Advertisement

Wittgenstein’s Philosophy: Viva Voce

Chapter

Abstract

Wittgenstein was a passionate and inspired teacher and philosopher. He taught elementary school in rural Austria from 1920 to 1926 and philosophy at Cambridge University from 1929 to 1949. His early pedagogical practices exemplified Austrian school reform principles. Rote learning was replaced by Arbeitsschule or ‘learning by doing’, a method that guided students to self-activity through integrated instruction. ‘Learning by doing’ could also serve as an apt description of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, a philosophy he composed viva voce while teaching in Cambridge. Although it is commonplace to speak of Wittgenstein’s early and later philosophy, it is not yet common to speak of his early and later teaching. While the former is defined by difference, the latter is surprisingly consistent and coherent. This suggests that one of the most fruitful ways to approach Wittgenstein’s life and work is not through attempts to render his early and later philosophical texts more consistent or coherent, but to recognize the continuity and development of his early and later pedagogical practices. While the relationship between Wittgenstein’s philosophical and pedagogical practices remains controversial, there is growing recognition of its significance and importance.

Keywords

Wittgenstein Teaching Austrian education reforms Glöckel Philosophy 

References

  1. Barrett, W. (1978). The illusion of technique: A search for meaning in a technological civilization. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  2. Bartley, W. W., III. (1974a). Theory of language and philosophy of science as instruments of educational reform: Wittgenstein and Popper as Austrian schoolteachers. In R. S. Cohen & W. W. Wartofsky (Eds.), Methodological and historical studies in the natural social sciences (Vol. XIV, pp. 207–337). Boston studies in the philosophy of science. Boston: D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  3. Bartley, W. W., III. (1974b). Wittgenstein. London: Quartet Books.Google Scholar
  4. Bartley, W. W., III. (1985). Wittgenstein (2nd ed.). La Salle, IL: Open Court.Google Scholar
  5. Burkchart, A. (1984). Wittgensteins Wörterbuch für Volksschulen aus philosophischer und linguistischer Sicht. Muttersprache (Wiesbaden), 95, 30–41.Google Scholar
  6. Cavell, S. (1988). In quest of the ordinary: Lines of skepticism and romanticism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. Engelmann, P. (1967). Letters from Wittgenstein with a memoir. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. Fann, K. T. (1969). Wittgenstein’s conception of philosophy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Hargrove, E. C. (1980). Wittgenstein, Bartley and the Glöckel school reform. Journal of the History of Philosophy, 18, 453–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hausmann, L. (1982). Wittgenstein in Austria as an elementary-school teacher (E. Hargrove, Ed., Trans.). Encounter (GB), 58, 16–25.Google Scholar
  11. Hübner, A. (1977). Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Wörterbuch für Volsschulen. In L. Wittgenstein (Ed.), Wörterbuch für Volksschulen (pp. xv–xxiv). Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.Google Scholar
  12. Kilpatrick, W. H. (1962). Introduction. In E. Papaneck (Ed.), The Austrian school reform: Its bases, principles and development—The twenty years between the two World Wars. New York: Frederick Fell Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Malcolm, N. (1984). Ludwig Wittgenstein: A memoir with a biographical sketch by Georg Henrik von Wright. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Mandl, H. (1962). Foreword. In E. Papaneck (Ed.), The Austrian school reform: Its bases, principles and development—The twenty years between the two World Wars. New York: Frederick Fell Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Monk, R. (1990). Ludwig Wittgenstein: The duty of genius. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Moore, G. E. (1993). Wittgenstein’s lectures in 1930–1933. In J. Klagge & A. Nordmann (Eds.), Philosophical Occasions 1912–1951. Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  17. Nieli, R. (1987). Wittgenstein: From mysticism to ordinary language: A study of Viennese positivism and the thought of Ludwig Wittgenstein. New York: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  18. Papaneck, E. (1962). The Austrian school reform: Its bases, principles and development—The twenty years between the two World Wars. New York: Frederick Fell Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Peach, A. (2004). The origins of Wittgenstein’s imaginary scenarios. Philosophical Investigations, 27(4), 299–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Redpath, T. (1990). Ludwig Wittgenstein: A student’s memoir. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., Ltd.Google Scholar
  21. Savickey, B. (1999). Wittgenstein’s art of investigation. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Savickey, B. (2011). Improvisation and imagination in Wittgenstein’s investigations, WAB archives http://wab.uib.np/agora-wab/ Bergen. In Wittgenstein Archives Bergen, 2011 Marifjora International Conference.
  23. Von Wright, G. H. (1984). A biographical sketch. In N. Malcolm (Ed.), Ludwig Wittgenstein: A memoir with a biographical sketch by Georg Henrik von Wright. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Wittgenstein, H. (1984). My brother Ludwig. In Recollections of Wittgenstein (pp. 1–11, R. Rhees, Ed., M. Clark, Trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Wittgenstein, L. (1967). In C. Barrett (Ed.), Lectures and conversations on aesthetics, psychology and religious belief. Berkeley: University of California Press (LC).Google Scholar
  26. Wittgenstein, L. (1968). Philosophical investigations (G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford: Basil Blackwell (PI).Google Scholar
  27. Wittgenstein, L. (1969). The blue and brown books: Preliminary studies for the ‘Philosophical Investigations’. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (BB).Google Scholar
  28. Wittgenstein, L. (1976). In C. Diamond (Ed.), Wittgenstein’s lectures on the foundations of mathematics, Cambridge 1939. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (LFM).Google Scholar
  29. Wittgenstein, L. (1977). Wörterbuch für Volksschulen. Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky (WV).Google Scholar
  30. Wittgenstein, L. (1980a). Remarks on the philosophy of psychology (Vol. 2, G. E. M. Anscombe & G. H. von Wright, Eds., G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford: Basil Blackwell (RPP).Google Scholar
  31. Wittgenstein, L. (1980b). In D. Lee (Ed.), Wittgenstein’s lectures Cambridge 1930–1932. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (WL).Google Scholar
  32. Wittgenstein, L. (1981a). Culture and value (G. H. von Wright & H. Nyman, Eds., P. Winch, Trans.). Oxford: Basil Blackwell (CV).Google Scholar
  33. Wittgenstein, L. (1981b). Zettel (2nd ed., G. E. M. Anscombe & G. H. von Wright, Eds., G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford: Basil Blackwell (Z).Google Scholar
  34. Wittgenstein, L. (1984). Philosophical grammar (R. Rhees, Ed., A. Kenny, Trans.). Oxford: Basil Blackwell (PG).Google Scholar
  35. Wittgenstein, L. (1988). In P. T. Geach (Ed.), Wittgenstein’s lectures on philosophical psychology 1946–47. London: Harvester-Wheatsheaf (LPP).Google Scholar
  36. Wittgenstein, L. (1993). In J. Klagge & A. Nordmann (Eds.), Philosophical Occasions 1912–1951. Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company (PO).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of WinnipegWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations