural study. Health Risk Soc 8:165–183

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hwangbo J, Hong EC, Jang A, Kang HK, Oh JS et al (2009) Utilization of house fly–maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens. J Environ Biol 30:609–614

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ingold T (1994) Compendium encyclopedia of anthropology. Routledge, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Jäch MA (2003) Fried water beetles: Cantonese style. Am Entomol 49:34–37

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jones S, Martin RD, Pilbeam DR, Bunney S (eds) (1992) The Cambridge encyclopedia of human evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Kang K, Pulver SR, Panzano VC, Chang EC, Griffith LC et al (2010) Analysis of Drosophila TRPA1 reveals an ancient origin for human chemical nociception. Nature 464:597–600

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Katayama N, Ishikawa Y, Takaoki M, Yamashita M, Nakayama S et al (2008) Entomophagy: a key to space agriculture. Adv Space Res 41:701–705

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kevan PG, Bye RA (1991) Natural history, sociobiology, and ethnobiology of Eucheira socialis Westwood (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a unique and little-known butterfly from Mexico. Entomologist

    Google Scholar 

  • Khempaka S, Chitsatchapong C, Molee W (2011) Effect of chitin and protein constituents in shrimp head meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbial populations, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia production in broilers. J Appl Poult Res 20:1–11

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King DA, Peckham C, Waage JK, Brownlie J, Woolhouse MEJ (2006) Epidemiology infectious diseases: preparing for the future. Science 313:1392–1393

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klunder HC, Wolkers-Rooijackers J, Korpela JM, Nout MJR (2012) Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects. Food Control 26:628–631

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kok R, Lomaliza K, Shivhare US (1988) The design and performance of an insect farm/chemical reactor for human food production. Can Agric Eng 30:307–317

    Google Scholar 

  • Latham P (1999) Edible caterpillars of the BasCongo Region of the Democratic Region of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Antenna 23:135–139

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawal OA, Banjo AD (2007) Survey for the usage of arthropods in traditional medicine in Southwestern Nigeria. J Entomol 4:104–112

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee CG, Silva CAD, Lee J-Y, Hartl D, Elias JA (2008) Chitin regulation of immune responses: an old molecule with new roles. Curr Opin Immunol 20:684–689

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Q, Tomberlin JK, Brady JA, Sanford MR, Yu Z (2008a) Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure. Environ Entomol 37:1525–1530

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu J, Yang H, Savenije HHG (2008b) China’s move to higher-meat diet hits water security. Nature 454:397

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu P, Piao XS, Thacker PA, Zeng ZK, Li PF et al (2010) Chito-oligosaccharide reduces diarrhea incidence and attenuates the immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K881. J Anim Sci 88:3871–3879

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Luo ZY (1997) Insects as food in China. Ecol Food Nutr 36(2–4):201–207

    Google Scholar 

  • Madibela OR, Seitiso TK, Thema TF, Letso M (2007) Effect of traditional processing methods on chemical composition and in vitro true dry matter digestibility of the mophane worm (Imbrasia belina). J Arid Environ 68:492–500

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Madibela OR, Mokwena KK, Nsoso SJ, Thema TF (2009) Chemical composition of mopane worm sampled at three different sites in Botswana and subjected to different processing. Trop Anim Health Prod 41:935–942

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Malaisse F, Parent G (1980) Les chenilles comestibles du Shaba méridional (Zaïre). Naturalistes Belges 61(1):2–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Martins Y, Pliner P (2005) Human food choices: an examination of the factors underlying acceptance/rejection of novel and familiar animal and nonanimal foods. Appetite 45:214–224

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mbata KJ (1995) Traditional use of arthropods in Zambia. Food Insects Newsl 8(1):5–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Mbata KJ, Chidumayo EN, Lwatula CM (2002) Traditional regulation of edible caterpillar exploitation in the Kopa area of Mpika District in northern Zambia. J Insect Conserv 6:115–130

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mbetid-Bessane E (2005) Commercialization of edible caterpillars in Central African Republic. Tropicultura 23:3–5

    Google Scholar 

  • McGregor J (1991) Woodland resources: ecology, policy and ideology. An historical case study of woodland use in Shurugwi Communal Area, Zimbabwe. PhD Dissertation, Loughborough University of Technology. (Introduction and several orders and families)

    Google Scholar 

  • Mercer CWL (1993) Insects as food in Papua New Guinea. In: Hardouin J, Stievenart C (eds) Invertebrates (Minilivestock) Farming., pp 157–162

    Google Scholar 

  • Mercer CWL (1994) Sago grub production in Labu swamp near Lae – Papua New Guinea. Klin (J Forestry Papua New Guinea) 5(2):30–34

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer-Rochow VB, Nonaka K, Boulidam S (2008) More feared than revered: insects and their impact on human societies (with some specific data on the importance of entomophagy in a Laotian setting). Entomol Heute 20:3–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Michaelsen KF, Hoppe C, Roos N, Kaestel P, Stougaard M et al (2009) Choice of foods and ingredients for moderately malnourished children 6 months to 5 years of age. Food Nutr Bull 30:343–404

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mitsuhashi J (1997) Insects as traditional foods in Japan. Ecol Food Nutr 36(2–4):187–199

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mpuchane S, Gashe BA, Allotey J, Siame B, Teferra G, Dithlogo M (2000) Quality deterioration of phane, the edible caterpillar of an emperor moth Imbrasia belina. Food Control 11:453

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Msangi S, Rosegrant MW (2011) Feeding the future’s changing diets: implications for agriculture markets, nutrition, and policy. In: 2020 conference: leveraging agriculture for improving nutrition and health. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Müller O, Krawinkel M (2005) Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ 173:279–286

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Munthali SM, Mughogho DE (1992) Economic incentives for conservation: beekeeping and Saturniidae caterpillar utilization by rural communities. Biodiv Conserv 1(3):143–154

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Muzzarelli RAA (2010) Chitins and chitosans as immunoadjuvants and non-allergenic drug carriers. Mar Drug 8:292–312

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nakagaki BJ, deFoliart GR (1991) Comparison of diets for mass-rearing Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) as a novelty food, and comparison of food conversion efficiency with values reported for livestock. J Econ Entomol 84:891–896

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nel E, Illgner P (2001) Tapping Lesotho ‘s’ white gold’: inter-basin water transfer in Southern Africa. Geography 86(2):163–167

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson GC, Rosegrant M, Koo J, Robertson R, Sulser T et al (2009) Climate change: impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation. Food policy report. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Newton L, Sheppard C, Watson DW, Burtle G, Dove R (2005) Using the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, as a value-added tool for the management of swine manure. Report for Mike Williams, Dir. Animal Poultion Waste Management Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

    Google Scholar 

  • Ngoka BM, Kioko EN, Raina SK, Mueke JM, Kimbu DM (2008) Semi-captive rearing of the African wild silkmoth Gonometa postica (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) on an indigenous and a non-indigenous host plant in Kenya. Int J Trop Insect Sci 27:183–190

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nishimune T, Watanabe Y, Okazaki H, Akai H (2000) Thiamin is decomposed due to Anaphe spp. entomophagy in seasonal ataxia patients in Nigeria. J Nutr 130:1625–1628

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Offenberg J, Wiwatwitaya D (2009) Sustainable weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) farming: harvest yields and effects on worker ant density. Asia Myrmecol 3:55–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Ohiokpehai O (2003) Nutritional aspects of street foods in Botswana. Pak J Nutr 2:76–81

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oliveira JS, de Carvalho JP, De Sousa RB, Simao MM (1976) The nutritional value of four species of insects consumed in Angola. Ecol Food Nutr 5(2):91–97

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oonincx DGAB, Dierenfeld ES (2011) An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey. Zoo Biol. 29:1–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Oonincx DGAB, van Itterbeeck J, Heetkamp MJW, van den Brand H, van Loon JJA, van Huis A (2010) An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption. PLoS One 5:e14445

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, Schulze MB, Manson JE et al (2012) Redmeat consumption andmortality: results from two prospective cohort studies. Arch Intern Med 172:1134845

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Paoletti MG (2005) Ecological implications of minilivestock: potential of insects, rodents, frogs and snails. Science, Enfield, 648 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker AG (2005) Mass-rearing for sterile insect release. In: VA D, Heindrichs J, AS R (eds) Sterile insect technique. principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 209–232

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel D, Pimentel M (2003) Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. Am J Clin Nutr 78(Suppl. 3):660S–663S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel D, Berger B, Filiberto D, Newton M, Wolfe B et al (2004) Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues. Bioscience 54:909–918

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ramos-Elorduy J (2006) Threatened edible insects in Hidalgo, Mexico and some measures to preserve them. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:1–10

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ramos-Elorduy J, Pino JM (1990) Contenido calórico de algunos insectos comestibles de México. Soc Quim Mex 34(2):56–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramos-Elorduy de Conconi J, Bourges Rodríguez H, Pino Moreno JM (1982) Valor nutritivo y calidad de la proteína de algunos insectos comestibles de México. Folia Entomológica Mexicana, Mexico

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramos-Elorduy J, Moreno P, Ramos-Elorduy JMJ, Moreno JMP (1989) Los insectos comestibles en el México antiguo: Estudio etnoentomológico (No. 641.696 R3I55 F1219. 3. F7)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramos-Elorduy J, González EA, Hernández AR, Pino JM (2002) Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to recycle organic wastes and as feed for broiler chickens. J Econ Entomol 95(1):214–220

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reese TA, Liang H-E, Tager AM, Luster AD, Rooijen NV et al (2007) Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy. Nature 447:92–96

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ruddle K (1973) The human use of insects: examples from the Yukpa. Biotropica 5:94–101

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Saeed T, Dagga FA, Saraf M (1993) Analysis of residual pesticides present in edible locusts captured in Kuwait. Arab Gulf J Sci Res 11:1–5

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Silow CA (1976) Edible and other insects of Mid-Western Zambia, Studies in Ethno-Entomology II. Almqvist/Wiksell, Stockholm, 223 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Simpanya MF, Allotey J, Mpuchane SF (2000) Amycological investigation of phanen and edible grasshopper of an emperor moth. Imbrasia belina J Food Prot 63:137–140

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smil V (2002a) Eating meat: evolution, patterns, and consequences. Popul Dev Rev 28:599–639

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smil V (2002b) Worldwide transformation of diets, burdens of meat production and opportunities for novel food proteins. Enzym Microb Technol 30:305–311

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M (eds) (2006) Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. Food Agric. Organ, Rome, 319 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Sungpuag P, Puwastien P (1983) Nutritive values of protein food sources of rural people: insects. J Nutr Assoc Thailand 17:5–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Szelei J, Woodring J, Goettel MS, Duke G, Jousset FX et al (2011) Susceptibility of North-American and European crickets to Acheta domesticus densovirus (AdDNV) and associated epizootics. J Invertebr Pathol 106:394–399

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2008) Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture 285:146–158

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Teguia A, Beynen AC (2005) Alternative feedstuffs for broilers in Cameroon. Livest Res Rural Dev 17:34 http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd17/3/tegu17034.htm

    Google Scholar 

  • Tindale NB (1966) Insects as food for the Australian aborigines

    Google Scholar 

  • Trostle R (2008) Global agricultural supply and demand: factors contributing to the recent increase in food commodity prices. Economic research service report WRS-0801, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp. 1–30, July 2008 rev

    Google Scholar 

  • van Huis A (2003) Insects as food in sub-Saharan Africa. Insect Sci Appl 23:163–185

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Huis A (2013) Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annu Rev Entomol 58:563–583

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van Itterbeeck J, van Huis A (2012) Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:1–19

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van Mele P (2008) A historical review of research on the weaver ant Oecophylla in biological control. Agric For Entomol 10:13–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Vantomme P, Göhler D, N’Deckere-Ziangba F (2004) Contribution of forest insects to food security and forest conservation: the example of caterpillars in Central Africa. Odi Wildl Policy Brief 3:1–4

    Google Scholar 

  • Vara-asavapati V, Visuttipart J, Maneetorn C (1975) Edible insects in north-east Thailand. Res

    Google Scholar 

  • White CMN (1961) Elements in Luvale beliefs and rituals (No. 32). Rhodes-Livingstone Institute by the Manchester University Press and in the USA by Humanities Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson KB (1989) The ecology of wild resource use for food by rural southern Africans: why it remains so important. Paper presented to the conference at the destruction of the environment and the future of life in the Middle East and Africa, 14–17 July 1989. (Introduction)

    Google Scholar 

  • Xia W, Liu P, Zhang J, Chen J (2011) Biological activities of chitosan and chitooligosaccharides. Food Hydrocoll 25:170–179

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yen AL (2009) Entomophagy and insect conservation: some thoughts for digestion. J Insect Conserv 13:667–670

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yhoung-Aree J, Puwastien P, Attig GA (1997) Edible insects in Thailand: an unconventional protein source? Ecol. Food Nutr. 36:133–149

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yhoung-Aree J, Viwatpanich K (2005) Edible insects in the Laos PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. See Ref 115:415–440

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang CX, Tang XD, Cheng JA (2008) The utilization and industrialization of insect resources in China. Entomol Res 38(s1):S38–S47

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zuidhof MJ, Molnar CL, Morley FM, Wray TL, Robinson FE et al (2003) Nutritive value of house fly (Musca domestica) larvae as a feed supplement for turkey poults. Anim Feed Sci Technol 105:225–230

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Geetanjali Mishra .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Mishra, G., Omkar (2017). Insects as Food. In: Omkar (eds) Industrial Entomology. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3304-9_15

Download citation