Advertisement

Pedagogy and the Second Person

  • David Simpson
Chapter

Abstract

Over the past two decades, there has been gathering interest in the second-person perspective. It has been applied in ethics , philosophy of language , epistemology , and studies of social cognition. One source of this approach is Strawson , and another is Davidson , but I suggest that the seeds lie in Wittgenstein . A significant benefit of this approach is that it offers a way of avoiding the sceptical difficulties that arise when we limit our explication of human cognition and interaction to first- and third-person perspectives. There has been little discussion of the significance of the second-person perspective for educational theory, and I hope to address that in this paper. I will do so by reflecting on Wittgenstein’s references to teaching , training , and learning in his later work, especially in his attack on mentalism and individualism. It can seem that Wittgenstein’s way of introducing pedagogical moments treats those practices as cases of disciplining or forming an other—a first-to-third person interaction . But I argue that these cases are examples of shared, cooperative, and normative activities into which the child or novice is being welcomed. I thus seek to show that in his mentions of pedagogy, Wittgenstein ought to be seen as invoking and insisting on a second-person relation.

Keywords

Second person Interaction Cognitivism Davidson Luntley 

References

  1. Anscombe, G. E. M. (1963). Intention (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Darwall, S. L. (2006). The second-person standpoint: Morality, respect, and accountability. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Davidson, D. (1973/1984). Radical interpretation. In Inquiries into truth and interpretation (pp. 125–140). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Davidson, D. (1975/1984). Thought and talk. In Inquiries into truth and interpretation (pp. 155–170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Davidson, D. (1982/2001). Rational animals. In Subjective, intersubjective, objective (pp. 95–106). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Davidson, D. (1986). A nice derangement of epitaphs. In E. LePore (Ed.), Truth and interpretation (pp. 433–466). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Davidson, D. (1992/2001). The second person. In Subjective, intersubjective, objective (pp. 107–121). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dullstein, M. (2012). The second person in the theory of mind debate. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 3(2), 231–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fodor, J. A., & LePore, E. (2007). Brandom beleaguered. Philosophical and Phenomenological Research, 74(3), 677–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gallagher, S. (2001). The practice of mind: Theory, simulation or primary interaction? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5(7), 83–108.Google Scholar
  11. Heal, J. (2013). Illocution, recognition and cooperation. Aristotelian Society Supplementary, 87(1), 137–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heal, J. (2014). Second person thought. Philosophical Explorations, 17(3), 317–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luntley, M. (2007). Learning, empowerment and judgement. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 39(4), 418–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luntley, M. (2008). Training and learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 40(5), 695–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Luntley, M. (2012). Training, training, training: The making of second nature and the roots of Wittgenstein’s pragmatism. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy, 4(2), 88–104.Google Scholar
  16. Medina, J. (2002). The unity of Wittgenstein’s philosophy: Necessity, intelligibility, and normativity. State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  17. Moran, R. (2013). Testimony, illocution and the second person. Aristotelian Society Supplementary, 87(1), 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schilbach, L., Timmermans, B., Reddy, V., Costall, A., Bente, G., Schlicht, T., et al. (2013). Toward a second-person neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(04), 393–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sellars, W. (1954). Some reflections on language games. Philosophy of Science, 21(3), 204–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Simpson, D. (2003). Interpretation and skill: On passing theory. In G. Preyer, G. Peter, & M. Ulkan (Eds.), Concepts of meaning: Framing and integrated account of human behaviour (pp. 251–266). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Simpson, D. (2013). Wittgenstein and stage-setting: Being brought into the space of reasons. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 46(6), 624–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Small, W. (2014). Teaching and telling. Philosophical Explorations, 17(3), 372–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Smeyers, P. (1995). Initiation and newness in education and childrearing. In J. Marshall & P. Smeyers (Eds.), Philosophy and education: Accepting Wittgenstein’s challenge. Dordrect, Boston and London: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stickney, J. (2008). Training and mastery of techniques in Wittgenstein’s later philosophy: A response to Michael Luntley. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 40(5), 678–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Strawson, P. F. (1974/2008). Freedom and resentment and other essays. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Verheggen, C. (2006). How social must language be? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 36(2), 203–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Verheggen, C. (2015). Davidson’s second person. The Philosophical Quarterly, 47(188), 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Williams, M. (2000). Wittgenstein and Davidson on the sociality of language. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(3), 299–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Williams, M. (2007). Wittgenstein, mind and meaning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Wittgenstein, L. (1953/2009). Philosophical investigations (4th ed.). (G. E. M. Anscombe, P. M. S. Hacker, & J. Schulte, Trans.). Oxford: Blackwell (PI).Google Scholar
  31. Wittgenstein, L. (1956/1983). Remarks on the foundations of mathematics (G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford: Blackwell (RFM).Google Scholar
  32. Wittgenstein, L. (1967/1970). Zettel (G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford: Blackwell (Z).Google Scholar
  33. Wittgenstein, L. (1969/1991). On certainty (G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford: Blackwell (OC).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations