Advertisement

Biodegradable Polyhydroxyalkanoate Thermoplastics Substituting Xenobiotic Plastics: A Way Forward for Sustainable Environment

  • Laxuman Sharma
  • Janmejai K. Srivastava
  • Akhilesh Kumar SinghEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Conventional plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) are high-molecular-weight polymeric materials which vary from 50,000 to 1,000,000 Da. They have attained unique position in modern material technology. They are omnipresent in today’s society with range from ordinary to high-tech, from vital to entirely lavish. These plastics have diverse feasible application in every field of industries/factories ranging from automobiles to medicine owing to their promising material properties, viz., lightweight, stability, long durability, economic viability, and feasibility to manipulate a range of strengths and shapes. The resistance to degradation, stability, and long durability are some miracle features associated with these plastic materials while in use. However, such properties become detrimental to the environment when out of usage, being synthetic polymers and exceptionally recalcitrant to microbial attack, i.e., nonbiodegradable (xenobiotic polymeric materials). To combat the menace posed by plastics to the environment, several efforts have been made for developing the products that are eco-friendly and degradable with comparable material properties as that of conventional plastics. This chapter presents a revolutionary insight with various technological strategies to overcome the detrimental effects of conventional plastics with special emphasis to completely biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate thermoplastics.

Keywords

Conventional plastics Xenobiotics Polyhydroxyalkanoates PHAs SCL-PHAs MCL-PHAs LCL-PHAs 

References

  1. Anderson AJ, Dawes EA (1990) Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Microbiol Rev 54:450–472PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashby RD, Solaiman DKY, Foglia TA (2002) The synthesis of short and medium chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) mixtures from glucose- or alkanoic acid-grown pseudomonas oleovorans. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 28:147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belay A (2004) Mass culture of Spirulina outdoors – the Earthrise farms experience. In: Vonshak A (ed) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): physiology, cell-biology and biotechnology. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 131–158Google Scholar
  4. Bernard M (2014) Industrial potential of polyhydroxyalkanoate bioplastic: a brief review. Univ Sask Undergr Res J 1:1–14Google Scholar
  5. Bhati R, Mallick N (2012) Production and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) co-polymer by a N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc muscorum Agardh. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 87:505–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhati R, Samantaray S, Sharma L, Mallick N (2010) Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate accumulation in cyanobacteria under photoautotrophy. Biotechnol J 5:1181–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bohmert K, Balbo I, Kopka J, Mittendorf V, Nawrath C, Poirier Y, Tischendorf G, Tretchewey RN, Willmitzer L (2000) Transgenic Arabidopsis plants can accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate up to 4 % of their fresh weight. Planta 211:841–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borah B, Thakur PS, Nigam JN (2002) The influence of nutritional and environmental conditions on the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in Bacillus mycoides RLJ B-017. J Appl Microbiol 92:776–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braunegg G, Gilles L, Klaus F (1998) Polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolyesters from renewable resources: physiological and engineering aspects. J Biotechnol 65:127–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braunegg G, Bona R, Koller M (2004) Sustainable polymer production. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 43:1779–1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brophy MR, Deasy PB (1986) In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable polyester microparticles containing sulfamethizole. Int J Pharm 29:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brzostowicz PC, Blasko MS, Rouvière PE (2002) Identification of two gene clusters involved in cyclohexanone oxidation in Brevibacterium epidermidis strain HCU. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 58:781–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bugnicourt E, Cinelli P, Lazzeri A, Alvarez V (2014) Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): review of synthesis, characteristics, processing and potential applications in packaging. Express Polym Lett 8:791–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Byrom D (1992) Production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and poly-β-hydroxyvalerate copolymers. FEMS Microbiol Rev 103:247–250Google Scholar
  15. Caballero KP, Karel SF, Register RA (1995) Biosynthesis and characterization of hydroxybutyrate-hydroxycaproate copolymers. Int J Biol Macromol 17:86–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cerrone F, Choudhari SK, Davis R et al (2014) Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production from volatile fatty acids derived from the anaerobic digestion of grass. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:611–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen G-Q (2010) Plastics completely synthesized by bacteria: polyhydroxyalkanoates. In: Chen G-Q (ed) Plastics from bacteria: natural functions and applications, Microbiology monographs. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 17–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiras DD (1994) Environmental science. The Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Company, Inc., Redwood, p 611Google Scholar
  19. Chohan SN, Copeland L (1998) Acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in Rhizobium (Cicer) sp. strain CC 1192. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:2859–2863PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Choi J, Lee SY (1999) Efficient and economical recovery of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli by simple digestion with chemicals. Biotechnol Bioeng 62:546–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dawes EA, Senior PJ (1973) The role and regulation of energy reserve polymers in microorganisms. Adv Microbiol Physiol 10:135–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Doi Y, Kitamura S, Abe H (1995) Microbial synthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate). Macromolecules 28:4822–4828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Drosg B, Fritz I, Gattermayr F, Silvestrini L (2015) Photo-autotrophic production of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) in cyanobacteria. Chem Biochem Eng Q 29:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. European Commission (2013) Green paper-on a European strategy on plastic waste in the environment. ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/studies/pdf/green_paper_plastic.pdf
  25. Fiechter A (1990) Plastics from bacteria and for bacteria: poly (β-hydroxyalkanoates) as natural, biocompatible, and biodegradable polyesters. Springer, New York, pp 77–93Google Scholar
  26. Gómez Cardozo JR, Mora Martínez AL, Yepes Pérez M, Correa Londoño GA (2016) Production and characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and native microorganisms synthesized from fatty waste. Int J Polym Sci. Article ID 6541718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6541718
  27. Gouda MK, Swellam AE, Omar SH (2001) Production of PHB by a Bacillus megaterium strain using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Microbiol Res 156:201–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gould PL, Holland SJ, Tighe BJ (1987) Polymers for biodegradable medical devices. 4-Hydroxybutyrate valerate copolymers as non-disintegrating matrices for controlled-release oral dosage forms. Int J Pharm 38:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hassan MA, Shirai N, Kusubayashi N, Abdul Karim MI, Nakanishi K, Hashimoto K (1996) Effect of organic acid profiles during anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Ferment Bioeng 82:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hassan MA, Shirai N, Kusubayashi N, Abdul Karim MI, Nakanishi K, Hashimoto K (1997a) The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent by Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Ferment Bioeng 83:485–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hassan MA, Shirai N, Kusubayashi N, Abdul Karim MI, Nakanishi K, Hashimoto K (1997b) Acetic acid separation from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate by Alcaligenes eutrophus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 61:1465–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jain R, Kosta S, Tiwari A (2010) Polyhydroxyalkanoates: a way to sustainable development of bioplastics. Chron Young Sci 1:10–15Google Scholar
  33. Joel FR (1995) Polymer science & technology: introduction to polymer science, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall PTR Inc., Upper Saddle River 07458, pp 4–9Google Scholar
  34. John ME (1997) Cotton crop improvement through genetic engineering. Crit Rev Biotechnol 17:185–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnstone B (1990) A throw away answer. Far East Econ Rev 147:62–63Google Scholar
  36. Kahar P, Tsuge T, Taguchi K, Doi Y (2004) High yield production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from soybean oil by Ralstonia eutropha and its recombinant strain. Polym Degrad Stabil 83:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kato M, Bao HJ, Kang C-K, Fukui T, Doi Y (1996) Production of novel copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids by Pseudomonas sp. 61–3 from sugars. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 45:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kawai F (2010) The biochemistry and molecular biology of xenobiotic polymer degradation by microorganisms. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:1743–1759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khanna S, Srivastava AK (2005) Recent advances in microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Process Biochem 40:607–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kumar A, Srivastava JK, Mallick N, Singh AK (2015) Commercialization of bacterial cell factories for the sustainable production of polyhydroxyalkanoate thermoplastics: progress and prospects. Recent Pat Biotechnol 9:4–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee SY (1995) Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biotechnol Bioeng 49:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee EY, Jendrossek D, Schirmer A, Choi CY, Steinbuchel A (1995) Biosynthesis of copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids from 1,3-butanediol or from 3-hydroxybutyrate by Pseudomonas sp. A33. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42:901–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lemoigne M (1926) Products of dehydration and of polymerization of β-hydroxybutyric acid. Bull Soc Chem Biol 8:770–782Google Scholar
  44. Li QA, Chen QA, Li MJ, Wang FS, Qi QS (2011) Pathway engineering results the altered polyhydroxyalkanoates composition in recombinant Escherichia coli. New Biotechnol 28:92–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liebergesell M, Steinbüchel A (1992) Cloning and nucleotide sequences of genes relevant for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) in Chromatium vinosum strain D. Eur J Biochem 209:135–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liebergesell M, Schmidt B, Steinbüchel A (1992) Isolation and identiication of granule-associated proteins relevant for poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoic Acid) biosynthesis in Chromatium vinosum D. FEMS Microbiol Lett 99:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lossl A, Bohmert K, Harloff HJ, Eibl C, Muhlbauer S, Koop HU (2005) Inducible trans-activation of plastid transgenes: expression of the R. eutropha phb operon in transplastomic tobacco. Plant Cell Physiol 46:1462–1471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Luengo JM, Garcia B, Sandoval A, Naharro G, Olivera ER (2003) Bioplastics from microorganisms. Curr Opin Microbiol 6:251–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lütke-Eversloh T, Bergander K, Luftmann H, Steinbüchel A (2001) Identification of a new class of biopolymer: bacterial synthesis of a sulfur-containing polymer with thioester linkages. Microbiology 147:11–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lynd LR, Wyman CE, Gerngross TU (1999) Biocommodity engineering. Biotechnol Prog 15:777–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Madison LL, Huisiman GW (1999) Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:21–53PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Matsusaki H, Abe H, Doi Y (2000) Biosynthesis and properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyalkanoates) by recombinant strains of Pseudomonas sp. 61–3. Biomacromolecules 1:17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matsumoto K, Murata T, Nagao R, Nomura CT, Arai S, Arai Y et al (2009) Production of short-chain-length/medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymer in the plastid of Arabidopsis thaliana using an engineered 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III. Biomacromolecules 10:686–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCool GJ, Cannon MC (1999) Polyhydroxyalkanoate inclusion body-associated proteins and coding region in Bacillus megaterium. J Bacteriol 181:585–592PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. McCool GJ, Cannon MC (2001) PhaC and PhaR are required for polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase activity in Bacillus megaterium. J Bacteriol 183:4235–4243PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meesters KHP (1998) Production of poly (3 hydroxyalkanoates) from waste streams. Report of Technical University of Delft, DelftGoogle Scholar
  57. Menzel G, Harloff HJ, Jung C (2003) Expression of bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis genes in hairy roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60:571–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mittendorf V, Robertson EJ, Leech RM, Krüger N, Steinbuchel A, Poirier Y (1998) Synthesis of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in Arabidopsis thaliana using intermediates of peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:13397–13402PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Narayan R (2006) Biobased and biodegradable polymer materials: rationale, drivers, and technology exemplars. In: Khemani K, Scholz C (eds) Degradable polymers and materials: principles and practice. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 282–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nawrath C, Poirier Y, Somerville C (1994) Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91:12760–12764PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nishioka M, Nakai K, Miyake M, Asada Y, Taya M (2001) Production of poly-β-hydroyxybutyrate by thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19, under phosphate limitation. Biotechnol Lett 23:1095–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Osanai T, Numata K, Oikawa A, Kuwahara A, Iijima H, Doi Y et al (2013) Increased bioplastic production with an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE during nitrogen starvation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. DNA Res 20:525–535PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Panda B, Mallick N (2007) Enhanced poly-β-hydroxybutyrate accumulation in a unicellular cyanobactrium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Lett Appl Microbiol 44:194–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Park SJ, Lee SY (2004) Biosynthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyalkanoates) by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 113⁄116:335–346Google Scholar
  65. Petrasovits LA, McQualter RB, Gebbie LK, Blackman DM, Nielsen LK, Brumbley SM (2013) Chemical inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase as a strategy to increase polyhydroxybutyrate yields in transgenic sugarcane. Plant Biotechnol J 11:1146–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Phithakrotchanakoon C, Champreda V, Aiba S, Pootanakit K, Tanapongpipat S (2013) Engineered Escherichia coli for short-chain-length medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer biosynthesis from glycerol and dodecanoate. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77:1262–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Plastics Europe (2010) Plastics – the facts 2010, an analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2009. Association of Plastics Manufactures. http//plasticseurope.comGoogle Scholar
  68. Plastics Europe (2015) Plastics-the facts 2014/2015: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data. http//plasticseurope.comGoogle Scholar
  69. Poirier Y (1999) Production of new polymeric compounds in plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 10:181–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Poirier Y (2001) Production of poylesters in transgenic plants. In: Babel W, Steinbuchel A (eds) Biopolyesters. Springer, Berlin, pp 209–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Poirier Y, Gruys KJ (2001) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in transgenic plants. In: Doi Y, Steinbuchel A (eds) Biopolyester. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 401–435Google Scholar
  72. Poirier Y, Dennis DE, Klomparens K, Somerville C (1992) Polyhydroxybutyrate, a biodegradable thermoplastic, produce in transgenic plants. Science 256:520–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pouton CW, Akhtar S (1996) Biosynthetic polyhydroxyalkanoates and their potential in drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 18:133–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Qi Q, Rehm BHA (2001) Polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Caulobacter crescentus: molecular characterization of the polyhydroxybutyrate synthase. Microbiology 147:3353–3358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ray SS, Bousmina M (2005) Biodegradable polymers and their layered silicate nanocomposites: in greening the 21st century materials world. Prog Mater Sci 50:962–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reddy MV, Mohan SV (2015) Polyhydroxyalkanoates production by newly isolated bacteria Serratia ureilytica using volatile fatty acids as substrate: bio-electro kinetic analysis. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:26–32Google Scholar
  77. Reddy CSK, Ghai R, Rashmi KVC (2003) Polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview. Biores Technol 87:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rehm BH (2003) Polyester synthases: natural catalysts for plastics. Biochem J 376:15–33PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reis MAM, Serafim LS, Lemos PC, Ramos AM, Aguiar FR, Van Loosdrecht MCM (2003) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by mixed microbial cultures. Biopro Biosyst Eng 25:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ren Q, De Roo G, Kessler B, Witholt B (2000) Recovery of active medium-chain-length-poly-3hydroxyalkanoate polymerase from inactive inclusion bodies using ion-exchange resin. Biochem J 349:599–604PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ruan W, Chen J, Lun S (2003) Production of biodegradable polymer by A. eutrophus using volatile fatty acids from acidified wastewater. Process Biochem 39:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sabir I (2004) Plastic industry in Pakistan. http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/investors/nov2004/index.html
  83. Saharan BS, Ankita, Sharma D (2012) Bioplastics for sustainable development: a review. Int J Microbial Res Technol 1:11–23Google Scholar
  84. Salehizadeh H, Van Loosdrecht MCM (2004) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by mixed culture: recent trends and biotechnological importance. Biotechnol Adv 22:261–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Samantaray S, Mallick N (2014) Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) co-polymer by the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima CCC 444. J Appl Phycol 26:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Samantaray S, Mallick N (2015) Impact of various stress conditions on Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation in Aulosira fertilissima CCC 444. Curr Biotechnol 4:366–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sankhla SS, Bhati R, Singh AK, Mallick N (2010) Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyvalerate) co-polymer production from a local isolate, Brevibacillus invocatus MTCC 9039. Biores Technol 101:1947–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Satoh H, Iwamoto Y, Mino T, Matsuo T (1998) Activated sludge as a possible source of biodegradable plastic. Water Sci Technol 38:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schnell J, Treyvaud-Amiguet V, Arnason J, Johnson D (2012) Expression of polyhydroxybutyric acid as a model for metabolic engineering of soybean seed coats. Transgenic Res 21:895–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Seymour RB (1989) Polymer science before & after 1899: notable developments during the lifetime of Maurtis Dekker. J Macromol Sci Chem 26:1023–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shah AA, Hasan F, Hameed A, Ahmed S (2008) Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review. Biotechnol Adv 26:246–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sharma L, Mallick N (2005) Accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in Nostoc muscorum: regulation by pH, light–dark cycles, N and P status and carbon sources. Biores Technol 96:1304–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sheu D-S, Lee C-Y (2004) Altering the substrate specificity of polyhydroxyalkanoates synthase 1 derived from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 by localized semirandom mutagenesis. J Bacteriol 186:4177–4184PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shi HP, Lee CM, Ma WH (2007) Influence of electron acceptor, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus on polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by Brachymonas sp. P12. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23:625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shimao M (2001) Biodegradation of plastics. Curr Opin Biotechnol 12:242–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shujun W, Jiugao Y, Jinglin Y (2006) Preparation and characterization of compatible and degradable thermoplastic starch/polyethylene film. J Polym Environ 14:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Singh AK, Mallick N (2008) Enhanced production of SCL-LCL-PHA co-polymer by sludge-isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7925. Lett Appl Microbiol 46:350–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Singh AK, Mallick N (2009a) Exploitation of inexpensive substrates for production of a novel SCL–LCL-PHA co-polymer by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7925. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:347–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Singh AK, Mallick N (2009b) SCL-LCL-PHA copolymer production by a local isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7925. Biotechnol J 4:703–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Singh AK, Mallick N (2015) Biological system as a reactor for production of biodegradable thermoplastics, Polyhydroxyalkanoates. In: Thangadurai D, Sangeetha J (eds) Industrial biotechnology: sustainable production and bioresource utilization. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, USA, pp 281–323Google Scholar
  101. Singh AK, Bhati R, Samantaray S, Mallick N (2013) Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7925: producer of a novel SCL-LCL-PHA co-polymer. Curr Biotechnol 2:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Singh AK, Ranjana B, Mallick N (2015) Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7925 as a biofactory for production of the novel SCL-LCL- PHA thermoplastic from non-edible oils. Curr Botechnol 4:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Solaiman DKY, Ashby RD, Hotchkiss AT Jr, Foglia TA (2006) Biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) from soy molasses. Biotechnol Lett 28:157–162Google Scholar
  104. Somleva M, Ali A (2010) Propagation of transgenic plants. International patent application WO/2010/102220Google Scholar
  105. Steinbuchel A (1992) Biodegradable plastics. Curr Opin Biotechnol 3:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Steinbuchel A, Pieper U (1992) Production of copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyvaleric acid by a mutant of Alcaligenes eutrophus from single unrelated carbon sources. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37:1–6Google Scholar
  107. Steinbuchel A, Hustede E, Liebergesell M, Pieper U, Timm A, Valentin H (1992) Molecular basis for biosynthesis and accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids in bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 103:217–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sudesh K, Iwata T (2008) Sustainability of biobased and biodegradable plastics. CLEAN – Soil Air Water 36:433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sudesh K, Abe H, Doi Y (2000) Synthesis, structure and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates: biological polyesters. Prog Polym Sci 25:1503–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Suriyamongkol P, Weselake R, Narine S, Moloney M, Shah S (2007) Biotechnological approaches for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in microorganisms and plants – a review. Biotechnol Adv 25:148–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Taguchi K, Aoyagi Y, Matsusaki H, Fukui T, Doi Y (1999) Over-expression of 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III or malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase gene induces monomer supply for polyhydroxybutyrate production in Escherichia coli HB101. Biotechnol Lett 21:579–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thakor NS, Patel MA, Trivedi UB, Patel KC (2003) Production of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) by Comamonas testosteroni during growth on naphthalene. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 19:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thompson RC, Swan SH, Moore CJ, vomSaal FS (2009) Our plastic age. Phil Trans R Soc B 364:1973–1976PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tian SJ, Lai WJ, Zheng Z, Wang HX, Chen GQ (2005) Effect of over-expression of phasin gene from Aeromonas hydrophila on biosynthesis of copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate. FEMS Microbiol Lett 244:19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Toh PSY, Jau MH, Yew SP, Abed RMM, Sudesh K (2008) Comparison of polyhydroxyalkanoates biosynthesis, mobilization and the effects on cellular morphology in Spirulina platensis and Synechocystis sp. UNIWG. J Biosci 19:21–38Google Scholar
  116. Valentin HE, Dennis D (1997) Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) in recombinant Escherichia coli grown on glucose. J Biotechnol 58:33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Valentin HE, Steinbüchel A (1995) Accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid-co-4-hydroxyvaleric acid) by mutants and recombinant strains of Alcaligenes eutrophus. J Environ Polym Degrad 3:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Verma NK, Khanna SK, Kapila B (2007) Comprehensive chemistry XII, vol 1. Laxi Publications Pvt. Ltd., 113, Golden house, Daryaganj, New Delhi, India, pp 1581–1608Google Scholar
  119. Vincenzini M, De Philippis R (1999) Polyhydroxyalkanoates. In: Cohen Z (ed) Chemicals from microalgae. Taylor and Francis Inc., USA, pp 292–312Google Scholar
  120. Vona IA, Costanza JR, Cantor HA, Roberts WJ (1965) Manufacture of plastics, vol 1. Wiley, New York, pp 141–142Google Scholar
  121. Wang B, Pugh S, Nielsen DR, Zhang W, Meldrum DR (2013) Engineering cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production of 3-hydroxybutyrate directly from CO2. Metab Eng 16:68–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ward AC, Rowley BI, Dawes EA (1977) Effect of oxygen and nitrogen limitation on poly-β-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Ammonium-grown Azotobacter beijerinckii. J Gen Microbiol 102:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilson JT, McNabb JF, Cochran JW et al (1985) Influence of microbial adaptation on the fate of organic pollutants in ground water. Environ Toxicol Chem 4:721–726Google Scholar
  124. Xiao XQ, Zhao Y, Chen GQ (2007) The effect of 3-hydroxybutyrate and its derivatives on the growth of glial cells. Biomaterials 28:3608–3616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Xie WP, Chen GQ (2008) Production and characterization of terpolyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4 harboring genes phaPCJ. Biochem Eng J 38:384–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yang JE, Choi YJ, Lee SJ et al (2014) Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from glucose. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:95–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Yezza A, Fournier D, Halasz A, Hawari J (2006) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from methanol by a new methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium sp. GW2. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhang XJ, Luo RC, Wang Z, Deng Y, Chen GQ (2009) Applications of (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoate methyl esters derived from microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates as novel biofuel. Biomacromolecules. doi: 10.1021/bm801424e Google Scholar
  129. Zheng LZ, Li Z, Tian HL, Li M, Chen GQ (2005) Molecular cloning and functional analysis of (R)3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein:coenzyme A transacylase from Pseudomonas mendocina LZ. FEMS Microbiol Lett 252:299–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laxuman Sharma
    • 1
  • Janmejai K. Srivastava
    • 2
  • Akhilesh Kumar Singh
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureSikkim UniversityGangtokIndia
  2. 2.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity UniversityLucknow CampusIndia

Personalised recommendations